The use of microbial plant protection products is growing and their importance will strongly increase due to political and public pressure. World population is growing and the amount of food needed by 2050 will be double of what is produced now whereas the area of agricultural land is decreasing. We must increase crop yield in a sustainable way. Chemical plant growth promoters must be replaced by microbiological products. Also here, the use of microbial products is growing and their importance will strongly increase. A growing area of agricultural land is salinated. Global warming will increase this process. Plants growth is inhibited by salt or even made impossible and farmers tend to disuse the most salinated lands. Microbes have been very successfully used to alleviate salt stress of plants. Chemical pollution of land can make plant growth difficult and crops grown are often polluted and not suitable for consumption. Microbes have been used to degrade these chemical pollutants.
The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.
Author: Iqbal Ahmad
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2008-09-08
Here, an extremely experienced team of authors from five different continents provides a timely review of progress in the use and exploitation of soil bacteria to improve crop and plant growth. They present novel ideas on how to grow better, more successful crops, in an environmentally sound way, making this invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological and agricultural industries.
Author: Gary Stacey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Plant-Microbe Interactions, Volume 1 Many plant-microbe interactions have agronomic importance because of either beneficial (e.g., nitrogen fixation or biocontrol) or detrimental (e.g., pathogen esis) effects. Although these systems have been the subjects of scientific re search for many years, recently there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of them. The increases in this research have followed a similar general increase in plant science research. Classical plant science research disciplines (e.g., agronomy, breeding, plant physiology, systematics, etc.) have been affected by an increased focus on molecular biology. These new technologies, as well as advances in other areas, have the effect of blurring the traditional borders between research disciplines. Another factor influencing the development of this research is the increased attention given to environmental issues. These concerns have been brought about by debate over the release of genetically modified organisms and the general concern over environmental quality. Thus, research areas focused on plant-microbe interactions are presently in a period of great excitement and growth that shows every sign of continuing far into the future. As in most research areas, the rate of advance and breadth of disciplines involved in the study of plant-microbe interactions make it impossible for the average researcher or student to stay abreast of the primary scientific literature.
Author: Rafael Palacios
Publisher: Amer Phytopathological Society
Release Date: 1988
Gene-for-gene recognition. Characterization of avirulence genes from pseudomonas syringae pathovars and races. Search for new symbiotic genes in rhizobium meliloti genome involved in the infection process of alfafa nodules. A molecular analysis of the host range genes of rhizobium trifolii. Signal recognition responses in the rhizobium trifolii-whith clover symbiosis. Genetic analysis of the role of exopolysaccharides in rhizobium symbiosis. Characterization of polysaccharides of rhizobium meliloti succinoglycan mutants, and properties of the second exopolysaccharide EPSb.Signal exchange and metabolic interaction. Symbiosis. Pathogenicity. Plant genetics.
Author: B.B. Biswas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1998-04-30
Recent years have seen tremendous progress in unraveling the molecular basis of different plant-microbe interactions. Knowledge has accumulated on the mecha nisms of the microbial infection of plants, which can lead to either disease or resistance. The mechanisms developed by plants to interact with microbes, whether viruses, bacteria, or fungi, involve events that can lead to symbiotic association or to disease or tumor formation. Cell death caused by pathogen infection has been of great interest for many years because of its association with plant resistance. There appear to be two types of plant cell death associated with pathogen infection, a rapid hypersensitive cell death localized at the site of infection during an incompatible interaction between a resistant plant and an avirulent pathogen, and a slow, normosensitive plant cell death that spreads beyond the site of infection during some compatible interactions involving a susceptible plant and a virulent, necrogenic pathogen. Plants possess a number of defense mechanisms against infection, such as (i) production of phytoalexin, (ii) formation of hydrolases, (iii) accumulation of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein and lignin deposition, (iv) production of pathogen-related proteins, (v) produc tion of oligosaccharides, jasmonic acid, and various other phenolic substances, and (vi) production of toxin-metabolizing enzymes. Based on these observations, insertion of a single suitable gene in a particular plant has yielded promising results in imparting resistance against specific infection or disease. It appears that a signal received after microbe infection triggers different signal transduction pathways.
Dieses Buch enthält das Grundlagenwissen sowie Tipps und Tricks für den Umgang mit Nucleinsäuren. Der Autor kennt Lust und Frust der täglichen Laborroutine ganz genau. Präparieren, Fällen, Konzentrieren und Reinigen von Nucleinsäuren Restriktionsenzyme, Gele, Blotten Polymerase-Kettenreaktion RNA-Isolierung, -Transkription Klonierung von DNA-Fragmenten Markierung von Sonden, Hybridisierung, Screening, Sequenzierung Mutagenese, In-vitro-Translation, transgene Mäuse, Transgenexpression, Gentherapie, Genomik Dieses Buch richtet sich an alle Experimentatoren, die molekularbiologische Versuche durchführen wollen und gern nachvollziehen möchten, was sich in ihrem Reaktionsgefäß abspielt. Das ganze Spektrum der üblichen molekularbiologischen Methoden wird vorgestellt, kommentiert und Alternativen aufgezeigt. Der lockere Ton wendet sich gleichermaßen an Studenten wie an BTAs und Laboranten, aber auch der alte Hase wird hier und dort noch etwas Neues entdecken. Die 7. Auflage wurde überarbeitet und aktualisiert.
