In the era of current industrial and civil development, everyone is expressing a deep concern about the problem of environmental pollution. The majority of the global community has a vested interest in supporting and sustaining any move for the protection of environment. In the greater part of the last century it was the fast pace of industrialization, galloping demand for energy and reckless exploitation of natural resources that were mainly responsible for creating the problem of environmental pollution. In the current scenario, high illiteracy rates of the developing nations leads to increasing environmental pollution. When it comes to the hazards of environmental pollution, there is only a very thin dividing line between different countries. One pollutes and the other suffers-there are no eventual winners without significant changes globally. Pollution is posing serious threats to all kinds of diversities on earth in particular plants. The plant world is of vital importance for our planet. It is a worldwide priority aimed at better meeting the needs for food, livelihoods and nature. To meet the food demand of fast-growing population, global food production will have to be doubled. The sustainability of food production depends on the sustainability of plant resources and using tolerant varieties to augment food production. This volume therefore covers discussions on the recent developments in this connection and the emerging role of plants as indicators, remediation, and such related issues as biodiversity conservation and the effects of on edible plants. It reviews issues concerning the future of plant life. Taking cognizance of this, several experts from different parts of the globe have contributed from their experience and knowledge to the critical issues of "Environmental Pollution," and the "Role of Plants in this connection”.
The soil is being contaminated continuously by a large number of pollutants. Among them, heavy metals are an exclusive group of toxicants because they are stable and difficult to disseminate into non-toxic forms. The ever-increasing concentrations of such pollutants in the soil are considered serious threats toward everyone’s health and the environment. Many techniques are used to clean, eliminate, obliterate or sequester these hazardous pollutants from the soil. However, these techniques can be costly, labor intensive, and often disquieting. Phytoremediation is a simple, cost effective, environmental friendly and fast-emerging new technology for eliminating toxic heavy metals and other related soil pollutants. Soil Remediation and Plants provides a common platform for biologists, agricultural engineers, environmental scientists, and chemists, working with a common aim of finding sustainable solutions to various environmental issues. The book provides an overview of ecosystem approaches and phytotechnologies and their cumulative significance in relation to solving various environmental problems. Identifies the molecular mechanisms through which plants are able to remediate pollutants from the soil Examines the challenges and possibilities towards the various phytoremediation candidates Includes the latest research and ongoing progress in phytoremediation
Author: Irena Twardowska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-04-30
This book details the state-of-the art in early warning monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of soil and water. It is unique with regard to its complex, multidisciplinary, mechanistic approach. Top scientists establish links and strengthen weak connections between specific fields in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, sensoristics, soil science and hydrogeology.
Phytoremediation aids to augment bioremediation as it uses broad range plants to remediate soil, sediment, surface water and ground water that have been contaminated with toxic metals, organic, pesticides and radionuclides. This book serves to disseminate detailed up to date knowledge regarding the various aspects of phytoremediation and plant-microbe interaction. The book highlights process and molecular mechanisms for industrial waste detoxification during phytoremediation in wetland plants, role of endophytic bacteria for phytoremediation of environmental pollutants, constructed wetland treatment system for treatment and recycling of hazardous wastewater, amongst other relevant topics. Key Features: Focuses on phytoremediation process for different pollutants, mainly heavy metal detoxification in the presence of other co-pollutants. Includes plant-soil-microbe interactions in phytoremediations and remediation of contaminated water. Explores life cycle assessment of industrial waste contaminated site with organic pollutants. Discusses hyperaccumulator versus non-hyperaccumulator plants for environmental waste management. Includes bacterial assisted phytoremediation and siderophore formation in specific environmental conditions.
This book reviews the progresses and achievements made in the past 20 years of research on soil pollution and remediation in China, and presents 50 review and research articles from all over China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. The authors include scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and managers from 26 universities, 18 institutes, 4 leading enterprises and 2 government environmental protection departments. The contents cover fundamental research on soil pollution and remediation, technical development, project demonstration, policy and governance. The polluted soil/site types include farmland, industrial sites, mining areas and oilfields, with heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, mercury, lead, zinc, nickel, etc.), organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, phthalate esters, halogenated hydrocarbons, etc.), and metal–organic mixed pollutants. The remediation techniques mainly include physical and chemical remediation (thermal desorption, soil vapor extraction, in situ advanced chemical oxidation, solidification and stabilization), phytoremediation (phytostabilization, phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators, phyto-prevention by low accumulation plants), bioremediation (microbial adsorption and immobilization, microbial degradation, microbe-enhanced phytoremediation), and combined remediation merging multiple technologies. The governance and policy section mainly explores laws and regulations, criteria and standards, financial guarantees and the industrial market for soil environment and pollution prevention.
