Principles of Mathematical Logic

Author: David Hilbert
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821820247
Release Date: 1950
Genre: Mathematics

David Hilbert was particularly interested in the foundations of mathematics. Among many other things, he is famous for his attempt to axiomatize mathematics. This now classic text is his treatment of symbolic logic. This translation is based on the second German edition and has been modified according to the criticisms of Church and Quine. In particular, the authors' original formulation of Godel's completeness proof for the predicate calculus has been updated. In the first half of the twentieth century, an important debate on the foundations of mathematics took place. Principles of Mathematical Logic represents one of Hilbert's important contributions to that debate. Although symbolic logic has grown considerably in the subsequent decades, this book remains a classic.

Set Theory and Metric Spaces

Author: Irving Kaplansky
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821826942
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Mathematics

This is a book that could profitably be read by many graduate students or by seniors in strong major programs ... has a number of good features. There are many informal comments scattered between the formal development of theorems and these are done in a light and pleasant style. ... There is a complete proof of the equivalence of the axiom of choice, Zorn's Lemma, and well-ordering, as well as a discussion of the use of these concepts. There is also an interesting discussion of the continuum problem ... The presentation of metric spaces before topological spaces ... should be welcomed by most students, since metric spaces are much closer to the ideas of Euclidean spaces with which they are already familiar. --Canadian Mathematical Bulletin Kaplansky has a well-deserved reputation for his expository talents. The selection of topics is excellent. -- Lance Small, UC San Diego This book is based on notes from a course on set theory and metric spaces taught by Edwin Spanier, and also incorporates with his permission numerous exercises from those notes. The volume includes an Appendix that helps bridge the gap between metric and topological spaces, a Selected Bibliography, and an Index.

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic

Author: Alex Malpass
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781472505255
Release Date: 2017-06-29
Genre: Philosophy

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic introduces ideas and thinkers central to the development of philosophical and formal logic. From its Aristotelian origins to the present-day arguments, logic is broken down into four main time periods: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Aristotle and The Stoics) The early modern period (Bolzano, Boole) High modern period (Frege, Peano & Russell and Hilbert) Early 20th century (Godel and Tarski) Each new time frame begins with an introductory overview highlighting themes and points of importance. Chapters discuss the significance and reception of influential works and look at historical arguments in the context of contemporary debates. To support independent study, comprehensive lists of primary and secondary reading are included at the end of chapters, along with exercises and discussion questions. By clearly presenting and explaining the changes to logic across the history of philosophy, The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic constructs an easy-to-follow narrative. This is an ideal starting point for students looking to understand the historical development of logic.

Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories

Author: Robert L. Rogers
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483257976
Release Date: 2014-05-12
Genre: Mathematics

Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Results focuses on basic concepts and results of mathematical logic and the study of formalized theories. The manuscript first elaborates on sentential logic and first-order predicate logic. Discussions focus on first-order predicate logic with identity and operation symbols, first-order predicate logic with identity, completeness theorems, elementary theories, deduction theorem, interpretations, truth, and validity, sentential connectives, and tautologies. The text then tackles second-order predicate logic, as well as second-order theories, theory of definition, and second-order predicate logic F2. The publication takes a look at natural and real numbers, incompleteness, and the axiomatic set theory. Topics include paradoxes, recursive functions and relations, Gödel's first incompleteness theorem, axiom of choice, metamathematics of R and elementary algebra, and metamathematics of N. The book is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in mathematical logic and formalized theories.

Geometry and the Imagination

Author: David Hilbert
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821819982
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Mathematics

