Integral Structural Polymer Foams

Author: Fyodor A. Shutov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662024867
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Integral, or structural, foams are one of the most remarkable materials that have been developed over the last fifteen years. As with all rapidly growing fields, the terminology seems to have grown even faster. Thus there are two names for the material structure itself. In the United States and in Japan the term for these plastics is Structural Foams, whereas in Europe and the USSR the term used is usually Integral Foams. We have adhered to the European term in the text and hope our colleagues will bear with us. Integral foams have a specific structure: a cellular core that gradually turns into a solid skin. The skin gives the part its form and stiffness, while the cellular core contributes to the very high strength-to-weight values of the material. These are higher than those of some unfoamed plastics and metals. The sandwich-like structure with its unique mechanical properties was prompted by nature. Wood and bone are strong and light-weight natural materials having a cellular structure. Since the sandwich-like structure of the integral foams resembles that of natural wood, the foams are often referred to as artifical wood or plastic wood, thereby emphasizing not only the formal structural similarity of these materials, but also one of the main functional applications of integral foams - replacement of wooden articles in various fields of engineering and construction.

Handbook of Plastic Foams

Author: Arthur H. Landrock
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780815517658
Release Date: 1995-12-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book is intended to be a source of practical information on all types of plastic foams (cellular plastics) in use, including the new structural plastic foams. Elastomer (rubber-like) foams are also considered. The book is intended primarily for those who require a non-theoretical, authoritative, easy-to-use handbook in the subject area. It should be of value to materials engineers, plastics fabricators, chemists, chemical engineers and students. Recognized authorities have written several chapters and parts of chapters in their fields of expertise. The book is organized in such a way that information on a desired subject can be found rapidly. An unusual feature is a comprehensive listing of all known standardization documents (test methods, practices, and specifications), including some international standards. Each document includes a brief description of its contents.

Polymeric Foams Structure Property Performance

Author: Bernard Obi
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9781455777563
Release Date: 2017-12-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Polymeric Foams Structure–Property–Performance: A Design Guide is a response to the design challenges faced by engineers in a growing market with evolving standards, new regulations, and an ever-increasing variety of application types for polymeric foam. Bernard Obi, an author with wide experience in testing, characterizing, and applying polymer foams, approaches this emerging complexity with a practical design methodology that focuses on understanding the relationship between structure–properties of polymeric foams and their performance attributes. The book not only introduces the fundamentals of polymer and foam science and engineering, but also goes more in-depth, covering foam processing, properties, and uses for a variety of applications. By connecting the diverse technologies of polymer science to those from foam science, and by linking both micro- and macrostructure–property relationships to key performance attributes, the book gives engineers the information required to solve pressing design problems involving the use of polymeric foams and to optimize foam performance. With a focus on applications in the automotive and transportation industries, as well as uses of foams in structural composites for lightweight applications, the author provides numerous case studies and design examples of real-life industrial problems from various industries and their solutions. Provides the science and engineering fundamentals relevant for solving polymer foam application problems Offers an exceptionally practical methodology to tackle the increasing complexity of real-world design challenges faced by engineers working with foams Discusses numerous case studies and design examples, with a focus on automotive and transportation Utilizes a practical design methodology focused on understanding the relationship between structure-properties of polymeric foams and their performance attributes

Poly lactic acid

Author: Rafael A. Auras
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118088131
Release Date: 2011-03-08
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book describes the synthesis, properties, and processing methods of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), an important family of degradable plastics. As the need for environmentally-friendly packaging materials increases, consumers and companies are in search for new materials that are largely produced from renewable resources, and are recyclable. To that end, an overall theme of the book is the biodegradability, recycling, and sustainability benefits of PLA. The chapters, from a base of international expert contributors, describe specific processing methods, spectroscopy techniques for PLA analysis, and and applications in medical items, packaging, and environmental use.

