How can we best help offenders desist from crime, as well as help victims heal? This book engages with this question by offering its readers a comprehensive review of positive criminology in theory, research and practice. Positive criminology is a concept – a perspective – that places emphasis on forces of integration and social inclusion that are experienced positively by target individual and groups, and may contribute to a reduction in negative emotions, desistance from crime and overcoming the traumatic experience of victimization. In essence, positive criminology holds a more holistic view, which acknowledges that thriving and disengagement from distress, addiction, mental illness, crime, deviance or victimization might be fostered more effectively by enhancing positive emotions and experiences, rather than focusing on reducing negative attributes. Each chapter in this book is written by key scholars in the related fields of criminology, victimology and addiction and, thus, assembles varied and extensive approaches to rehabilitation and treatment. These approaches share in common a positive criminology view, thereby enriching our understanding of the concept and other strength-based approaches to dealing with offenders and victims. This edited book elaborates on positive criminology core ideas and assumptions; discusses related theories and innovations; and presents various benefits that this perspective can promote in the field of rehabilitation. For this reason, this book will be essential reading for those engaged in the study of criminology, criminal justice and victimology and may also assist scholars and professionals to help offenders desist from crime and improve victims’ well-being.
In the UK and elsewhere, restorative justice and policing are core components of a range of university programmes; however, currently no such text exists on the intersection of these two areas of study. This book draws together these diverse theoretical perspectives to provide an innovative, knowledge-rich text that is essential reading for all those engaged with the evolution and practice of restorative policing. Restorative Policing surveys the twenty-five year history of restorative policing practice, during which its use and influence over criminal justice has slowly grown. It then situates this experience within a criminological discussion about neo-liberal responses to crime control. There has been insufficient debate about how the concepts of ‘restorative justice’ and ‘policing’ sit alongside each other and how they may be connected or disconnected in theoretical and conceptual terms. The book seeks to fill this gap through an exploration of concepts, theory, policy and practice. In doing so, the authors make a case for a more transformative vision of restorative policing that can impact positively upon the shape and practice of policing and outline a framework for the implementation of such a strategy. This pathbreaking book will be of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on restorative justice, policing and crime control, as well as professionals interested in the implementation of restorative practices in the police force.
Author: Stuart Lister
Release Date: 2015-07-30
Genre: Social Science
Accountability of Policing provides a contemporary and wide-ranging examination of the accountability and governance of ‘police’ and ‘policing’. Debates about ‘who guards the guards’ are among the oldest and most protracted in the history of democracy, but over the last decade we have witnessed important changes in how policing and security agencies are governed, regulated and held to account. Against a backdrop of increasing complexity in the local, national and transnational landscapes of ‘policing’, political, legal, administrative and technological developments have served to alter regimes of accountability. The extent and pace of these changes raises a pressing need for ongoing academic research, analysis and debate. Bringing together contributions from a range of leading scholars, this book offers an authoritative and comprehensive analysis of the shifting themes of accountability within policing. The contributions explore questions of accountability across a range of dimensions, including those ‘individuals’ and ‘institutions’ responsible for its delivery, within and between the ‘public’ and ‘private’ sectors, and at ‘local’, ‘national’ and ‘transnational’ scales of jurisdiction. They also engage with the concept of ‘accountability’ in a broad sense, bringing to the surface the various meanings that have become associated with it and demonstrating how it is invoked and interpreted in different contexts. Accountability of Policing is essential reading for academics and students involved in the study of policing, criminal justice and criminology and will also be of great interest to practitioners and policymakers.
Author: Paula Brough
Release Date: 2015-10-23
Genre: Social Science
All organisations, whether private or public sector, seek to improve criminal justice workplace practice from an evidence base, but often find it difficult to effectively translate research findings into policy or design best-practice interventions. This book provides a direct bridge between academic research in organisational behaviour and the management of workers within criminal justice agencies. The public sector in particular is currently experiencing significant funding cuts and increasingly needs to create optimal workplace strategies to maintain frontline services and preserve the well-being of the work force. The aim of this book is to equip managers with knowledge about key processes and appropriate research methods, thereby enabling them to more readily understand and apply academic research to their workplaces. The means to translate research findings into implementation strategies are also clearly explained. Furthermore, essential organisational issues that either impede or enhance productivity, employee effectiveness, and management responsiveness to change are discussed, following a common chapter template of problem definition, research and analysis, evidence translation, implementation, and evaluation. Written by experts in the field, this book applies cutting-edge theoretical discussions and research findings to evidence-based policy. It examines new strategies and best practice in the context of widespread demoralization of staff in the criminal justice sector due to the impact of increased austerity. Improving Criminal Justice Workplaces is essential reading for leadership teams, managers and supervisors in the court, police, probation, and prison services, as well as allied professionals such as forensic psychologists and HR professionals.