This remarkable book endures as a true masterpiece of mathematical exposition. The book is overflowing with mathematical ideas, which are always explained clearly and elegantly, and above all, with penetrating insight. It is a joy to read, both for beginners and experienced mathematicians. Geometry and the Imagination is full of interesting facts, many of which you wish you had known before. The book begins with examples of the simplest curves and surfaces, including thread constructions of certain quadrics and other surfaces. The chapter on regular systems of points leads to the crystallographic groups and the regular polyhedra in $\mathbb{R}^3$. In this chapter, they also discuss plane lattices. By considering unit lattices, and throwing in a small amount of number theory when necessary, they effortlessly derive Leibniz's series: $\pi/4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + - \ldots$. In the section on lattices in three and more dimensions, the authors consider sphere-packing problems, including the famous Kepler problem. One of the most remarkable chapters is ``Projective Configurations''. In a short introductory section, Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen give perhaps the most concise and lucid description of why a general geometer would care about projective geometry and why such an ostensibly plain setup is truly rich in structure and ideas. The chapter on kinematics includes a nice discussion of linkages and the geometry of configurations of points and rods that are connected and, perhaps, constrained in some way. This topic in geometry has become increasingly important in recent times, especially in applications to robotics. This is another example of a simple situation that leads to a rich geometry. It would be hard to overestimate the continuing influence Hilbert-Cohn-Vossen's book has had on mathematicians of this century. It surely belongs in the "pantheon" of great mathematics books.

The Mathematical Theory of Huygens Principle

Author: Bevan B. Baker
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821834787
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Mathematics

Baker and Copson originally set themselves the task of writing a definitive text on partial differential equations in mathematical physics. However, at the time, the subject was changing rapidly and greatly, particularly via the developments coming from quantum mechanics. Instead, the authors chose to focus on a particular area of the broad theory, producing a monograph complete in itself. The resulting book deals with Huygens' principle in optics and its application to the theory of diffraction. Baker and Copson concern themselves with the general theory of the solution of the PDEs governing the propagation of light. Extensive use is made of Green's method. A chapter is dedicated to Sommerfeld's theory of diffraction, including diffraction of polarized light by a perfectly reflecting half-plane and by a black half-plane. New material was added for subsequent editions, notably Rayleigh's method of integral equations to the problem of diffraction by a planar screen. Some of the simpler diffraction problems are discussed as examples. Baker and Copson's book quickly became the standard reference on the subject of Huygens' principle. It remains so today.

Lebesgue s Theory of Integration

Author: Thomas Hawkins
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821829637
Release Date: 2001-01
Genre: Mathematics

In this book, Hawkins elegantly places Lebesgue's early work on integration theory within in proper historical context by relating it to the developments during the nineteenth century that motivated it and gave it significance and also to the contributions made in this field by Lebesgue's contemporaries. Hawkins was awarded the 1997 MAA Chauvenet Prize and the 2001 AMS Albert Leon Whiteman Memorial Prize for notable exposition and exceptional scholarship in the history of mathematics.

Mathematical Grammar of Biology

Author: Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319626895
Release Date: 2017-08-31
Genre: Mathematics

This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

First Order Mathematical Logic

Author: Angelo Margaris
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486662691
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Mathematics

"Attractive and well-written introduction." — Journal of Symbolic Logic The logic that mathematicians use to prove their theorems is itself a part of mathematics, in the same way that algebra, analysis, and geometry are parts of mathematics. This attractive and well-written introduction to mathematical logic is aimed primarily at undergraduates with some background in college-level mathematics; however, little or no acquaintance with abstract mathematics is needed. Divided into three chapters, the book begins with a brief encounter of naïve set theory and logic for the beginner, and proceeds to set forth in elementary and intuitive form the themes developed formally and in detail later. In Chapter Two, the predicate calculus is developed as a formal axiomatic theory. The statement calculus, presented as a part of the predicate calculus, is treated in detail from the axiom schemes through the deduction theorem to the completeness theorem. Then the full predicate calculus is taken up again, and a smooth-running technique for proving theorem schemes is developed and exploited. Chapter Three is devoted to first-order theories, i.e., mathematical theories for which the predicate calculus serves as a base. Axioms and short developments are given for number theory and a few algebraic theories. Then the metamathematical notions of consistency, completeness, independence, categoricity, and decidability are discussed, The predicate calculus is proved to be complete. The book concludes with an outline of Godel's incompleteness theorem. Ideal for a one-semester course, this concise text offers more detail and mathematically relevant examples than those available in elementary books on logic. Carefully chosen exercises, with selected answers, help students test their grasp of the material. For any student of mathematics, logic, or the interrelationship of the two, this book represents a thought-provoking introduction to the logical underpinnings of mathematical theory. "An excellent text." — Mathematical Reviews

Combinatorial Problems and Exercises

Author: L. Lovász
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080933092
Release Date: 2014-06-28
Genre: Mathematics

The aim of this book is to introduce a range of combinatorial methods for those who want to apply these methods in the solution of practical and theoretical problems. Various tricks and techniques are taught by means of exercises. Hints are given in a separate section and a third section contains all solutions in detail. A dictionary section gives definitions of the combinatorial notions occurring in the book. Combinatorial Problems and Exercises was first published in 1979. This revised edition has the same basic structure but has been brought up to date with a series of exercises on random walks on graphs and their relations to eigenvalues, expansion properties and electrical resistance. In various chapters the author found lines of thought that have been extended in a natural and significant way in recent years. About 60 new exercises (more counting sub-problems) have been added and several solutions have been simplified.

