Police Interrogations and False Confessions

Author: G. Daniel Lassiter
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 1433807432
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Law

Although it is generally believed that wrongful convictions based on false confessions are relatively rare-the 1989 Central Park jogger "wilding" case being the most notorious example-recent exonerations of the innocent through DNA testing are increasing at a rate that few in the criminal justice system might have speculated. Because of the growing realization of the false confession phenomenon, psychologists, sociologists, and legal/law-enforcement scholars and practitioners have begun to examine the factors embedded in American criminal investigations and interrogations that may lead innocent people to implicate themselves in crimes they did not commit. Police Interrogations and False Confessions brings together a group of renowned scholars and practitioners in the fields of social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, criminology, clinical-forensic psychology, and law to examine three salient dimensions of false confessions: interrogation tactics and the problem of false confessions; review of Supreme Court decisions regarding Miranda warnings and custodial interrogations; and new research on juvenile confessions and deception in interrogative interviews. Chapters include well-recognized programs of research on the topics of interrogative interviewing, false confessions, the detection of deception in forensic interviews, individual differences, and clinical-forensic evaluations. The book concludes with policy recommendations to attenuate the institutional and social psychological persistence (and pervasiveness) of the various inducements and impediments that have informed law enforcement's interrogation techniques and the types of false confessions they encourage.

The Psychology of Interrogations Confessions and Testimony

Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0471961779
Release Date: 1999-04-22
Genre: Psychology

Based upon scientific findings, using both a theoretical and practical approach, it provides excellent guidance regarding interrogation--its effects and implications. Presents full coverage of police interrogation methods and the processes by which false confessions are elicited plus demonstrates how they are more frequent than generally believed. Features a number of well-known contemporary cases including the ``Guildford Four'', ``Birmingham Six'' and ``Tottenham Three'' in which the author has been personally involved.

In Doubt

Author: Dan Simon
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674065116
Release Date: 2012-06-30
Genre: Law

Criminal justice is unavoidably human. Detectives, witnesses, suspects, and victims shape investigations; prosecutors, defense attorneys, jurors, and judges affect the outcome of adjudication. Simon shows how flawed investigations produce erroneous evidence and why well-meaning juries send innocent people to prison and set the guilty free.

Police Interrogation and American Justice

Author: Richard A Leo
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674035317
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Law

Read him his rights. We all recognize this line from cop dramas. But what happens afterward? In this book, Leo sheds light on a little-known corner of our criminal justice system--the police interrogation. An important study of the criminal justice system, this book provides interesting answers and raises some unsettling questions.

Interrogations Confessions and Entrapment

Author: G. Daniel Lassiter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387385983
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Psychology

- Represents the latest advances of the role of psychological factors in inducing potentially unreliable self-incriminating behavior - Chapters are authored by a diverse group psychologists, criminologists, and legal scholars who have contributed significantly to the collective understanding of the pressures that insidiously operate when the goal of law enforcement is to elicit self-incriminating behavior from suspected criminals - Reviews and analyzes the extant literature in this area as well as discussing how this knowledge can be used to help bring about needed changes in the legal system

Kids Cops and Confessions

Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814770672
Release Date: 2012-11-26
Genre: Social Science

Juveniles possess less maturity, intelligence, and competence than adults, heightening their vulnerability in the justice system. For this reason, states try juveniles in separate courts and use different sentencing standards than for adults. Yet, when police bring kids in for questioning, they use the same interrogation tactics they use for adults, including trickery, deception, and lying to elicit confessions or to produce incriminating evidence against the defendants. In Kids, Cops, and Confessions, Barry Feld offers the first report of what actually happens when police question juveniles. Drawing on remarkable data, Feld analyzes interrogation tapes and transcripts, police reports, juvenile court filings and sentences, and probation and sentencing reports, describing in rich detail what actually happens in the interrogation room. Contrasting routine interrogation and false confessions enables police, lawyers, and judges to identify interrogations that require enhanced scrutiny, to adopt policies to protect citizens, and to assure reliability and integrity of the justice system. Feld has produced an invaluable look at how the justice system really works.

