Preventing Terrorism and Controlling Risk

Author: Susan Donkin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461487050
Release Date: 2013-09-14
Genre: Social Science

​This Brief takes a provocative look at existing socio-legal literature with a comparative study of terrorism control orders, focusing on how the concept of pre-emption fits within a traditional criminological framework. This timely work examines how such measures might be conceived and interpreted within a situational crime prevention approach. Over the past decade, socio-legal scholars have identified a rise in pre-emptive control mechanisms to respond to terrorism and other threats in the post-9/11 world. Many have argued that this pre-emptive rationale has been used to justify the introduction of measures that transcend established legal and risk frameworks, to deal with individuals or groups thought to pose a threat to the state or its citizens. ​Preventing Terrorism and Controlling Risk: A Comparative Analysis of Control Orders in the UK and Australia will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on terrorism, risk assessment, and human rights.​

Developing and Maintaining Police Researcher Partnerships to Facilitate Research Use

Author: Jeff Rojek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493920563
Release Date: 2014-09-15
Genre: Social Science

This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

Sex Offenders and Preventive Detention

Author: Bernadette McSherry
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 1862877637
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Social Science

Criminals do a crime, get caught, serve their time and come out to go on living except sex offenders. They come out and nobody will accept them as neighbours. They used to be able to hide but modern communciations make this impossible. What can be done? Keeping them locked up is effectively imprisonment on suspicion by one of the markers of tyranny. But how can society acknowledge revulsion, factor in safety and enable these people to live outside a prison? McSherry and Keyzer have written a succinct book aimed at a broad audience, which crosses from criminology and politics to proposals for law reform. They base it around three case studies from Washington State, Scotland and Queensland, Australia representing the three main legislative options for managing sex offenders.

Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Author: Arun Kumar Sangaiah
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319706887
Release Date: 2017-12-30
Genre: Computers

This book brings a high level of fluidity to analytics and addresses recent trends, innovative ideas, challenges and cognitive computing solutions in big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). It explores domain knowledge, data science reasoning and cognitive methods in the context of the IoT, extending current data science approaches by incorporating insights from experts as well as a notion of artificial intelligence, and performing inferences on the knowledge The book provides a comprehensive overview of the constituent paradigms underlying cognitive computing methods, which illustrate the increased focus on big data in IoT problems as they evolve. It includes novel, in-depth fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application in data science accomplishing sustainable solution for the future perspective. Mainly focusing on the design of the best cognitive embedded data science technologies to process and analyze the large amount of data collected through the IoT, and aid better decision making, the book discusses adapting decision-making approaches under cognitive computing paradigms to demonstrate how the proposed procedures as well as big data and IoT problems can be handled in practice. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, professionals, researchers, and academicians dealing with the new challenges and advances in the specific areas of cognitive computing and data science approaches.

Regulatory Theory

Author: Peter Drahos
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 9781760461027
Release Date: 2017-02-23
Genre: Law

This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

Societal Implications of Community Oriented Policing and Technology

Author: Georgios Leventakis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319892979
Release Date: 2018-04-24
Genre: Social Science

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize the societal implications of new technologies for community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through strengthed community feeling and lower feeling of insecurity - Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of security in large, urban environments -Enhancing citizens feelings' of empowerment, belonging, and collective efficacy Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

The Web of Violence

Author: Sherry Hamby
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400755963
Release Date: 2012-10-13
Genre: Social Science

There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

The Life of Muhammad

Author: Rizwi Faizer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136921148
Release Date: 2013-09-05
Genre: History

Muhammad b. ‘Umar al-Waqidi was a Muslim scholar, born in Medina in the 1st Century. Of his several writings the most significant is the Kitab al-Maghazi, one of the earliest standard histories of the life of the Prophet. Translated into English for the first time, Rizwi Faizer makes available this key text to a new, English-speaking audience. It includes an "Introduction" authored jointly by Rizwi Faizer and Andrew Rippin and a carefully prepared index. The book deals with the events of the Prophet’s life from the time of his emigration from Mecca to his death, and is generally considered to be biographical. Bringing together events in the Prophet’s life with appropriate passages of Qur’an in a considered sequence, the author presents an interpretation of Islam that existed in his times. It includes citations from the Qur’ān, as well as poetry that appears to have been inspired by activities during his life. This English translation of a seminal text on the life of Muhammad is an invaluable addition to the existing literature, and will be of great significance to students and scholars in the field of Islamic studies, Islamic history, Medieval history and Arabic literature.

Regulating Deviance

Author: Bernadette McSherry
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781847314765
Release Date: 2008-12-12
Genre: Social Science

The criminal attacks that occurred in the United States on 11 September 2001 have profoundly altered and reshaped the priorities of criminal justice systems around the world. Domestic criminal law has become a vehicle for criminalising 'new' terrorist offences and other transnational forms of criminality. 'Preventative' detention regimes have come to the fore, balancing the scales in favour of security rather than individual liberty. These moves complement already existing shifts in criminal justice policies and ideologies brought about by adjusting to globalisation, economic neo-liberalism and the shift away from the post-war liberal welfare settlement. This collection of essays by leading scholars in the fields of criminal law and procedure, criminology, legal history, law and psychology and the sociology of law, focuses on the future directions for the criminal law in the light of current concerns with state security and regulating 'deviant' behaviour.

