Deliberate self-harm (DSH) refers to intentionally self-inflicted injuries, and is mainly explained by abuse or neglect, severe psychopathy or at least a trait of a mental disorder. Most functions of DSH serve intrapersonal motives but interpersonal reasons are also found. These range from seeking for attention, pity and sympathy, to benefits like care, help or avoidance of unpleasant tasks or persons. To the latter belongs the deterrence of assaulters, a benefit, especially desirable for prisoners due to the hostile and brutal environment of prisons. This book scrutinizes two hypotheses of avoidance of attacks in prisons by the use of episodes of DSH as costly signals building upon the signaling theory developed in economics and biology. The first hypothesis is that DSH is an honest signal of fearlessness intended to repel other inmates from attacking. The second deals with the avoidance of assaulters by signaling madness via DSH to achieve relocation into an asylum. The underlying motive in this case is the need of protection, and thus, DSH serves as a cry for help to prison authorities. All necessary requirements of both hypotheses are examined, provided with evidence from existing research and analyzed with the help of mathematical models.
Author: Rafael Epstein
Publisher: Melbourne University Press
Release Date: 2014
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
The urgent phone call comes from behind the barbed wire. 'This is Ayalon prison,' says one of the guards urgently. 'Listen, he hanged himself, we need an ambulance.' Prisoner X, just 34 years old, was slumped in a small bathroom, separated from his cell by a transparent door. Kept in one of the most technologically sophisticated solitary jail cells, at the behest of one of the world's most feared intelligence agencies, it is not easy to kill yourself. But Ben Zygier managed to do just that. Did he work for Mossad? Was he also working for ASIO? Was he involved in the supply of false passports? Was he a whistle blower or double agent, or simply a young man way out of his depth? In Prisoner X Rafael Epstein uncovers the intriguing story of a young Australian swept up in international intelligence.
On a mission to rescue their former teammate, Longshot, from an orbital prison called UltraMax, the X-Men find themselves locked in a deadly contest with the prison's mastermind, an insane villain from another dimension. Original.
Author: David W. P. Elliott
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
Release Date: 2003
This is a history of the Vietnam war in a single province of the Mekong Delta over the period 1930-1975, focusing on the revolutionary movement that became popularly known as the "Viet Cong". It drawns on documents captured by U.S. and South Vietnamese military forces.
Author: Steven Davis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2004-11-18
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
Semantics: A Reader contains a broad selection of classic articles on semantics and the semantics/pragmatics interface. Comprehensive in the variety and breadth of theoretical frameworks and topics that it covers, it includes articles representative of the major theoretical frameworks within semantics, including: discourse representation theory, dynamic predicate logic, truth theoretic semantics, event semantics, situation semantics, and cognitive semantics. All the major topics in semantics are covered, including lexical semantics and the semantics of quantified noun phrases, adverbs, adjectives, performatives, and interrogatives. Included are classic papers in the field of semantics as well as papers written especially for the volume. The volume comes with an extensive introduction designed not only to provide an overview of the field, but also to explain the technical concepts the beginner will need to tackle before the more demanding articles. Semantics will have appeal as a textbook for upper level and graduate courses and as a reference for scholars of semantics who want the classic articles in their field in one convenient place.
Author: Samuel Bruce Smith
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2015-06-29
Games and elections are fundamental activities in society with applications in economics, political science, and sociology. These topics offer familiar, current, and lively subjects for a course in mathematics. This classroom-tested textbook, primarily intended for a general education course in game theory at the freshman or sophomore level, provides an elementary treatment of games and elections. Starting with basics such as gambling, zero-sum and combinatorial games, Nash equilibria, social dilemmas, and fairness and impossibility theorems for elections, the text then goes further into the theory with accessible proofs of advanced topics such as the Sprague–Grundy theorem and Arrow's impossibility theorem. • Uses an integrative approach to probability, game, and social choice theory • Provides a gentle introduction to the logic of mathematical proof, thus equipping readers with the necessary tools for further mathematical studies • Contains numerous exercises and examples of varying levels of difficulty • Requires only a high school mathematical background.
Author: Jaime Simao Sichman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-10-06
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 2nd International Joint Conference of the 10th Ibero-American Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IBERAMIA 2006, and the 18th Brazilian Artificial Intelligence Symposium, SBIA 2006. The book presents 62 revised full papers together with 4 invited lectures. Topical sections include AI in education and intelligent tutoring systems, autonomous agents and multiagent systems, computer vision and pattern recognition, evolutionary computation and artificial life, and more.