Polymeric Foams

Author: Shau-Tarng Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 142000462X
Release Date: 2006-08-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Polymers are among the major hallmarks of 20th-century science, and the explosive outgrowth and tremendous importance of polymeric foams is a testament to their amazing versatility and unique properties. With applications from automotive to acoustic and medical, polymeric foams pervade all areas of our lives. If this growth is to continue into the new millennium, especially in light of stringent environmental regulations, a strong understanding of the basic science and the major technologies behind foam production is critical. Written by experienced and accomplished leaders in the field, Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals, technologies, applications, and recent developments. The authors first outline the basic principles and fundamental foaming mechanisms, covering thermodynamics, kinetics, and the basics of blowing agents and foam formation. Foaming technologies and product applications then become the focus, with explanations of structure-property relationships, processing methods, and general types of foams. The book concludes with chapters on recent developments in composite and biodegradable foams that illustrate how to tailor processing to meet application needs. Illuminating the role of polymeric foams in the modern materials landscape, Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology is the perfect guide for developing innovative materials that achieve better performance and regulatory compliance.

Industrial Applications of Renewable Plastics

Author: Michel Biron
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9780323480666
Release Date: 2016-11-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Industrial Applications of Renewable Plastics: Environmental, Technological, and Economic Advances provides practical information to help engineers and materials scientists deploy renewable plastics in the plastics market. It explores the uses, possibilities, and problems of renewable plastics and composites to assist in material selection and rejection. The designer’s main problems are examined, along with basic reminders that deal with structures and processing methods that can help those who are generally familiar with metals understand the unique properties of plastic materials. The book offers a candid overview of main issues, including conservation of fossil resources, geopolitical considerations, greenhouse effects, competition with food crops, deforestation, pollution, and disposal of renewable plastics. In addition, an overview of some tools related to sustainability (Life cycle assessments, CO2 emissions, carbon footprint, and more) is provided. The book is an essential resource for engineers and materials scientists involved in material selection, design, manufacturing, molding, fabrication, and other links in the supply chain of plastics. The material contained is of great relevance to many major industries, including automotive and transport, packaging, aeronautics, shipbuilding, industrial and military equipment, electrical and electronics, energy, and more. Provides key, enabling information for engineers and materials scientists looking to increase the use of renewable plastic materials in their work Presents practical guidance to assist in materials selection, processing methods, and applications development, particularly for designers more familiar with other materials, such as metals Includes a candid discussion of the pros and cons of using renewable plastics, considering the technical, economic, legal, and environmental aspects

Polypropylene

Author: Clive Maier
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9780815518716
Release Date: 1998-04-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Polypropylene: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook presents in a single volume a panoramic and up-to-the-minute user's guide for today's most important thermoplastic. The book examines every aspectùscience, technology, engineering, properties, design, processing, applicationsùof the continuing development and use of polypropylene. The unique treatment means that specialists can not only find what they want but for the first time can relate to and understand the needs and requirements of others in the product development chain. The entire work is underpinned by very extensive collections of property data that allow the reader to put the information to real industrial and commercial use. Despite the preeminence and unrivaled versatility of polypropylene as a thermoplastic material to manufacture, relatively few books have been devoted to its study. Polypropylene: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook not only fills the gap but breaks new ground in doing so. Polypropylene is the most popular thermoplastic in use today, and still one of the fastest growing. Polypropylene: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook is the complete workbook and reference resource for all those who work with the material. Its comprehensive scope uniquely caters to polymer scientists, plastics engineers, processing technologists, product designers, machinery and mold makers, product managers, end users, researchers and students alike.

Plastic Materials

Author: Birley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401176149
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction

Plastics are part of everyday life and contribute immensely to the benefit of humanity. When failures occur, they are due in part either to inferior properties (resulting from poor design or badly controlled processing), or to an incomplete understanding of the properties and applications of plastics materials. Since publication of the first edition, the plastics industry has increas ingly adopted advanced business procedures and automation (such as closed loop control and robotics), to combat the effects of recession, and has moved increasingly towards methods based on sound scientific and technological principles. Plastics have increasingly been used in appli cations once dominated by the use of metals and ceramics. For instance, in the automotive industry, the modern car now contains a much higher proportion of polymers, including commodity plastics and more spec ialized materials. In addition, compact discs are being made from new injection-moulding grades of polycarbonate, which meet the requirements of a demanding process. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and extended to include new materials, technologies and design concepts. Chapters on thermoplastics reflect the development of polymer blends and alloys, whilst the chapters devoted to thermosets have been reorganized to accommodate the renaissance in the applications of phenolics and to cover the growing importance of polyurethanes. The related two component process technologies are now included; having undergone major developments in the last decade, they have become important shaping processes.

