Principles of Mathematical Logic

Author: David Hilbert
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821820247
Release Date: 1950
Genre: Mathematics

David Hilbert was particularly interested in the foundations of mathematics. Among many other things, he is famous for his attempt to axiomatize mathematics. This now classic text is his treatment of symbolic logic. This translation is based on the second German edition and has been modified according to the criticisms of Church and Quine. In particular, the authors' original formulation of Godel's completeness proof for the predicate calculus has been updated. In the first half of the twentieth century, an important debate on the foundations of mathematics took place. Principles of Mathematical Logic represents one of Hilbert's important contributions to that debate. Although symbolic logic has grown considerably in the subsequent decades, this book remains a classic.

Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories

Author: Robert L. Rogers
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483257976
Release Date: 2014-05-12
Genre: Mathematics

Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Results focuses on basic concepts and results of mathematical logic and the study of formalized theories. The manuscript first elaborates on sentential logic and first-order predicate logic. Discussions focus on first-order predicate logic with identity and operation symbols, first-order predicate logic with identity, completeness theorems, elementary theories, deduction theorem, interpretations, truth, and validity, sentential connectives, and tautologies. The text then tackles second-order predicate logic, as well as second-order theories, theory of definition, and second-order predicate logic F2. The publication takes a look at natural and real numbers, incompleteness, and the axiomatic set theory. Topics include paradoxes, recursive functions and relations, Gödel's first incompleteness theorem, axiom of choice, metamathematics of R and elementary algebra, and metamathematics of N. The book is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in mathematical logic and formalized theories.

Mathematical Grammar of Biology

Author: Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319626895
Release Date: 2017-08-31
Genre: Mathematics

This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

First Order Mathematical Logic

Author: Angelo Margaris
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486662691
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Mathematics

"Attractive and well-written introduction." — Journal of Symbolic Logic The logic that mathematicians use to prove their theorems is itself a part of mathematics, in the same way that algebra, analysis, and geometry are parts of mathematics. This attractive and well-written introduction to mathematical logic is aimed primarily at undergraduates with some background in college-level mathematics; however, little or no acquaintance with abstract mathematics is needed. Divided into three chapters, the book begins with a brief encounter of naïve set theory and logic for the beginner, and proceeds to set forth in elementary and intuitive form the themes developed formally and in detail later. In Chapter Two, the predicate calculus is developed as a formal axiomatic theory. The statement calculus, presented as a part of the predicate calculus, is treated in detail from the axiom schemes through the deduction theorem to the completeness theorem. Then the full predicate calculus is taken up again, and a smooth-running technique for proving theorem schemes is developed and exploited. Chapter Three is devoted to first-order theories, i.e., mathematical theories for which the predicate calculus serves as a base. Axioms and short developments are given for number theory and a few algebraic theories. Then the metamathematical notions of consistency, completeness, independence, categoricity, and decidability are discussed, The predicate calculus is proved to be complete. The book concludes with an outline of Godel's incompleteness theorem. Ideal for a one-semester course, this concise text offers more detail and mathematically relevant examples than those available in elementary books on logic. Carefully chosen exercises, with selected answers, help students test their grasp of the material. For any student of mathematics, logic, or the interrelationship of the two, this book represents a thought-provoking introduction to the logical underpinnings of mathematical theory. "An excellent text." — Mathematical Reviews

Mathematical Logic

Author: A. Lightstone
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461587507
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

