Plants Pollutants and Remediation

Author: Münir Öztürk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789401771948
Release Date: 2016-01-12
Genre: Science

In the era of current industrial and civil development, everyone is expressing a deep concern about the problem of environmental pollution. The majority of the global community has a vested interest in supporting and sustaining any move for the protection of environment. In the greater part of the last century it was the fast pace of industrialization, galloping demand for energy and reckless exploitation of natural resources that were mainly responsible for creating the problem of environmental pollution. In the current scenario, high illiteracy rates of the developing nations leads to increasing environmental pollution. When it comes to the hazards of environmental pollution, there is only a very thin dividing line between different countries. One pollutes and the other suffers-there are no eventual winners without significant changes globally. Pollution is posing serious threats to all kinds of diversities on earth in particular plants. The plant world is of vital importance for our planet. It is a worldwide priority aimed at better meeting the needs for food, livelihoods and nature. To meet the food demand of fast-growing population, global food production will have to be doubled. The sustainability of food production depends on the sustainability of plant resources and using tolerant varieties to augment food production. This volume therefore covers discussions on the recent developments in this connection and the emerging role of plants as indicators, remediation, and such related issues as biodiversity conservation and the effects of on edible plants. It reviews issues concerning the future of plant life. Taking cognizance of this, several experts from different parts of the globe have contributed from their experience and knowledge to the critical issues of "Environmental Pollution," and the "Role of Plants in this connection”.

Twenty Years of Research and Development on Soil Pollution and Remediation in China

Author: Yongming Luo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789811060298
Release Date: 2018-01-17
Genre: Nature

This book reviews the progresses and achievements made in the past 20 years of research on soil pollution and remediation in China, and presents 50 review and research articles from all over China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. The authors include scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and managers from 26 universities, 18 institutes, 4 leading enterprises and 2 government environmental protection departments. The contents cover fundamental research on soil pollution and remediation, technical development, project demonstration, policy and governance. The polluted soil/site types include farmland, industrial sites, mining areas and oilfields, with heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, mercury, lead, zinc, nickel, etc.), organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, phthalate esters, halogenated hydrocarbons, etc.), and metal–organic mixed pollutants. The remediation techniques mainly include physical and chemical remediation (thermal desorption, soil vapor extraction, in situ advanced chemical oxidation, solidification and stabilization), phytoremediation (phytostabilization, phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators, phyto-prevention by low accumulation plants), bioremediation (microbial adsorption and immobilization, microbial degradation, microbe-enhanced phytoremediation), and combined remediation merging multiple technologies. The governance and policy section mainly explores laws and regulations, criteria and standards, financial guarantees and the industrial market for soil environment and pollution prevention.

Soil Remediation and Plants

Author: Khalid Hakeem
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780127999135
Release Date: 2014-08-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The soil is being contaminated continuously by a large number of pollutants. Among them, heavy metals are an exclusive group of toxicants because they are stable and difficult to disseminate into non-toxic forms. The ever-increasing concentrations of such pollutants in the soil are considered serious threats toward everyone’s health and the environment. Many techniques are used to clean, eliminate, obliterate or sequester these hazardous pollutants from the soil. However, these techniques can be costly, labor intensive, and often disquieting. Phytoremediation is a simple, cost effective, environmental friendly and fast-emerging new technology for eliminating toxic heavy metals and other related soil pollutants. Soil Remediation and Plants provides a common platform for biologists, agricultural engineers, environmental scientists, and chemists, working with a common aim of finding sustainable solutions to various environmental issues. The book provides an overview of ecosystem approaches and phytotechnologies and their cumulative significance in relation to solving various environmental problems. Identifies the molecular mechanisms through which plants are able to remediate pollutants from the soil Examines the challenges and possibilities towards the various phytoremediation candidates Includes the latest research and ongoing progress in phytoremediation

Plant Based Remediation Processes

Author: Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642355646
Release Date: 2013-03-12
Genre: Science

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

The Plant Family Brassicaceae

Author: Naser A. Anjum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400739123
Release Date: 2012-04-07
Genre: Technology & Engineering

With the advent of the industrial revolution , the biosphere has been continuously polluted with a myriad of contaminants that urgently need global attention. In this perspective, most of the genera of the plant family Brassicaceae (Crucifereae or the mustard family) are a significant part of the plants- and associated microbes-based strategies adopted for the cleanup of varied contaminants from environmental compartments. Important genus such as Alyssum, Arabidopsis, Brassica and Thlaspi from Brassicaceae which, besides acting as an attractive genetic model, well-represent the metal hyperaccumulation among approximately 0.2% of all angiosperms and thus, play a key role in the phytoremediation technology. This book i) provides an exhaustive evaluation of the current status of contaminants (metals/metalloids)-addition to varied environmental compartments and its consequences, ii) offers comprehensive and state-of-the-art information on the significance of the plants from the family Brassicaceae in solving environmental pollution issues, iii) examines the physiological, biochemical and molecular-genetic strategies adopted by the plants from Brassicaceae for the remediation of and tolerance to varied environmental contaminants, and iv) supplies a broad reference to the field of environmental science and related disciplines. As a pioneer work and significant addition to the Environmental Pollution book series, the current volume promises to be a useful asset for researchers, students, other academicians and policy makers involved in sustainable remediation of varied environmental compartments.

