Author: Ramdane Dris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-05-08
Plants require nutrients in order to grow, develop and complete their life cycle. Mineral fertilizers, and hence the fertilizer industry, constitute one of the most imp- tant keys to the world food supplies. There is growing concern about the safety and quality of food. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which, together with nitrogen, form the structural matter in plants, are freely available from air and water. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, on the other hand, may not be present in quantities or forms sufficient to support plant growth. In this case, the absence of these nut- ents constitutes a limiting factor. The supply of nutrients to the plants should be balanced in order to maximise the efficiency of the individual nutrients so that these meet the needs of the particular crop and soil type. For example, it should be noted that EU-wide regulations are not designed to govern the specific details of mineral fertilizer use. Although plants receive a natural supply of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from organic matter and soil minerals, this is not usually sufficient to satisfy the demands of crop plants. The supply of nutrients must therefore be supplemented with fertilizers, both to meet the requirements of crops during periods of plant growth and to replenish soil reserves after the crop has been harvested. Pesticides are important in modern farming and will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Author: Anoop Kumar Srivastava
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-05-30
This is a solitary attempt to streamline all the possible information related to citrus nutrition, with emphasis on diagnosis and management of nutrient constraints, employing a variety of state-of-art techniques evolved globally over the years . While doing so care has been taken to include peripheral disciplines so that the discussion becomes more lively and authoritative. An entire array of exclusive subjects has been nicely portrayed with the help of latest data and photographs.
The plant physiology and plant molecular biology research group has evidently endorsed the new directions taken by the treatise to attract the pre-eminent scientists in plant biology/plant sciences. Certainly, the preparation of Volume 13 of the International Treatise Series on Advances in Plant Physiology has been done entirely due to commendable contributions from Scientists of Eminence in unequivocal fields. Unquestionably, our objective is to publish innovative science of value across the broad disciplinary range of the treatise. I restate that this plan has been undertaken with a view to strengthen the indistinguishable efforts to recognize the outcome of meticulous research in some of the very sensible and stirring areas of Plant Physiology-Plant Molecular Physiology/ Biology-Plant Biochemistry for holistic development of the science of agriculture and crop production under changing climate. I am ardent to keep on the exceptionality and the prologue of excellent new ideas ensuring that the treatise calls to the best science done across the full extent of modern plant biology, in general, and plant physiology, in particular. In Volume 13, with inventive applied research, attempts have been made to bring together much needed eighteen review articles by forty-eight contributors especially from premier institutions of India for this volume. All the eighteen review articles have been grouped in five broad sections, which on the whole highlight the necessity to find out evidence from the fields of plant nutriophysiology (physiology of plant mineral nutrients) and abiotic stresses under changing climate along with their control.
Author: Irina R. Fomina
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2018-10-16
Global climate change is one of the most serious and pressing issues facing our planet. Rather than a “silver bullet” or a single study that solves it, the study of global climate change is like a beach, with each contribution a grain of sand, gathered together as a whole to create a big picture, moving the science forward. This new groundbreaking study focuses on the adaptation and tolerance of plants and animal life to the harsh conditions brought on by climate change or global warming. Using the papers collected here, scientists can better understand global climate change, its causes, results, and, ultimately, the future of life on our planet. The first section lays out a methodology and conceptual direction of the work as a whole, covering the modeling, approaches, and the impacts studied throughout the book. The second section focuses on certain hypotheses laid out by the authors regarding how plants and animal life can adapt and survive in extreme environments. The third section compiles a series of ecological experiments and their conclusions, and a final section is dedicated to previous scientific breakthroughs in this field and the scientists who made them. Whether for the scientist in the field, the student, or as a reference, this groundbreaking new work is a must-have. Focusing on a small part of the global climate change “beach,” this “grain of sand” is an extremely important contribution to the scientific literature and a step forward in understanding the problems and potentialities of the issue.
Global food production and challenges. The basis for food production - plant nutrients. Food and plant nutrients. Plant nutrient demand. Balanced crop nutrition. Nutrient sources. Nutrients from soil reserves. Nutrients from organic manures. Biological nitrogen fixation. Aerial deposition. Mineral fertilizers. 'Biofertilizers' and growth enhancers. The global challenge - to feed the people. Population growth and food availability. Population growth. Food supply. Food production in different regions. Food from the ocean. Future prospects. sutainable food production - constraints and opportunities. General overview. Soil productivity and land availability. Forests and deforestation. Freshwater and irrigation. Fertilizer use and demand. Plant breeding. Crop losses. Agriculture without fertilizers and pesticides - organic agriculture. Weather and climate - the greenhouse effect, the ozone layer and agriculture. Policy and economy. Soil productivity, fertilizer use and the environment. Concerns related to fertilizer use. Soil: the essential resource. Soil formation and development. Nutrients in soil. Soil organic matter. Fertilizers and soil life. Soil degradation. Soil erosion. Soil mining. Soil acidification. Other forms of degradation. Nitrogen. General overview. Nitrogen: chemistry and forms. Nitrogen fixation. Microbial conversions of fixed N. Human impacts on the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen in soil - sources and utilization by plants. Nitrogen losses from agriculture. Atmospheric emission and deposition of ammonia and nitrogen oxides. Management practices to improve NUE and rninimize losses. Nitrate and health. Phosphorus. General overview. Phosphorus in soil and availability to plants. Phosphate losses. Agricultural management to reduce losses. The remaining nutrients - potassium, sulphur, magnesium, calcium, micronutrients. Potassium. Sulphur. Calcium and magnesium. The micronutrients. Other elements in fertilizers. General overview. Cadmium. Radioactive elements. Other elements. Eutrophication of fresh and marine waters. General overview. Nutrient sources and transport. Eutrophication of fresh waters. Eutrophication of the marine environment. Food quality, environmental and sustainability aspects of fertilizer use in agriculture. Produce quality. General overview. Nutrient management and produce quality. Produce quality and human and animal health. Nutrients and plant diseases. General overview. Primary and secondary nutrients. Micronutrients. Other factors. Biodiversity in intensive agriculture. Energy use in agriculture. Farm work and energy. Use of non-renewable energy. Energy efficiency in agriculture. Fertilizer production - emissions and use of energy and resources. General overview. Mining activities. Energy and raw material use in fertilizer production. Emissions from production. Solid waste. Safety and occupational health. Non-renewable nutrient and energy resources. General overview. Mineral resources. Energy - fossil fuels. Life-cycle analysis for food production. Productivity and sustainability challenges. World cereal production - challenges and opportunities. Wheat. General overview. Yield and major constraints. Future challenges. Rice. General overview. Yield and major constraints. Sustainability and environmental problems. Future challenges. Maize. General overview. Maize in various climates.Yield and major constraints. Soil fertility and fertilizer use. Future challenges. Agricultural productivity in various regions - constraints and opportunities. North America - Canada and the USA. Latin America. Western Europe. Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. South and South-East Asia. Oceania - Australia and New Zealand. Africa.