Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 1993
During the last twenty years, dramatic improvements in methods of observing astrophysical phenomena from the ground and in space have added to our knowledge of what the universe is like now and what it was like in the past, going back to the hot big bang. In this overview of today's physical cosmology, P.J.E. Peebles shows how observation has combined with theoretical elements to establish the subject as a mature science, while he also discusses the most notable recent attempts to understand the origin and structure of the universe. A successor to Peebles's classic volume Physical Cosmology (Princeton, 1971), the book is a comprehensive overview addressed not only to students but also to scientists active in fields outside cosmology. The first chapter of the work presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe. The second, on the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of spacetime, discusses general relativity theory as the basis for the tests, and then surveys the broad variety of ways the tests can be applied with the new generations of telescopes and detectors. The third chapter deals with the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe, and reviews ideas about how the evolution of the universe might be traced back to very early epochs when structure originated. Each section of these chapters begins with an introduction that can be understood with no special knowledge beyond undergraduate physics, and then progresses to more specialized topics. P.J.E. Peebles is Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society.
Neutrino physics remains one of the most exciting fields of fundamental physics today. The neutrino's position at the intersection of particle physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics ensures continuing interest in the subject. Major activities at accelerators like Fermilab, KEK and CERN, in addition to underground facilities like Gran Sasso, Kamioka and Sudbury, continue to enhance our understanding of the origins and properties of neutrinos, and their implications for the Standard Model and cosmology. Neutrino Physics provides an up to date and comprehensive introduction to the subject as well as an invaluable resource for researchers in physics and astrophysics. Starting with a brief historical overview the author proceeds to review fundamental neutrino properties, the neutrino mass question, and their place within and beyond the Standard Model. The final chapters examine the role of neutrinos in modern astroparticle physics, cosmology and the dark matter problem. The book concludes with a summary of the current status of neutrino physics and the implications of recent results. Written to be accessible to readers from different backgrounds in nuclear, particle or astrophysics and with a detailed reference list, this title will be essential for any researcher or advanced student who needs to understand modern neutrino physics.
This book is a comprehensive mathematical exposition of how one-inch-long equation space-time is directly proportional to space and inversely proportional to mass can be used to explain all phenomena of nature. It explains the equation in terms of metric tensors and in terms of quantum mechanics and demonstrate how they equal each other and the equation of everything, which in tensors is Riemannian 4 space = Mintkowski 3 space - 1/2 space-time curvature metric called gravity/Ricci tensor of inertial mass all multiplied by 1/c^2 or if substituting the Ricci Tensor (c^2) by the energy density of matter completes the equation. A new mathematical operator is introduced called the spiral operator, which describes space-time in black holes and the total curvature of the universe is mathematically determined. Black energy and dark matter are shown how they interrelate and relate to what caused the big bang, and there is a theory as to what occurred prior to the big bang. Also a mathematical mechanism is given showing a rotational component in the quantum bubble prior to the big bang and how it fits with nature. The book applies some comments made by other physicists about compactification (rolled or curled up dimensions) to show the compactified circle of Type IIa string theory can be applied to arc length as space-time, the radius as the sum of all Riemann Forces and the angle as space-time curvature. Relativity and cosmology are explained, as well as quantum mechanics, including the Schrodinger equation, and how many more conn-compactified dimensions can exist besides the postulated twenty-six in string theory. M Theory is also explained, along with membranes and how they interrelate to energy and matter. The Hawking paradox is solved using Schwarzchild space-time and much more.
Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 1980
Opinions on the large-scale structure of the early universe range widely from primeval chaos to a well-ordered mass distribution. P.J.E. Peebles argues that the evolution proceeded from a nearly uniform initial state to a progressively more irregular and clumpy universe. The discussion centers on the largest known structures, the clusters of galaxies, the empirical evidence of the nature of the clustering, and the theories of how the clustering evolves in an expanding universe. In Chapter One the author provides an historical introduction to the subject. Chapter Two contains a survey of methods used to deal with the Newtonian approximation to the theory of the evolution of the mass distribution. Recent progress in the use of statistical measures of the clustering is described in Chapter Three. Chapters Four and Five return to techniques for dealing with cosmic evolution, in the statistical measures of clustering and under general relativity theory. Lastly, in Chapter Six Professor Peebles assesses the progress in attempts to link theory and observation to arrive at a well established physical picture of the nature and evolution of the universe.
These proceedings include lecture notes from three general courses in astronomy and astrophysics at graduate level presented during the Eleventh Edition of the Special Courses at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro in 2006. The lectures cover topics on satellite atmosphere, low-mass stars and standard cosmology.
Author: Eric M. Schlegel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2002-10-03
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Carl Sagan once noted that there is only one generation that gets to see things for the first time. We are in the midst of such a time right now, standing on the threshold of discovery in the young and remarkable field of X-ray astronomy. In The Restless Universe, astronomer Eric Schlegel offers readers an informative survey of this cutting-edge science. Two major space observatories launched in the last few years--NASA's Chandra and the European Newton--are now orbiting the Earth, sending back a gold mine of data on the X-ray universe. Schlegel, who has worked on the Chandra project for seven years, describes the building and launching of this space-based X-ray observatory. But the book goes far beyond the story of Chandra. What Schlegel provides here is the background a nonscientist would need to grasp the present and follow the future of X-ray astronomy. He looks at the relatively brief history of the field, the hardware used to detect X-rays, the satellites--past, present, and future--that have been or will be flown to collect the data, the way astronomers interpret this data, and, perhaps most important, the insights we have already learned as well as speculations about what we may soon discover. And throughout the book, Schlegel conveys the excitement of looking at the universe from the perspective brought by these new observatories and the sharper view they deliver. Drawing on observations obtained from Chandra, Newton, and previous X-ray observatories, The Restless Universe gives a first look at an exciting field which significantly enriches our understanding of the universe.
Author: Lars Bergström
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd
Release Date: 1999
In recent years, there has been an increasing realisation that there are important areas of 'common ground' between modern particle physics and high-energy astrophysics. This book provides a much needed, readable yet comprehensive overview of particle physics, and emphasises the close links between particle physics and cosmology. Beginning with some basic facts about the observable universe, the authors consider, in successive chapters, special and general relativity, gravitational lenses, cosmological models, particles and fields, thermodynamics and phase transitions in the early universe. The cosmic microwave background, structure formation and dark matter, the inflationary universe, gamma rays, cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational wave detectors are then discussed. Recent discoveries, such as neutrino mass and oscillations, and measurements of the universe using supernovae, are treated in a pedagogical and non-technical manner. A feature of this book is that it is 'self-contained, in that no specialised knowledge is required on the part of the reader except basic undergraduate mathematics and physics. In addition to the more descriptive sections where the reader is able to get the 'flavour' of the subject without needing to follow every step involved, some chapters contain optional, more technical parts which may be skipped by less advanced readers. By combining the expertise of both a leading experimentalist and foremost theorist, this book includes important aspects of both observational cosmology as well as more theoretical concepts. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, particle physics, theoretical physics and mathematical physics, and those carrying out research in these fields. Lars Bergstrm is Associate Professor in the Department of Physics at Stockholm University. He has authored or co-authored over 100 technical articles and scientific papers on physics in general and particle physics in particular. Ariel Goobar is Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Experimental Particle Astrophysics at FYSIKUM, Stockholm University, Sweden. As active researchers in the subjects of high-energy neutrino astrophysics and cosmology, both authors are internationally respected authorities in the field of particle astrophysics.