Author: Harold E. Wolfe
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Release Date: 2013-09-26
College-level text for elementary courses covers the fifth postulate, hyperbolic plane geometry and trigonometry, and elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry. Appendixes offer background on Euclidean geometry. Numerous exercises. 1945 edition.
This introduction to Euclidean geometry emphasizes transformations, particularly isometries and similarities. Suitable for undergraduate courses, it includes numerous examples, many with detailed answers. 1972 edition.
Author: Evan Chen
Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America
Release Date: 2016-05-02
This is a challenging problem-solving book in Euclidean geometry, assuming nothing of the reader other than a good deal of courage. Topics covered included cyclic quadrilaterals, power of a point, homothety, triangle centers; along the way the reader will meet such classical gems as the nine-point circle, the Simson line, the symmedian and the mixtilinear incircle, as well as the theorems of Euler, Ceva, Menelaus, and Pascal. Another part is dedicated to the use of complex numbers and barycentric coordinates, granting the reader both a traditional and computational viewpoint of the material. The final part consists of some more advanced topics, such as inversion in the plane, the cross ratio and projective transformations, and the theory of the complete quadrilateral. The exposition is friendly and relaxed, and accompanied by over 300 beautifully drawn figures. The emphasis of this book is placed squarely on the problems. Each chapter contains carefully chosen worked examples, which explain not only the solutions to the problems but also describe in close detail how one would invent the solution to begin with. The text contains as selection of 300 practice problems of varying difficulty from contests around the world, with extensive hints and selected solutions. This book is especially suitable for students preparing for national or international mathematical olympiads, or for teachers looking for a text for an honor class.
Author: Sotirios E. Louridas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-07-08
"Problem-Solving and Selected Topics in Euclidean Geometry: in the Spirit of the Mathematical Olympiads" contains theorems which are of particular value for the solution of geometrical problems. Emphasis is given in the discussion of a variety of methods, which play a significant role for the solution of problems in Euclidean Geometry. Before the complete solution of every problem, a key idea is presented so that the reader will be able to provide the solution. Applications of the basic geometrical methods which include analysis, synthesis, construction and proof are given. Selected problems which have been given in mathematical olympiads or proposed in short lists in IMO's are discussed. In addition, a number of problems proposed by leading mathematicians in the subject are included here. The book also contains new problems with their solutions. The scope of the publication of the present book is to teach mathematical thinking through Geometry and to provide inspiration for both students and teachers to formulate "positive" conjectures and provide solutions.
This monograph presents the basic concepts of hyperbolic Lobachevsky geometry and their possible applications to modern nonlinear applied problems in mathematics and physics, summarizing the findings of roughly the last hundred years. The central sections cover the classical building blocks of hyperbolic Lobachevsky geometry, pseudo spherical surfaces theory, net geometrical investigative techniques of nonlinear differential equations in partial derivatives, and their applications to the analysis of the physical models. As the sine-Gordon equation appears to have profound “geometrical roots” and numerous applications to modern nonlinear problems, it is treated as a universal “object” of investigation, connecting many of the problems discussed. The aim of this book is to form a general geometrical view on the different problems of modern mathematics, physics and natural science in general in the context of non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry.
Renowned for its lucid yet meticulous exposition, this classic allows students to follow the development of non-Euclidean geometry from a fundamental analysis of the concept of parallelism to more advanced topics. 1914 edition. Includes 133 figures.
This unique book overturns our ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and the fine-structure constant, and attempts to solve long-standing mathematical problems. It describes a general theory of "recursive" hyperbolic functions based on the "Mathematics of Harmony," and the "golden," "silver," and other "metallic" proportions. Then, these theories are used to derive an original solution to Hilbert's Fourth Problem for hyperbolic and spherical geometries. On this journey, the book describes the "golden" qualitative theory of dynamical systems based on "metallic" proportions. Finally, it presents a solution to a Millennium Problem by developing the Fibonacci special theory of relativity as an original physical-mathematical solution for the fine-structure constant. It is intended for a wide audience who are interested in the history of mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry, Hilbert's mathematical problems, dynamical systems, and Millennium Problems. Contents:The Golden Ratio, Fibonacci Numbers, and the "Golden" Hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas FunctionsThe Mathematics of Harmony and General Theory of Recursive Hyperbolic FunctionsHyperbolic and Spherical Solutions of Hilbert's Fourth Problem: The Way to the Recursive Non-Euclidean GeometriesIntroduction to the "Golden" Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems Based on the Mathematics of HarmonyThe Basic Stages of the Mathematical Solution to the Fine-Structure Constant Problem as a Physical Millennium ProblemAppendix: From the "Golden" Geometry to the Multiverse Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and theoretical physics, mathematicians and scientists of different specializations interested in history of mathematics and new mathematical ideas.