Handbook of Polymer Foams

Author: David Eaves
Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
ISBN: 9781859573884
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This Handbook reviews the chemistry, manufacturing methods, properties and applications of the synthetic polymer foams used in most applications. In addition, a chapter is included on the fundamental principles, which apply to all polymer foams. There is also a chapter on the blowing agents used to expand polymers and a chapter is on microcellular foams - a relatively new development where applications are still being explored.

Handbook on Pet Film and Sheets Urethane Foams Flexible Foams Rigid Foams Speciality Plastics Stretch Blow Moulding Injection Blow Moulding Injection and Co Injection Preform Technologies

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
ISBN: 9788178331775
Release Date: 2018-01-09
Genre:

Polyester or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is an unreinforced, semi-crystalline thermo-plastic polyester derived from polyethylene terephthalate. Its excellent wear resistance, low coefficient of friction, high flexural modulus, and superior dimensional stability make it a versatile material for designing mechanical and electro-mechanical parts. PET is fully recyclable and can be easily reprocessed into many other products for many different applications. However, unlike paper and other cellulose products, PET does not readily decompose. However, biodegradable additives are available that enhance the biodegradation of this plastic without affecting the physical properties. Formation of a flexible polyurethane foam is an intricate process employing unique hardware, multiple ingredients and at least two simultaneous reactions. The urethane forming reaction occurs between the isocyanate and the polyol. Polyurethanes, also known as polycarbamates, belong to a larger class of compounds called polymers. Polyurethanes can be produced in four different forms including elastomers, coatings, flexible foams, and cross-linked foams. Elastomers are materials that can be stretched but will eventually return to their original shape. They are useful in applications that require strength, flexibility, abrasion resistance, and shock absorbing qualities. Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers can be molded and shaped into different parts. This makes them useful as base materials for automobile parts, ski boots, roller skate wheels, cable jackets, and other mechanical goods. When these elastomers are spun into fibers they produce a flexible material called spandex. Spandex is used to make sock tops, bras, support hose, swimsuits, and other athletic apparel. Co-injection is the process of injecting two resins simultaneously through a single gate to form a multi-layer structure. Recently, there has been a re-emergence of interest in co-injection technology spurred on by the development of new resins, barrier systems, controls, and hardware technologies. Increasing demand of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from food and beverage sector like in carbonated soft drinks packaging, increase demand for packaged food due to rise in consumption of frozen and processed food, rise in demand for electronics and automotive applications/industries and ecofriendly substitution are the most important driving factors in the polyethylene terephthalate market. Also, rapid urbanization, innovative packaging and high economic growth is contribution in increasing the demand for polyethylene terephthalate regardless of the geographical location. This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.

Structural Design of Polymer Composites

Author: J.L. Clarke
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781482294811
Release Date: 2003-09-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Independent, practical guidance on the structural design of polymer composites is provided for the first time in this book. Structural designers familiar with design of conventional structural materials such as steel and concrete will be able to use it to design a broad range of polymeric composites for structural applications, using glass fibre re

Metal Foams

Author: Nihad Dukhan
Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 9781605950143
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Technology & Engineering

•Covers all phases of metal foam theory and technology •Techniques linking pore structure to custom properties •New applications in transportation, energy absorption, and orthopedic implants •Foams from a variety of metals as well as special shapes and lotus-type

Linear Polyurethanes

Author: Piotr Król
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789004188167
Release Date: 2008-03-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This volume describes in detail the mechanisms of the diisocyanates and polyols polyaddition process as well as its kinetic and process aspects important for obtaining linear polyurethanes. General kinetics of the process and its experimental verification, using GPC chromatography as well as NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-ToF spectrometry, are presented. Accompanied by over 400 references, the author presents synthesis methods, physicochemical properties of linear polyurethanes (analyzed with DCS, TG, DMTA, Rtg, AFM microscopy methods) as semiproducts for foams, elastomers, lacquers and coatings. Research results concerning free surface energy of the polyurethane coatings are also presented. Special attention is given to the latest polyurethane applications, such as ecological waterborne dispersions, biodegradation resistant elastomers and coatings used as medical implants and binders for ceramic powder materials. Moreover, the book contains information on urethane-isocyanate prepolymers applications, which are potential semifinished products for elastomers, foams, coatings, adhesives and interpenetrating polymer network composites.