Soil Pollution: From Monitoring to Remediation provides comprehensive information on soil pollution, including causes, distribution, transport, the transformation and fate of pollutants in soil, and metabolite accumulation. The book covers organic, inorganic and nanoparticle pollutants and methodologies for their monitoring. Features a critical discussion on ecotoxicological and human effects of soil pollution, and strategies for soil protection and remediation. Meticulously organized, this is an ideal resource for students, researchers and professionals, providing up-to-date foundational content for those already familiar with the field. Chapters are highly accessible, offering an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and undergraduate students alike. Highlights the relevance of soil pollution for a sustainable environment in chapters written by interdisciplinary expert academics and professionals from around the world Includes cases studies of techniques used to monitor soil pollution Includes a chapter on nanoparticles as soil pollutants Offers comprehensive coverage of soil pollution including types and causes
This two-volume work is an effort to provide a common platform to environmental engineers, microbiologists, chemical scientists, plant physiologists and molecular biologists working with a common aim of sustainable solutions to varied environmental contamination issues. Chapters explore biological and non-biological strategies to minimize environmental pollution. Highly readable entries attempt to close the knowledge gap between plant - microbial associations and environmental remediation. Volume 1 focuses on important concepts such as biological remediation strategies to enhance soil quality at contaminated sites; synergistic influences of tolerant plants and rhizospheric microbial strains on the remediation of pesticide contaminated soil, and the role of plant types such as hyperaccumulator plants in the cleanup of polluted soils. Readers will discover mechanisms and underlying natural inherent traits of various plants and microbes for tolerating, excluding, remediating, accumulating, or metabolizing a variety of pollutants.
Phyto presents the concepts of phytoremediation and phytotechnology in one comprehensive guide, illustrating when plants can be considered for the uptake, removal or mitigation of on-site pollutants. Current scientific case studies are covered, highlighting the advantages and limitations of plant-based cleanup. Typical contaminant groups found in the built environment are explained, and plant lists for mitigation of specific contaminants are included where applicable. This is the first book to address the benefits of phytotechnologies from a design point of view, taking complex scientific terms and translating the research into an easy-to-understand reference book for those involved in creating planting solutions. Typically, phytotechnology planting techniques are currently employed post-site contamination to help clean up already contaminated soil by taking advantage of the positive effects that plants can have upon harmful toxins and chemicals. This book presents a new concept to create projective planting designs with preventative phytotechnology abilities, ‘phytobuffering’ where future pollution may be expected for particular site programs. Filled with tables, photographs and detailed drawings, Kennen and Kirkwood's text guides the reader through the process of selecting plants for their aesthetic and environmental qualities, combined with their contaminant-removal benefits.
Author: Neil Willey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews presents the most innovative recent methodological developments in phytoremediation research, and outlines a variety of the contexts in which phytoremediation has begun to be applied. A significant portion of this volume is devoted to groundbreaking methods for the production of plants that are able to degrade, take up, or tolerate the effects of pollutants. Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the examination of principles and practices of phytoremediation, from molecular manipulation to field application. Parts I and II discuss detailed protocols for achieving several different goals of phytoremediation, including enhancing contaminant degradation, uptake, and tolerance by plants; exploiting plant diversity for phytoremedation; modifying contaminant availability; and experimentally analyzing phytoremediation potential. Parts III and IV examine a variety of progressive techniques for phytoremediation and explore their implementation and success on a global scale. This cutting-edge volume highlights the myriad of contexts in which phytoremediation can be applied, and energizes new research by describing ways in which barriers to success have been recently overcome.
This book focuses upon air pollution, types of air pollutants and their impact on plant physiological and biochemical systems. The book begins with a brief background on air pollution and continues with a discussion on different types, effects, and solutions to the pollution. The chapters that follow, explore the different effects of pollution on chloroplasts, respiration, biochemistry and physiology of plant cells. Moreover, it covers the basic concepts of atmospheric transport and transformations of pollutants, and issues of global change and the use of science in air pollution policy formulation. It also emphasises about the effects of air pollutants in altering plant response to common stresses, both abiotic and biotic - fields by giving the focus on the physiology of plant. This book act as a valuable tool for students in Environmental Science, Biological Science and Agriculture. It will be unique to environmental consultants, researchers and other professionals involved in air quality and plant related research. During past few decades, air pollution and poor air quality have been the issues of common concerns. Degraded air has adverse effects on various system of plants by creating a stress which develops biochemical and physiological disorder in plants. Chronic diseases and/or lower yield have reported consequences of air pollution effect. A large number of biochemical and physiological parameters have been used to assess impact of air pollution on plant health. Photosynthetic machinery and respiratory system are the most affected domain of plants. However, the survival of plants depend on various internal and external factors such as plant community, types of air pollutants, geographical region, meteorological conditions and soil moisture etc. Plants respond to both biotic and abiotic stresses accordingly. Many tolerant plants survive easily even in higher air pollution region. Certain plant species absorbs selected gaseous air pollutants and hence plants are effective tool for air pollution remediation.