Radionuclide Contamination and Remediation Through Plants

Author: Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319076652
Release Date: 2014-07-14
Genre: Science

This book focuses on the mechanistic (microscopic) understanding of radionuclide uptake by plants in contaminated soils and potential use of phytoremediation. The key features concern radionuclide toxicity in plants, how the radioactive materials are absorbed by plants, and how the plants cope with the toxic responses. The respective chapters examine soil classification, natural plant selection, speciation of actinides, kinetic modeling, and case studies on cesium uptake after radiation accidents. Radionuclide contaminants pose serious problems for biological systems, due to their chemical toxicity and radiological effects. The processes by which radionuclides can be incorporated into vegetation can either originate from activity interception by external plant surfaces (either directly from the atmosphere or from resuspended material), or through uptake of radionuclides via the root system. Subsequent transfer of toxic elements to the human food chain is a concrete danger. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis of transport into and within plants needs to be understood for two reasons: The effectiveness of radionuclide uptake into crop plants – so-called transfer coefficient – is a prerequisite for the calculation of dose due to the food path. On the other hand, efficient radionuclide transfer into plants can be made use of for decontamination of land – so-called phytoremediation, the direct use of living, green plants for in situ removal of pollutants from the environment or to reduce their concentrations to harmless levels.

Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants

Author: Ram Chandra
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351665629
Release Date: 2017-12-14
Genre: Science

Phytoremediation aids to augment bioremediation as it uses broad range plants to remediate soil, sediment, surface water and ground water that have been contaminated with toxic metals, organic, pesticides and radionuclides. This book serves to disseminate detailed up to date knowledge regarding the various aspects of phytoremediation and plant-microbe interaction. The book highlights process and molecular mechanisms for industrial waste detoxification during phytoremediation in wetland plants, role of endophytic bacteria for phytoremediation of environmental pollutants, constructed wetland treatment system for treatment and recycling of hazardous wastewater, amongst other relevant topics. Key Features: Focuses on phytoremediation process for different pollutants, mainly heavy metal detoxification in the presence of other co-pollutants. Includes plant-soil-microbe interactions in phytoremediations and remediation of contaminated water. Explores life cycle assessment of industrial waste contaminated site with organic pollutants. Discusses hyperaccumulator versus non-hyperaccumulator plants for environmental waste management. Includes bacterial assisted phytoremediation and siderophore formation in specific environmental conditions.

Hydrogen Production and Remediation of Carbon and Pollutants

Author: Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319193755
Release Date: 2015-09-09
Genre: Science

This book details first the chemistry of hydrogen production from biomass. Solutions to the CO2 issue are given in three chapters, which describe CO2 photo catalytic reduction, CO2 sequestration in terrestrial biomass, and plants as renewable fuels. Further chapters review the selenium cycle in ecosystems, advanced processes to treat water and ecological ways to dye textiles. Society growth during the last century has almost entirely relied on the carbon economy, which is the use of fossil fuels for energy and materials. The carbon economy has provided and will still provide many benefits. However, the increasing use of fossil fuels is partly responsible for the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and in turn, global warming. There is therefore an urgent need for cleaner fuels such as hydrogen, as well as a need for a carbon neutral economy where each emitted CO2 molecule is fast sequestered in plants, algae, soils, sub soils and sediments.

Soil and Water Pollution Monitoring Protection and Remediation

Author: Irena Twardowska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402047282
Release Date: 2007-04-30
Genre: Science

This book details the state-of-the art in early warning monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of soil and water. It is unique with regard to its complex, multidisciplinary, mechanistic approach. Top scientists establish links and strengthen weak connections between specific fields in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, sensoristics, soil science and hydrogeology.

Phytoremediation

Author: Neil Willey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597450980
Release Date: 2006-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews presents the most innovative recent methodological developments in phytoremediation research, and outlines a variety of the contexts in which phytoremediation has begun to be applied. A significant portion of this volume is devoted to groundbreaking methods for the production of plants that are able to degrade, take up, or tolerate the effects of pollutants. Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the examination of principles and practices of phytoremediation, from molecular manipulation to field application. Parts I and II discuss detailed protocols for achieving several different goals of phytoremediation, including enhancing contaminant degradation, uptake, and tolerance by plants; exploiting plant diversity for phytoremedation; modifying contaminant availability; and experimentally analyzing phytoremediation potential. Parts III and IV examine a variety of progressive techniques for phytoremediation and explore their implementation and success on a global scale. This cutting-edge volume highlights the myriad of contexts in which phytoremediation can be applied, and energizes new research by describing ways in which barriers to success have been recently overcome.