The Psychology of False Confessions

Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119315681
Release Date: 2018-04-24
Genre: Psychology

Provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the development of the science behind the psychology of false confessions Four decades ago, little was known or understood about false confessions and the reasons behind them. So much has changed since then due in part to the diligent work done by Gisli H. Gudjonsson. This eye-opening book by the Icelandic/British clinical forensic psychologist, who in the mid 1970s had worked as detective in Reykjavik, offers a complete and current analysis of how the study of the psychology of false confessions came about, including the relevant theories and empirical/experimental evidence base. It also provides a reflective review of the gradual development of the science and how it can be applied to real life cases. Based on Gudjonsson’s personal account of the biggest murder investigations in Iceland’s history, as well as other landmark cases, The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice takes readers inside the minds of those who sit on both sides of the interrogation table to examine why confessions to crimes occur even when the confessor is innocent. Presented in three parts, the book covers how the science of studying false confessions emerged and grew to become a regular field of practice. It then goes deep into the investigation of the mid-1970s assumed murders of two men in Iceland and the people held responsible for them. It finishes with an in-depth psychological analysis of the confessions of the six people convicted. Written by an expert extensively involved in the development of the science and its application to real life cases Covers the most sensational murder cases in Iceland’s history Deep analysis of the ‘Reykjavik Confessions’ adds crucial evidence to understanding how and why coerced-internalized false confessions occur, and their detrimental and lasting effects on memory The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice is an important source book for students, academics, criminologists, and clinical, forensic, and social psychologists and psychiatrists.

How the Police Generate False Confessions

Author: James L. Trainum
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9781442244658
Release Date: 2016-07-15
Genre: Law

Despite the rising number of confirmed false confession cases, most people have a hard time grasping why someone would confess to a crime they did not commit, or even why a guilty person would admit to something that could put them in jail for life. How the Police Generate False Confessions takes you inside the interrogation room, exposing the tactics that law enforcement uses to make confessions happen. James L. Trainum reveals how innocent people can become suspects and then confessed criminals even when they have not committed a crime. Using real stories, he looks at the inherent coerciveness of the interrogation process and why so many false confessions contain so many of the details that only the true perpetrator would know. More disturbingly, the book examines how these same processes corrupt witness and victim statements, create lying informants and cooperators, and induce innocent people to plead guilty. Trainum also offers recommendations for change in the U.S. by looking at how other countries are changing the process to prevent such miscarriages of justice. The reasons that people falsely confess can be complex and varied; throughout How the Police Generate False Confessions Trainum encourages readers to critically evaluate confessions on their own by gaining a better understanding of the interrogation process.

The Oxford Handbook of Social Influence

Author: Stephen G. Harkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199859870
Release Date: 2017
Genre: Psychology

The study of social influence has been central to social psychology since its inception. In fact, research on social influence predated the coining of the term social psychology. Its influence continued through the 1960s, when it made seminal contributions to the beginning of social psychology's golden age. However, by the mid-1980s, interest in this area waned, while at the same time, and perhaps not coincidentally, interest in social cognition waxed. Now the pendulum is swinging back, as seen in growing interest in non-cognitive, motivational accounts. The Oxford Handbook of Social Influence will contribute to a resurgence of interest in social influence that will restore it to its once preeminent position. Written by leading scholars, the chapters cover a variety of topics related to social influence, incorporating a range of levels of analysis (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intragroup) and both source (the influencers) and target (the influenced) effects. The volume also examines theories that are most relevant to social infl uence, as well as social influence in applied settings. The chapters contribute to the renaissance of interest in social influence by showing that it is time to reexamine classic topics in social influence; by illustrating how integrations/ elaborations that advance our understanding of social influence processes are now possible; by revealing gaps in the social influence literature; and by suggesting future lines of research. Perhaps the most important of these lines of work will take into account the change from traditional social influence that occurs face-to-face to social media-mediated influence that is likely to characterize many of our interactions in the future.

Unfair

Author: Adam Benforado
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 9780770437763
Release Date: 2015
Genre: LAW

"A crusading legal scholar exposes the powerful psychological forces that undermine our criminal justice system--and affect us all Our nation is founded on the notion that the law is impartial, that legal cases are won or lost on the basis of evidence, careful reasoning and nuanced argument. But they may, in fact, turn on the temperature of the courtroom, the camera angle of a defendant's taped confession, or a simple word choice or gesture during a cross-examination. In Unfair, law professor Adam Benforado shines a light on this troubling new research, showing, for example, that people with certain facial features receive longer sentences and that judges are far more likely to grant parole first thing in the morning. In fact, over the last two decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have uncovered many cognitive forces that operate beyond our conscious awareness--and Benforado argues that until we address these hidden biases head-on, the social inequality we see now will only widen, as powerful players and institutions find ways to exploit the weaknesses in our legal system. Weaving together historical examples, scientific studies, and compelling court cases--from the border collie put on trial in Kentucky to the five teenagers who falsely confessed in the Central Park Jogger case--Benforado shows how our judicial processes fail to uphold our values and protect society's weakest members, convicting the innocent while letting dangerous criminals go free. With clarity and passion, he lays out the scope of the problem and proposes a wealth of reforms that could prevent injustice and help us achieve true fairness and equality before the law"--

Conviction of the Innocent

Author: Brian L. Cutler
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 1433810212
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Law