Plant Metal Interaction: Emerging Remediation Techniques covers different heavy metals and their effect on soils and plants, along with the remediation techniques currently available. As cultivable land is declining day-by-day as a result of increased metals in our soil and water, there is an urgent need to remediate these effects. This multi-contributed book is divided into four sections covering the whole of plant metal interactions, including heavy metals, approaches to alleviate heavy metal stress, microbial approaches to remove heavy metals, and phytoremediation. Provides an overview of the effect of different heavy metals on growth, biochemical reactions, and physiology of various plants Serves as a reference guide for available techniques, challenges, and possible solutions in heavy metal remediation Covers sustainable technologies in uptake and removal of heavy metals
Author: Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-01-25
Pollution has no borders. This popular 70’s saying from early ecologists is surprisingly still true nowadays despite overwhelming scientific evidence and public awareness of the occurrence of artificial toxic substances in water, food, air, living organisms and the environment. This book presents advanced reviews on pollutant occurrence, transfer, toxicity and remediation. The chapter on school air quality by Dambruoso et al. highlights the overlooked health issue of airborne pollutants in buildings. Children are particularly threatened because they spend 90% of their time indoors, even in summer. The chapter on industrial wastewater pollutants by Dsikowitzky and Schwarzbauer reviews pollutants from textile, petrochemical, paper, tire, chemical and pharmaceutical plants. The authors describe advanced analytical methods and ecotoxicity tests. Industrial pollutants include dioxins and furans that are also reviewed in the chapter by Mudhoo et al. The chapter on fly ash by Gianoncelli et al. presents many techniques to treat fly ash and, in turn, decrease pollutant concentrations. The authors also explain that fly ash can be recycled in agriculture, buildings and geopolymers. The chapter on antifouling paints used for ship protection, by Sousa et al., highlights the occurrence of toxic organotins in human organs such as heart, liver and breast milk. The chapter on surfactants by Rebello et al. focuses on safety concerns for humans and the ecosystems. Remediation techniques and green surfactants are presented. The chapters on toxic metals by Nava-Ruíz and Méndez-Armenta, Abarikwu and Ristić et al. describe sources, monitoring and diseases induced by lead, mercury, cadmium and thallium. The chapter on carcinogenic nitrosamines by Li et al. presents techniques and materials such as zeolites to remediate liquids and smoke containing nitrosamines.
The interactions between the plant, soil and microbes are complex in nature. Events may be antagonistic, mutualistic or synergistic, depending upon the types of microorganisms and their association with the plant and soil in question. Multi-trophic tactics can therefore be employed to nourish plants in various habitats and growth conditions. Understanding the mechanisms of these interactions is thus highly desired in order to utilize the knowledge in an ecofriendly and sustainable way. This holistic approach to crop improvement may not only resolve the upcoming food security issues, but also make the environment greener by reducing the chemical inputs. Plant, soil and microbe, Volume 1: Implications in Crop Science, along with the forthcoming Volume 2: Mechanisms and Molecular Interactions, provide detailed accounts of the exquisite and delicate balance between the three critical components of agronomy. Specifically, these two titles focus on the basis of nutrient exchange between the microorganisms and the host plants, the mechanism of disease protection and the recent molecular details emerged from studying this multi-tropic interaction. Together they aim to provide a solid foundation for the students, teachers, and researchers interested in soil microbiology, plant pathology, ecology and agronomy.
This book focuses on the mechanistic (microscopic) understanding of radionuclide uptake by plants in contaminated soils and potential use of phytoremediation. The key features concern radionuclide toxicity in plants, how the radioactive materials are absorbed by plants, and how the plants cope with the toxic responses. The respective chapters examine soil classification, natural plant selection, speciation of actinides, kinetic modeling, and case studies on cesium uptake after radiation accidents. Radionuclide contaminants pose serious problems for biological systems, due to their chemical toxicity and radiological effects. The processes by which radionuclides can be incorporated into vegetation can either originate from activity interception by external plant surfaces (either directly from the atmosphere or from resuspended material), or through uptake of radionuclides via the root system. Subsequent transfer of toxic elements to the human food chain is a concrete danger. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis of transport into and within plants needs to be understood for two reasons: The effectiveness of radionuclide uptake into crop plants – so-called transfer coefficient – is a prerequisite for the calculation of dose due to the food path. On the other hand, efficient radionuclide transfer into plants can be made use of for decontamination of land – so-called phytoremediation, the direct use of living, green plants for in situ removal of pollutants from the environment or to reduce their concentrations to harmless levels.
This is the only book to offer an up-to-date overview of air pollution in East Asia and the effects of air pollutants such as ozone, acid deposition and aerosols on Asian crops and trees. It is unique in that it discusses the fundamentals of environmental plant science and research advances in the area at the plant ecophysiology level. It addresses various topics, including gaseous air pollutants such as ozone; soil acidification and atmospheric nitrogen deposition due to acid deposition; PM2.5 and the effects of air pollutants on growth, yield and physiological functions such as photosynthesis of crops and trees in East Asia. It is a valuable resource for environmental scientists, plant scientists, government officials, industrialists, environmentalists, undergraduate and graduate students and anyone interested in the application of the latest findings to agricultural production and protection of forest ecosystems in Asia. It also provides useful information for professionals involved in research, development, production, processing and marketing of agricultural products, including those in developing countries who are interested in advanced environmental science in this field.