Organic Farming Pest Control and Remediation of Soil Pollutants

Author: Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402096542
Release Date: 2009-10-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. Sustainable agriculture is a discipline that addresses current issues such as climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control, and biodiversity depletion. Novel, environmentally-friendly solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from sciences as diverse as agronomy, soil science, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, ecology, economy, and social sciences. Indeed, sustainable agriculture decipher mechanisms of processes that occur from the molecular level to the farming system to the global level at time scales ranging from seconds to centuries. For that, scientists use the system approach that involves studying components and interactions of a whole system to address scientific, economic and social issues. In that respect, sustainable agriculture is not a classical, narrow science. Instead of solving problems using the classical painkiller approach that treats only negative impacts, sustainable agriculture treats problem sources. Because most actual society issues are now intertwined, global, and fast-developing, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions to build a safer world. This book series gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then propose alternative solutions. It will therefore help all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians who wish to build a safe agriculture, energy and food system for future generations.

Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology

Author: K. Omasa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9784431683889
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Air pollution is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, causing a host of environmental problems. It is thus essential to monitor and reduce pollution levels. A number of plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air pollutants. With advances in biotechnology, it is now feasible to modify plants for a wider range of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation applications. Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology presents recent results in this field, including plant responses during phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging diagnosis of plant responses, and the use of novel transgenic plants, along with reviews of basic plant physiology and biochemistry where appropriate. Researchers and students working in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or considering new areas of investigation will find this volume a valuable reference.

Soils and Groundwater Pollution and Remediation

Author: P. M. Huang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1566704529
Release Date: 1999-07-29
Genre: Science

The increasing population densities of Asia, Africa and Oceania are in conflict with the ecosystem. A growing demand for food and fiber causes agriculture to rely heavily upon chemical fertilization, herbicides and pesticides. Rising industrial output creates higher contamination from cadmium, lead, selenium, and other metals. Soils and Groundwater Remediation explores the toxic levels of metals, radionuclides, inorganics, and anthropogenic organic compounds found in the soils and groundwater of Asia, Africa and Oceania. This 14 chapter book reviews the distribution, transformation, and dynamics of the pollutants. The authors also reflect on the impact of Acid-rain. The contributors to this book are well-known scientists from Japan, China, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Australia, and Kenya. The authors address their findings to researchers, educators, government regulators, and students. As the title suggests, the book is ultimately concerned with remediation. Huang and Iskandar feel "the potential for restoring ecosystem health ... in these areas is enormous." The contributions of Soils and Groundwater Remediation will bring science closer to achieving that possibility.

Metal Toxicity in Plants Perception Signaling and Remediation

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642220819
Release Date: 2011-09-15
Genre: Science

Heavy metal accumulation in soil and water from natural sources or anthropogenic activities have produced severe environmental contamination in some parts of the world due to the persistence of metals in the environment by their accumulation throughout the food chain. The purpose of this book is to present the most recent advances in this field, mainly concerning the uptake and translocation of heavy metals in plants, mechanisms of toxicity, perception of metal and regulation of cell response under metal stress. Another key feature of this book is related to the studies on signaling and remediation processes in recent years, which have taken advantage of recent technological advances including "omic" approaches. In recent years transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies have become very important tools for analyzing both the dynamics of changes in gene expression and the profiles of protein and metabolites under heavy metal stress. This information is also very useful for plotting the complex signaling and metabolic network induced by heavy metals, in which hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) also play an important role. Understanding the mechanism involved in sequestration and hyperaccumulation is very important to developing new strategies of phytoremediation, which are reviewed in several chapters of this book. The information included yields very stimulating insights into the mechanism involved in the regulation of plant responses to heavy metals, which in turn improve our knowledge of cell regulation under metal stress and the use of plants for phytoremediation.

Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals

Author: Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink, Reinier M. Mann
Publisher: Francisco Sanchez-Bayo
ISBN: 9781608051212
Release Date: 2012
Genre:

Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals presents a comprehensive, yet readable account of the known disturbances caused by all kinds of toxic chemicals on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Topics cover the sources of toxicants, their fate and distribution through the planet, their impacts on specific ecosystems, and their remediation by natural systems. Each chapter is written by well-known specialists in those areas, for the general public, students, and even scientists from outside this field. The book intends to raise awareness of the dangers of chemical pollution in a world dominated by industry and globalization of resources. Because the problems are widespread and far reaching, it is hoped that confronting the facts may prompt better management practices at industrial, agricultural and all levels of management, from local to governmental, so as to reduce the negative impacts of chemical contaminants on our planet.