Before his death in March, 1976, A. H. Lightstone delivered the manu script for this book to Plenum Press. Because he died before the editorial work on the manuscript was completed, I agreed (in the fall of 1976) to serve as a surrogate author and to see the project through to completion. I have changed the manuscript as little as possible, altering certain passages to correct oversights. But the alterations are minor; this is Lightstone's book. H. B. Enderton vii Preface This is a treatment of the predicate calculus in a form that serves as a foundation for nonstandard analysis. Classically, the predicates and variables of the predicate calculus are kept distinct, inasmuch as no variable is also a predicate; moreover, each predicate is assigned an order, a unique natural number that indicates the length of each tuple to which the predicate can be prefixed. These restrictions are dropped here, in order to develop a flexible, expressive language capable of exploiting the potential of nonstandard analysis. To assist the reader in grasping the basic ideas of logic, we begin in Part I by presenting the propositional calculus and statement systems. This provides a relatively simple setting in which to grapple with the some times foreign ideas of mathematical logic. These ideas are repeated in Part II, where the predicate calculus and semantical systems are studied.

Levels of Infinity

Author: Hermann Weyl
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486489032
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Mathematics

This original anthology collects 10 of Weyl's less-technical writings that address the broader scope and implications of mathematics. Most have been long unavailable or not previously published in book form. Subjects include logic, topology, abstract algebra, relativity theory, and reflections on the work of Weyl's mentor, David Hilbert. 2012 edition.

Advanced Logic for Applications

Author: R.E. Grandy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401011914
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Philosophy

This book is intended to be a survey of the most important results in mathematical logic for philosophers. It is a survey of results which have philosophical significance and it is intended to be accessible to philosophers. I have assumed the mathematical sophistication acquired· in an introductory logic course or in reading a basic logic text. In addition to proving the most philosophically significant results in mathematical logic, I have attempted to illustrate various methods of proof. For example, the completeness of quantification theory is proved both constructively and non-constructively and relative ad vantages of each type of proof are discussed. Similarly, constructive and non-constructive versions of Godel's first incompleteness theorem are given. I hope that the reader· will develop facility with the methods of proof and also be caused by reflect on their differences. I assume familiarity with quantification theory both in under standing the notations and in finding object language proofs. Strictly speaking the presentation is self-contained, but it would be very difficult for someone without background in the subject to follow the material from the beginning. This is necessary if the notes are to be accessible to readers who have had diverse backgrounds at a more elementary level. However, to make them accessible to readers with no background would require writing yet another introductory logic text. Numerous exercises have been included and many of these are integral parts of the proofs.

Mechanism Mentalism and Metamathematics

Author: J. Webb
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401576536
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Philosophy

This book grew out of a graduate student paper [261] in which I set down some criticisms of J. R. Lucas' attempt to refute mechanism by means of G6del's theorem. I had made several such abortive attempts myself and had become familiar with their pitfalls, and especially with the double edged nature of incompleteness arguments. My original idea was to model the refutation of mechanism on the almost universally accepted G6delian refutation of Hilbert's formalism, but I kept getting stuck on questions of mathematical philosophy which I found myself having to beg. A thorough study of the foundational works of Hilbert and Bernays finally convinced me that I had all too naively and uncritically bought this refutation of formalism. I did indeed discover points of surprisingly close contact between formalism and mechanism, but also that it was possible to under mine certain strong arguments against these positions precisely by invok ing G6del's and related work. I also began to realize that the Church Turing thesis itself is the principal bastion protecting mechanism, and that G6del's work was perhaps the best thing that ever happened to both mechanism and formalism. I pushed these lines of argument in my dis sertation with the patient help of my readers, Raymond Nelson and Howard Stein. I would especially like to thank the latter for many valuable criticisms of my dissertation as well as some helpful suggestions for reor ganizing it in the direction of the present book.

Symbolic computing with Lisp and Prolog

Author: Robert A. Mueller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN: UOM:39015013836781
Release Date: 1988-11-25
Genre: Computers

A practical introduction to symbolic computing and denotational programming. First part of the book covers programming. Second part addresses symbolic computing in such areas as game playing, language translation, and theorem proving. For each topic there are example problems, with proposed solutions, followed by working programs using the techniques presented earlier in the text. Two programs, using a denotational approach, accompany each of the applications in symbolic computing-one in Lisp and one in Prolog.