Although restorative justice is probably one of the most talked about topics in contemporary criminology, little has been written about how community involvement in restorative justice translates into practice. While advocates have presented the community as an essential pillar of restorative justice, the rationale for why and how this is the case remains underdeveloped and largely unchallenged. This book offers an empirical and theoretical explanation of what ‘community involvement’ means and what work it does in restorative justice. Drawing on an empirical case study and the wider sociological literature, The Role of Community in Restorative Justice examines the involvement of the community in one selected practice of restorative justice and also considers the implications of the English and Welsh experience for development of a more coherent framework for operationalizing community involvement in restorative justice practices. It is argued that restorative justice programmes need to start from a more concrete and up-to-date notion of community. While operationalizing community involvement, they need to acknowledge, all at once: the importance of place; the importance of family links, friendship and other social ties; and the importance of similar social traits and identities. This book is essential reading for students, researchers and academics in the fields of criminology, criminal justice, sociology, community studies, policy studies, social policy and socio-legal studies. This book will also be valuable reading for a variety of practitioners and policymakers, particularly working with restorative justice and youth justice.
Author: Ioan Durnescu
Release Date: 2013-10-30
Genre: Social Science
Criminological and penological scholarship has in recent years explored how and why institutions and systems of punishment change – and how and why these changes differ in different contexts. Important though these analyses are, this book focuses not so much on the changing nature of institutions and systems, but rather the changing nature of penal practice and practitioners Bringing together leading researchers from around the world, this collection unites studies that aim to describe and critically analyse penal practice with studies that investigate its effectiveness and prescribe its future development. Reversing penology’s usual preoccupation with the prison, the book focuses mainly on penal practice in the community (i.e. on probation, parole, offender supervision and ‘community corrections’). The first part of the book focuses on understanding practice and practitioners, exploring how changing social, cultural, political, and organisational contexts influence practice, and how training, development, professional socialisation and other factors influence practitioners. The second part is concerned with how practitioners can be best supported to develop the skills and approaches that seem most likely to generate positive impacts. It contains accounts of new practice models and approaches, as well as reports of research projects seeking both to discover and to encourage effective practices. This book explores internationally significant and cutting-edge theoretical and empirical work on the cultures, practices, roles and impacts of frontline practitioners in delivering penal sanctions. As such, it will be of interest to researchers in criminology, social work and social policy as well as correctional policy makers and those involved in community supervision.
Young offenders given custodial sentences in youth institutions constitute an important group in the context of crime prevention research, given that offenders within this group are at high risk of reoffending or continuing with a criminal career into adulthood. This book explores the significance of custodial openness for children and youths and how this environment affects future desistance from crime. In Young Offenders and Open Custody Tove Pettersson provides powerful support for the view that the experience of more open custodial forms during the youth custody sentence is of significance both for providing incarcerated youths with a more humane environment and for the likelihood of a positive outcome following their release. Building upon detailed interviews with convicted youths and staff at the special approved homes in Sweden, this book offers unique insights into the effect of punishment on young offenders and their understanding of social control. Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data, this book examines levels of reoffending over time among youths sentenced to custody, and considers the impact of open sentences. This book will be useful reading for students and researchers engaged in youth and juvenile justice, juvenile delinquency, and sentencing and punishment.
Author: Cecilia Bailliet
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2011-04-01
Cosmopolitan Justice and its Discontents pursues a reflection upon the institutional orders designed to ensure respect for the rule of law, human rights, and social justice. The majority of literature on cosmopolitanism tends to be oriented in sociology, political science or philosophy, and is largely positive. This book aims to fill the lacuna with respect to critical and legal perspectives in this field. In particular, it highlights the importance of international economic law and its institutions when evaluating the evolution of cosmopolitan norms. In addition, it provides critical and multidisciplinary perspectives on Cosmopolitan Justice and Sovereignty; Institutions, Civil Society and Accountability; and Social Exclusion, Migration, and Global Markets. This book will be of considerable interest to academics and students concerned with international public and private law, international criminal law, international economic law, human rights, migration, criminology, political science, and philosophy.
Author: Joseph G. Grzywacz
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 2013-03-05
The purpose of this volume is to showcase alternative theoretical and methodological approaches to work and family research, and present methodological alternatives to the widely known shortcomings of current research on work and the family. In the first part of the book contributors consider various theoretical perspectives including: Positive Organizational Psychology System Theory Multi-Level Theoretical Models Dyadic Study Designs The chapters in Part Two consider a number of methodological issues including: key issues pertaining to sampling, the role of diary studies, Case Cross-over designs, Biomarkers, and Cross-Domain and Within-Domain Relations. Contributors also elaborate the conceptual and logistical issues involved in incorporating novel measurement approaches. The book will be of essential reading for researchers and students in work and organizational psychology, and related disciplines.