Over the last several decades over 250 citizens convicted of major felonies were found innocent and were exonerated. Today, thanks to the work of psychologists and other criminal justice researchers, the psychological foundations that underlie conviction of the innocent are becoming clear. There is real hope that these findings can lead to positive reforms, reduce the risk of miscarriages of justice, and avoid the consequences of wrongful convictions to victims and society. In this book, Editor Brian Cutler presents a state-of-the-field review of current psychological research on conviction of the innocent. Chapter authors investigate how the roles played by suspects, investigators, eyewitnesses, and trial witnesses and how pervasive systemic issues contribute to conspire to increase the risk of conviction of the innocent. The chapters skillfully examine psychological perspectives on such topics as police interrogations, confessions, eyewitness identification, trial procedures, juries, and forensic science, as well as broader issues such as racism and tunnel vision within the justice system. This comprehensive volume represents an important milestone for research on miscarriages of justice. By bringing psychological theories and research to bear on this social problem, the authors derive compelling recommendations for future research and practical reform in police and legal procedures.

Children as Victims Witnesses and Offenders

Author: Bette L. Bottoms
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 9781606233580
Release Date: 2009-08-10
Genre: Psychology

Grounded in the latest clinical and developmental knowledge, this book brings together leading authorities to examine the critical issues that arise when children and adolescents become involved in the justice system. Chapters explore young people’s capacities, competencies, and special vulnerabilities as victims, witnesses, and defendants. Key topics include the reliability of children’s abuse disclosures, eyewitness testimony, interviews, and confessions; the evolving role of the expert witness; the psychological impact of trauma and of legal involvement; factors that shape jurors’ perceptions of children; and what works in rehabilitating juvenile offenders. Policies and practices that are not supported by science are identified, and approaches to improving them are discussed.

Essentials of the Reid Technique

Author: Fred Edward Inbau
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 9781449691110
Release Date: 2013-09-15
Genre: Law

The updated second edition of best-selling Essentials of the Reid Technique: Criminal Interrogation and Confessions teaches readers how to identify and interpret verbal and nonverbal behaviors of both deceptive and truthful people, and how to move toward obtaining solid confessions from guilty persons. The Reid Technique is built around basic psychological principles and presents interrogation as an easily understood nine-step process. Separated into two parts, What You Need to Know About Interrogation and Employing the Reid Nine Steps of Interrogation, this book will help readers understand the effective and proper way that a suspect should be interrogated and the safeguards that should be in place to ensure the integrity of the confession.

Applied Criminal Psychology

Author: Richard N. Kocsis
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
ISBN: 9780398085513
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Psychology

Forensic psychology is a thriving subject with a dedicated focus beginning to emerge on the issue of crime from the discipline of psychology. Applied Criminal Psychology provides the reader with a comprehensive and practical guide to psychological research and techniques. Major topics include: (1) mental disorders and criminal behavior, antisocial behavior and personality disorders, the role of the forensic psychologist, risk and assessment; (2) the detection of deceit, eyewitness testimony, cognitive interviewing, forensic hypnosis, false confessions; and (3) criminal profiling, psychological.

Criminal Interrogation and Confessions

Author: Fred E. Inbau
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 9780763799366
Release Date: 2011-09-26
Genre: Law

Criminal Interrogation and Confessions, Fifth Edition presents the Reid Technique of interviewing and interrogation and is the standard used in the field. This updated Fifth Edition presents interviewing and interrogation techniques, based on actual criminal cases, which have been used successfully by thousands of criminal investigators. This practical text is built around simple psychological principles and examines interrogation as a nine-step process that is easily understood by the reader. New and Key Features of the updated Fifth Edition: -The text contains updated photographs throughout to illustrate behavior symptoms; the proper room setting and positioning; as well as the placement of electronic recording equipment. -Every chapter of the text includes updated information. -Chapter 9 (Behavior Symptom Analysis) contains new research that has been conducted on the efficacy of behavior symptom analysis, as well as building for the reader the behavioral model of the truthful individual versus the subject who is withholding or fabricating relevant information. -Chapters 7 through 12 discuss in detail how to build the investigative interview, including the proper use of both investigative and behavior provoking questions, as well as guidelines for evaluating the credibility of allegations, and the proper use of follow-up and bait questions. -Chapter 15 (Distinguishing between True and False Confessions) has been updated to include new cases throughout and contains two new sections; "The Issue of False Confessions in the Courtroom – The Testimony of Expert Witnesses" and “The Issue of False Confessions in the Courtroom – Court Decisions”. -Chapter 17 discusses all of the legal issues related to interrogation and confession law, including Miranda, the meaning of custody, the use of threats and/or promises, the use of deception, and confession voluntariness. The chapter contains update legal references including 2011 court decisions.