Police Citizen Relations Across the World

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315406640
Release Date: 2017-10-02
Genre: Social Science

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Water Civilization

Author: Yoshinori Yasuda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9784431541103
Release Date: 2012-10-24
Genre: Social Science

Water Civilization: From Yangtze to Khmer Civilizations comprises three major topics: 1) Discovery of the origin of rice agriculture and the Yangtze River civilization in southern China was mainly based on investigation of the Chengtoushan archaeological site, the earliest urban settlement in East Asia. The origin of rice cultivation can be traced back to 10000 BC, with urban settlement starting at about 6000 BP; 2) The Yangtze River civilization collapsed around 4200 BP. Palaeoenvironmental studies including analyses of annually laminated sediments in East and Southeast Asia indicate a close relationship between climate change and the rise and fall of the rice-cultivating and fishing civilization; and 3) Migrations from southern China to Southeast Asia occurred after about 4200 BP. Archaeological investigation of the Phum Snay site in Cambodia, including analyses of DNA and human skeletal remains, reveals a close relationship to southern China, indicating the migration of people from southern China to Southeast Asia. This publication is an important contribution to understanding the environmental history of China and Cambodia in relation to the rise and fall of the rice-cultivating and fishing civilization, which we call water civilization.

Jurisdiction in Deleuze The Expression and Representation of Law

Author: Edward Mussawir
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781136816635
Release Date: 2011-03-03
Genre: Law

Jurisdiction in Deleuze: The Expression and Representation of Law pursues an emerging interest in the conceptual thematic of jurisdiction within legal studies; as it maintains that an adequate understanding of the power of law requires an attention, not just to law's formal aspects, but to its technology, its institution and its instrumentality; not just to the representation of law, but to its expression.

Pediatric Orthopedics

Author: Amr Abdelgawad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461471264
Release Date: 2013-09-24
Genre: Medical

​Topics in pediatric orthopedics routinely surface in general pediatrics and primary care, whether on board exams or in clinical practice. From birth injuries to musculoskeletal infections, there are many conditions and presenting complaints that must be addressed by the primary care physician or pediatrician. This concise and targeted handbook contains just the need to know conditions, injuries, and diseases necessary for residents and even seasoned clinicians to brush up on pediatric orthopedic topics with ease. Information is contained within themed chapters (like neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal infections) and also by anatomical region (hip, knee foot, spine, etc.). This book gives readers the basic knowledge to be able to identify common orthopedic conditions, indications to either treat these conditions or refer patient to an orthopedist, and covers the entire required curriculum needed to answer musculoskeletal questions on the pediatrics board exam.

The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe

Author: Valsamis Mitsilegas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319126586
Release Date: 2014-10-31
Genre: Law

This is the first monograph providing a comprehensive legal analysis of the criminalisation of migration in Europe. The book puts forward a definition of the criminalisation of migration as the three-fold process whereby migration management takes place via the adoption of substantive criminal law, via recourse to traditional criminal law enforcement mechanisms including surveillance and detention, and via the development of mechanisms of prevention and pre-emption. The book provides a typology of criminalisation of migration, structured on the basis of the three stages of the migrant experience: criminalisation before entry (examining criminalisation in the context of extraterritorial immigration control, delegation and privatisation in immigration control and the securitisation of migration); criminalisation during stay (examining how substantive criminal law is used to regulate migration in the territory); and criminalisation after entry and towards removal (examining efforts to exclude and remove migrants from the territory and jurisdiction of EU Member States and criminalisation through detention). The analysis focuses on the impact of the criminalisation of migration on human rights and the rule of law, and it highlights how European Union law (through the application of both the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and general principles of EU law) and ECHR law may contribute towards achieving decriminalisation of migration in Europe.

Preventive Justice

Author: Andrew Ashworth
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191021053
Release Date: 2014-03-27
Genre: Law

This book arises from a three-year study of Preventive Justice directed by Professor Andrew Ashworth and Professor Lucia Zedner at the University of Oxford. The study seeks to develop an account of the principles and values that should guide and limit the state's use of preventive techniques that involve coercion against the individual. States today are increasingly using criminal law or criminal law-like tools to try to prevent or reduce the risk of anticipated future harm. Such measures include criminalizing conduct at an early stage in order to allow authorities to intervene; incapacitating suspected future wrongdoers; and imposing extended sentences or indefinate on past wrongdoers on the basis of their predicted future conduct - all in the name of public protection and security. The chief justification for the state's use of coercion is protecting the public from harm. Although the rationales and justifications of state punishment have been explored extensively, the scope, limits and principles of preventive justice have attracted little doctrinal or conceptual analysis. This book re-assesses the foundations for the range of coercive measures that states now take in the name of prevention and public protection, focussing particularly on coercive measures involving deprivation of liberty. It examines whether these measures are justified, whether they distort the proper boundaries between criminal and civil law, or whether they signal a larger change in the architecture of security. In so doing, it sets out to establish a framework for what we call 'Preventive Justice'.