Principles of Scientific Methods focuses on the fundamental principles behind scientific methods. The book refers to "science" in a broad sense, including natural science, physics, mathematics, statistics, social science, political science, and engineering science. A principle is often abstract and has broad applicability while a method is usually concrete and specific. The author uses many concrete examples to explain principles and presents analogies to connect different methods or problems to arrive at a general principle or a common notion. He mainly discusses a particular method to address the great idea behind the method, not the method itself. The book shows how the principles are not only applicable to scientific research but also to our daily lives. The author explains how scientific methods are used for understanding how and why things happen, making predictions, and learning how to prevent mistakes and solve problems. Studying the principles of scientific methods is to think about thinking and to enlighten our understanding of scientific research. Scientific principles are the foundation of scientific methods. In this book, you’ll see how the principles reveal the big ideas behind our scientific discoveries and reflect the fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of scientists. The principles make the scientific methods coherent and constitute the source of creativity.
Author: Allan Gotthelf
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2012-02-23
This volume draws together Allan Gotthelf's pioneering work on Aristotle's biology. He examines Aristotle's natural teleology, the axiomatic structure of biological explanation, and the reliance on scientifically organized data in the three great works with which Aristotle laid the foundations of biological science.
Author: Frederick Winslow Taylor
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2011-01
Fredericks W. Taylors Werk "Die Grunds tze wissenschaftlicher Betriebsf hrung" ist einer der wichtigsten betriebswirtschaftlichen Klassiker. Das Buch von Taylor (1856-1915) begr ndet den Taylorismus, der den richtigen Bewegungsablauf aus umfangreichen Zeit- und Arbeitsstudien ermittelte. Taylor untersuchte als Inginieur verschiedene Unternehmen und bewirkte in diesen Branchen deutliche Verbesserungen.
Author: Robert Nola
Release Date: 2014-12-18
What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.
Author: Hugh G. Gauch, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2012-09-06
The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy and law. Informed by position papers on science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation, this book aligns with a distinctively mainstream vision of science. It is an ideal resource for anyone undertaking a systematic study of scientific method for the first time, from undergraduates to professionals in both the sciences and the humanities.
Author: Walter L. Wallace
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Genre: Social Science
Principles of Scientific Sociology represents a major attempt to redirect the course of contemporary sociological thought. It is clear, well-organized, innovative, and original in its discussion of the context and methods of sociology conceived as a natural science. Wallace delineates the subject matter of sociology, classifies its variables, presents a logic of inquiry, and advocates the use of this logic for the acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories and for the solving of human problems. Social scientists, including political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, economists, social psychologists, and students of social phenomena among nonhumans, will find this work indispensable reading. Principles of Scientifc Sociology emphasizes the relationship between pure and applied sociological analysis. The essential contributions of each to the other are specified. Relationships between the substantive concepts of the sociology of humans, on the one hand, and the sociology of nonhumans, on the other, are systematized. In an attempt to put sociological analysis on a firm scientific basis, the book contains a concluding chapter focusing on central premises of natural science and their applicability to sociology. Wallace identifies the simple elements and relationships that sociological analysis requires if it is to lead to an understanding of complex social phenomena. On this basis, he considers the substantive elements and relations that comprise structural functionalism, historical materialism, symbolic interactionism, and other approaches to social data. He develops groundwork for standardizing these elements so that the contexts of different analyses may become rigorously comparable. The result is a fine, one-volume synthesis of sociological theory.
Author: William D. Crano
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 2005-07-18
An extensive revision, this classic text presents the most recent advances in social research design and methodology. The authors thoroughly describe the research process using methods derived from basic principles of scientific inquiry and demonstrate how they apply to the study of human behavior. These applications make it an indispensable resource for all fields of human social research, particularly communication, psychology, public health, and marketing. With a heavy emphasis on reliability and validity, the book considers experimental, quasi-experimental, and survey research designs in light of these qualities. Principles and Methods of Social Research is noted for its: *emphasis on understanding the principles that govern the use of a method to facilitate the researcher's choice of the proper methodological approach; *use of the laboratory experiment as a point of reference for describing and evaluating field experiments, correlational designs, quasi-experiments, and survey designs; and *unique chapter on the ethics of social research including the power a researcher wields and tips on how to use it responsibly. Highlights of the thoroughly expanded and updated edition include: *new chapters on meta-analysis and social cognition methods; * the latest on experimental operations and procedures, such as implicit measures, simulations, and Internet experiments; * expanded coverage of conducting experiments outside of the lab, including conducting experiments on the Web and on applied evaluation research methods, including efficacy and effectiveness research. Intended as a text for upper-level and graduate courses in research methods in social psychology, the social sciences, communications, and public health research. No previous methods courses are required.
Author: Henry H. Bauer
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Release Date: 1994-01-01
Concern has recently arisen over the quality of American education and our declining scientific and research orientation. Debates are emerging about what direction public universities should be taking as we head into the twenty-first century. Why and to what extent should society know about science? This book will help readers come to an informed understanding about the place of science and technology in today's world.
Author: G. Schlesinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
I With the immense success of modem science it has generally become accepted that the only way to acquire knowledge is by the use of the method uniformly practiced by working scientists. Consequently, the credibility of the claims of religion, which seem to be based on belief in revelation, tradition, authority and the like, have been considerably shaken. In the face of the serious threat provided by the ascendancy of modem scientific method ology, religious thinkers have adopted various defensive attitudes. Some have retreated into an extreme position where Theism is completely safe from any attack on it by the use of empirical methods of inquiry, maintaining that contrary to appearances, religion makes no factual claims whatsoever. To be religious, they say, is to subscribe to a certain value system; it is to adopt a set of practices and a given attitude to the meaning and purpose of life without making any assertions about this or that empirical feature of the universe. Others wishing to remain more faithful to what religion traditionally meant throughout the ages, agree that Theism does make factual claims but that these are so radically different from the kind of claims made by science that it is only right that they should be established by a separate method on its own. In matters of faith reliance on widely entrenched tradition and sacred authority is not objectionable according to some.
Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
Release Date: 2001-01-01
To accommodate requests from readers to incorporate recent developments on research methodology and experiences of past training courses the manual has been revised and reissued. A practical training manual covering the basic concepts and principles of s
Author: Robert E. Butts
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
Release Date: 1969-01-15
William Whewell is considered one of the most important nineteenth-century British philosophers of science and a contributor to modern philosophical thought, particularly regarding the problem of induction and the logic of discovery. In this volume, Robert E. Butts offers selections from Whewell's most important writings, and analysis of counter-claims to his philosophy.