Author: Dana S. Dunn
Release Date: 2017-09-01
This volume is a comprehensive review of theoretical and empirical contributions to positive psychology. It provides a scientific understanding of how human strengths help people psychologically and physically, showing how stressful circumstances do not inexorably lead to negative prognoses. It examines how individuals confront challenges, appreciate others, and regard daily experiences as meaningful. Many of the chapters also challenge the negative, disease-model approach that dominates much of the research concerning health and well-being. Chapters also address applications and future directions for the field. The broad scope makes it a key resource for undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and practitioners in social, clinical, and positive psychology.
Author: Rob C. Mawby
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Social Science
A great deal has been written about the political, policy and practice changes that have shaped probation work but little has been written on the changes to occupational cultures and the ways in which probation workers themselves view their role. This book fills that gap by exploring the meaning of 'doing probation work' from the perspective of probation workers themselves. Based on 60 extensive interviews with probation workers who joined the probation service from the 1960s to the present day, this book reaches beyond criminological and policy analysis to an application of sociological and organizational theory to rich qualitative data. It explores the backgrounds and motivations of probation workers, their changing relationships with other criminal justice agencies, and the complex public perceptions and media representations of probation work. The book considers the relative influences of religion, the union, diversity and feminization and, while it acknowledges that probation work is stressful, it draws innovatively on sociological and organizational concepts to categorize how workers respond to turbulent times. This book challenges the dominant narrative of probation's decline in recent literature and constructs three 'ideal types' of probation worker - 'lifers', 'second careerists' and 'offender managers.' Each makes an essential contribution to probation cultures, which collectively contribute to, rather than undermine, the effectiveness of offender management and the future of probation work. This book will be important reading for researchers in the disciplines of criminology, criminal justice, sociology and management as well as probation workers of all grades and those in training.
Author: Helene Oppen Gundhus
Release Date: 2017-09-27
Genre: Social Science
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? What kind of challenges will this move entail? What does the criminalization of preparatory acts mean for previous distinctions between crime prevention and crime detection? What are the predominant rationales behind the proactive use of covert cohesive measures in order to prevent attacks on national security? How are new technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work.
Written by leading authorities from Australasia, Europe and North America, this book examines the dynamic conflicts and synergies between nature conservation and human development in contemporary Cambodia. After suffering conflict and stagnation in the late twentieth century, Cambodia has experienced an economic transformation in the last decade, with growth averaging almost ten per cent per year, partly through investment from China. However this rush for development has been coupled with tremendous social and environmental change which, although positive in some aspects, has led to rising inequality and profound shifts in the condition, ownership and management of natural resources. High deforestation rates, declining fish stocks, biodiversity loss, and alienation of indigenous and rural people from their land and traditional livelihoods are now matters of increasing local and international concern. The book explores the social and political dimensions of these environmental changes in Cambodia, and of efforts to intervene in and ‘improve’ current trajectories for conservation and development. It provides a compelling analysis of the connections between nature, state and society, pointing to the key role of grassroots and non-state actors in shaping Cambodia’s frontiers of change. These insights will be of great interest to scholars of Southeast Asia and environment-development issues in general.
Author: Cynthia Pope
Release Date: 2014-06-11
Genre: Health & Fitness
HIV/AIDS: Global Frontiers in Prevention/Intervention provides a comprehensive overview of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. The unique anthology addresses cutting-edge issues in HIV/AIDS research, policymaking, and advocacy. Key features include: · Nine original essays from leading scholars in public health, epidemiology, and social and behavioral sciences · Comprehensive information for individuals with varying degrees of knowledge, particularly regarding methodological and theoretical perspectives · A look into the future progression of HIV transmission and scholarly research HIV/AIDS: Global Frontiers in Prevention/Intervention is will serve as a precious resource as a textbook and reference for the university classroom, libraries, and researchers
Author: Lillian Turner de Tormes Eby
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Business & Economics
"Preface Across sub-disciplines of psychology, research finds that positive, fulfilling, and satisfying relationships contribute to life satisfaction, psychological health, and physical well-being whereas negative, destructive, and unsatisfying relationships have a whole host of detrimental psychological and physical effects. This is because humans posses a fundamental "need to belong" (Baumeister & Leary, 1995, p. 497), characterized by the motivation to form and maintain lasting, positive, and significant relationships with others. The need to belong is fueled by frequent and pleasant relational exchanges with others and thwarted when one feels excluded, rejected, and hurt by others. Notwithstanding the recognition that all relationships can have positive and negative aspects, and that many different types of relationships can influence employee outcomes, most research has honed in on either the positive or negative experiences associated with a specific type of relationship. Because of this we lack both an appreciation and understanding of the full range of relational experiences. We also have not fully considered similarities and differences in relational experiences across different types of relationships, or how these experiences may differentially affect employee attitudes, behavior, and well-being. This edited volume tackles these issues head on, recognizing the powerful role that relationships play in our everyday life, and zeroing in on the cognitive, psychological, and behavioral processes responsible for such effects. Structure of the Book This book uses research and theory on the need to belong as a foundation to explore how five different types of relationships influence employee attitudes, behaviors, and well-being"--