Author: Francis Martin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-01-03
Plants and microbes interact in a complex relationship that canhave both harmful and beneficial impacts on both plant andmicrobial communities. Effectors, secreted microbial molecules thatalter plant processes and facilitate colonization, are central tounderstanding the complicated interplay between plants andmicrobes. Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactionsunlocks the molecular basis of this important class of microbialmolecules and describes their diverse and complex interactions withhost plants. Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions is divided intofive sections that take stock of the current knowledge on effectorsof plant-associated organisms. Coverage ranges from the impact ofbacterial, fungal and oomycete effectors on plant immunity andhigh-throughput genomic analysis of effectors to the function andtrafficking of these microbial molecules. The final section looksat effectors secreted by other eukaryotic microbes that are thefocus of current and future research efforts. Written by leading international experts in plant-microbeinteractions, Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions, willbe an essential volume for plant biologists, microbiologists,pathologists, and geneticists.
Beneficial Plant-microbial Interactions: Ecology and Applications provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the interactions of plants and microbes, the ecological relevance and roles of these symbioses, the adaptive mechanisms of plant-associated microorganisms to abiotic stress and their contribution to plant stress tolerance, and the potential of these interactions as tools in agrobiotechnology. A team of authors with wide experience in the area contribute up-to-date reviews in nineteen chapters devoted to different ecological and applied aspects of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, ecto- and endomycorrhizas, and plant associations with diazotrophic or adiazotrophic plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. The book is intended for students, researchers and academic faculty members in the field of agrobiotechnology.
Author: Desh Pal S Verma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1986-12-31
Increased interest in the basic biology of plants and microorganisms stems from the fact that crop productivity is directly affected by plant-microbe interactions. In spite of the fact that plants exist in the environment amongst diverse species of microorganisms, only a few ever establish a direct relationship. Emerging awareness concerning the indirect effect of microbial association on plant growth and the possibility of using one microbe against another for controlling pathogenic interactions is at the genesis of new fields of studies. The primary reason for a microbe to associate with· photoautotrophic organisms (plants) is to tap its nutritional requirements, fixed carbon, as a source of energy. By hook or by crook, a microbe must survive. Some have evolved mechanisms to exploit plants to develop a niche for their biotropic demands. When in contact with a living plant, microorganisms may live in a passive association using exudates from the plant, invade it pathogenically or coexist with it in symbiosis. The plant responds to the interloper, either reacting in a hypersensitive manner to contain the invasion of pathogens, or by inducing a set of genes that leads toward symbiosis, or by simply succumbing to the invader. Thus, prior to contact wi th the plant, mic roorganism is able to sense the presence of the host and activate accordingly a set of genes required for the forthcoming interaction, whether symbiotic or pathogenic.
Plant cell walls are complex, dynamic cellular structures essential for plant growth, development, physiology and adaptation. Plant Cell Walls provides an in depth and diverse view of the microanatomy, biosynthesis and molecular physiology of these cellular structures, both in the life of the plant and in their use for bioproducts and biofuels. Plant Cell Walls is a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, as well as a professional-level reference book. Over 400 drawings, micrographs, and photographs provide visual insight into the latest research, as well as the uses of plant cell walls in everyday life, and their applications in biotechnology. Illustrated panels concisely review research methods and tools; a list of key terms is given at the end of each chapter; and extensive references organized by concept headings provide readers with guidance for entry into plant cell wall literature. Cell wall material is of considerable importance to the biofuel, food, timber, and pulp and paper industries as well as being a major focus of research in plant growth and sustainability that are of central interest in present day agriculture and biotechnology. The production and use of plants for biofuel and bioproducts in a time of need for responsible global carbon use requires a deep understanding of the fundamental biology of plants and their cell walls. Such an understanding will lead to improved plant processes and materials, and help provide a sustainable resource for meeting the future bioenergy and bioproduct needs of humankind.
Author: Ernst Haeckel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2011-01
"Die Natur erzeugt im ihrem Scho e eine unersch pfliche F lle von wunderbaren Gestalten, durch deren Sch nheit und Mannigfaltigkeit alle vom Menschen geschaffenen Kunstformen weitaus bertroffen werden." Der Naturwissenschaftler Ernst Haeckel stellt in seinem Werk sthetische Formen aus Bereichen der Botanik und der Zoologie zusammen. Zahlreiche Schwarzwei - und Farbabbildungen. Nachdruck der Komplettausgabe von 1904 mit 100 Tafeln und dem "Supplement-Heft" .