Author: Albert Einstein
Release Date: 2013-03-08
Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry provides a modern axiomatic construction of three-dimensional geometry, in an accessible form. The method of this book is a graduated formulation of axioms, such that, by determining all the geometric spaces which satisfy the considered axioms, one may characterize the Euclidean space up to an isomorphism. A special feature of Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry is the introduction of the parallel axiom at an early stage of the discussion, so that the reader can see what results may be obtained both with and without this important axiom. The many theorems, drawings, exercises, and problems richly enhance the presentation of material. Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry is suitable as a textbook for a one- or two-semester course on geometry or foundations of geometry for undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Mathematics majors in M.A.T. programs will find that this exposition of a classical subject will contribute greatly to their ability to teach geometry at all levels; and logicians, philosophers, and engineers will benefit from this book's applications to their own interests. Book jacket.
Author: David A. Singer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
A fascinating tour through parts of geometry students are unlikely to see in the rest of their studies while, at the same time, anchoring their excursions to the well known parallel postulate of Euclid. The author shows how alternatives to Euclids fifth postulate lead to interesting and different patterns and symmetries, and, in the process of examining geometric objects, the author incorporates the algebra of complex and hypercomplex numbers, some graph theory, and some topology. Interesting problems are scattered throughout the text. Nevertheless, the book merely assumes a course in Euclidean geometry at high school level. While many concepts introduced are advanced, the mathematical techniques are not. Singers lively exposition and off-beat approach will greatly appeal both to students and mathematicians, and the contents of the book can be covered in a one-semester course, perhaps as a sequel to a Euclidean geometry course.
Author: James T. Smith
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2000-01-10
A practical, accessible introduction to advanced geometryExceptionally well-written and filled with historical andbibliographic notes, Methods of Geometry presents a practical andproof-oriented approach. The author develops a wide range ofsubject areas at an intermediate level and explains how theoriesthat underlie many fields of advanced mathematics ultimately leadto applications in science and engineering. Foundations, basicEuclidean geometry, and transformations are discussed in detail andapplied to study advanced plane geometry, polyhedra, isometries,similarities, and symmetry. An excellent introduction to advancedconcepts as well as a reference to techniques for use inindependent study and research, Methods of Geometry alsofeatures: Ample exercises designed to promote effective problem-solvingstrategies Insight into novel uses of Euclidean geometry More than 300 figures accompanying definitions and proofs A comprehensive and annotated bibliography Appendices reviewing vector and matrix algebra, least upperbound principle, and equivalence relations An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all theproblems in the book is available upon request from the Wileyeditorial department.
Author: David C. Kay
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2011-06-24
Designed for mathematics majors and other students who intend to teach mathematics at the secondary school level, College Geometry: A Unified Development unifies the three classical geometries within an axiomatic framework. The author develops the axioms to include Euclidean, elliptic, and hyperbolic geometry, showing how geometry has real and far-reaching implications. He approaches every topic as a fresh, new concept and carefully defines and explains geometric principles. The book begins with elementary ideas about points, lines, and distance, gradually introducing more advanced concepts such as congruent triangles and geometric inequalities. At the core of the text, the author simultaneously develops the classical formulas for spherical and hyperbolic geometry within the axiomatic framework. He explains how the trigonometry of the right triangle, including the Pythagorean theorem, is developed for classical non-Euclidean geometries. Previously accessible only to advanced or graduate students, this material is presented at an elementary level. The book also explores other important concepts of modern geometry, including affine transformations and circular inversion. Through clear explanations and numerous examples and problems, this text shows step-by-step how fundamental geometric ideas are connected to advanced geometry. It represents the first step toward future study of Riemannian geometry, Einstein’s relativity, and theories of cosmology.