A Companion to Analysis

Author: Thomas William Körner
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821834473
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Mathematics

This book not only provides a lot of solid information about real analysis, it also answers those questions which students want to ask but cannot figure how to formulate. To read this book is to spend time with one of the modern masters in the subject. --Steven G. Krantz, Washington University, St. Louis One of the major assets of the book is Korner's very personal writing style. By keeping his own engagement with the material continually in view, he invites the reader to a similarly high level of involvement. And the witty and erudite asides that are sprinkled throughout the book are a real pleasure. --Gerald Folland, University of Washingtion, Seattle Many students acquire knowledge of a large number of theorems and methods of calculus without being able to say how they hang together. This book provides such students with the coherent account that they need. A Companion to Analysis explains the problems which must be resolved in order to obtain a rigorous development of the calculus and shows the student how those problems are dealt with. Starting with the real line, it moves on to finite dimensional spaces and then to metric spaces. Readers who work through this text will be ready for such courses as measure theory, functional analysis, complex analysis and differential geometry. Moreover, they will be well on the road which leads from mathematics student to mathematician. Able and hard working students can use this book for independent study, or it can be used as the basis for an advanced undergraduate or elementary graduate course. An appendix contains a large number of accessible but non-routine problems to improve knowledge and technique.

The Principles of Inductive Logic

Author: John Venn
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 0828402655
Release Date: 1973
Genre: Mathematics

Venn, best known for his diagrams for set theory, primarily studied logic and probability theory. The present book is a study of the principles of logic, with special emphasis on inference and induction. From the Preface to the First Edition (1889): ``As many readers will probably perceive, the main original guiding influence with me--as with most of those of the middle generation, and especially with most of those who approached logic with previous mathematical or scientific training--was that of Mill ... I still continue to regard the general attitude towards phenomena, which Mill took up as a logician, to be the soundest and most useful for scientific study ... '' From the Preface to the Second Edition (1907): ``Though thus leaving the main outlines unaltered I have done what I could to improve the work, and to try to bring it up to date ... A number of paragraphs have been altered, others have been re-written, and many hundreds of minor alterations, additions and corrections inserted ... ''

Levels of Infinity

Author: Hermann Weyl
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486489032
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Mathematics

This original anthology collects 10 of Weyl's less-technical writings that address the broader scope and implications of mathematics. Most have been long unavailable or not previously published in book form. Subjects include logic, topology, abstract algebra, relativity theory, and reflections on the work of Weyl's mentor, David Hilbert. 2012 edition.

Advanced Logic for Applications

Author: R.E. Grandy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401011914
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Philosophy

This book is intended to be a survey of the most important results in mathematical logic for philosophers. It is a survey of results which have philosophical significance and it is intended to be accessible to philosophers. I have assumed the mathematical sophistication acquired· in an introductory logic course or in reading a basic logic text. In addition to proving the most philosophically significant results in mathematical logic, I have attempted to illustrate various methods of proof. For example, the completeness of quantification theory is proved both constructively and non-constructively and relative ad vantages of each type of proof are discussed. Similarly, constructive and non-constructive versions of Godel's first incompleteness theorem are given. I hope that the reader· will develop facility with the methods of proof and also be caused by reflect on their differences. I assume familiarity with quantification theory both in under standing the notations and in finding object language proofs. Strictly speaking the presentation is self-contained, but it would be very difficult for someone without background in the subject to follow the material from the beginning. This is necessary if the notes are to be accessible to readers who have had diverse backgrounds at a more elementary level. However, to make them accessible to readers with no background would require writing yet another introductory logic text. Numerous exercises have been included and many of these are integral parts of the proofs.