Author: C. R. Wylie
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Release Date: 2011-09-12
This introductory volume offers strong reinforcement for its teachings, with detailed examples and numerous theorems, proofs, and exercises, plus complete answers to all odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. 1970 edition.
Author: H.S.M. Coxeter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2003-10-09
In Euclidean geometry, constructions are made with ruler and compass. Projective geometry is simpler: its constructions require only a ruler. In projective geometry one never measures anything, instead, one relates one set of points to another by a projectivity. The first two chapters of this book introduce the important concepts of the subject and provide the logical foundations. The third and fourth chapters introduce the famous theorems of Desargues and Pappus. Chapters 5 and 6 make use of projectivities on a line and plane, respectively. The next three chapters develop a self-contained account of von Staudt's approach to the theory of conics. The modern approach used in that development is exploited in Chapter 10, which deals with the simplest finite geometry that is rich enough to illustrate all the theorems nontrivially. The concluding chapters show the connections among projective, Euclidean, and analytic geometry.
Author: Eric Lord
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-14
Symmetry and Pattern in Projective Geometry is a self-contained study of projective geometry which compares and contrasts the analytic and axiomatic methods. The analytic approach is based on homogeneous coordinates, and brief introductions to Plücker coordinates and Grassmann coordinates are presented. This book looks carefully at linear, quadratic, cubic and quartic figures in two, three and higher dimensions. It deals at length with the extensions and consequences of basic theorems such as those of Pappus and Desargues. The emphasis throughout is on special configurations that have particularly interesting symmetry properties. The intricate and novel ideas of ‘Donald’ Coxeter, who is considered one of the great geometers of the twentieth century, are also discussed throughout the text. The book concludes with a useful analysis of finite geometries and a description of some of the remarkable configurations discovered by Coxeter. This book will be appreciated by mathematics students and those wishing to learn more about the subject of geometry. It makes accessible subjects and theorems which are often considered quite complicated and presents them in an easy-to-read and enjoyable manner.
Author: M. K. Bennett
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-02-14
An important new perspective on AFFINE AND PROJECTIVEGEOMETRY This innovative book treats math majors and math education studentsto a fresh look at affine and projective geometry from algebraic,synthetic, and lattice theoretic points of view. Affine and Projective Geometry comes complete with ninetyillustrations, and numerous examples and exercises, coveringmaterial for two semesters of upper-level undergraduatemathematics. The first part of the book deals with the correlationbetween synthetic geometry and linear algebra. In the second part,geometry is used to introduce lattice theory, and the bookculminates with the fundamental theorem of projectivegeometry. While emphasizing affine geometry and its basis in Euclideanconcepts, the book: * Builds an appreciation of the geometric nature of linear algebra * Expands students' understanding of abstract algebra with itsnontraditional, geometry-driven approach * Demonstrates how one branch of mathematics can be used to provetheorems in another * Provides opportunities for further investigation of mathematicsby various means, including historical references at the ends ofchapters Throughout, the text explores geometry's correlation to algebra inways that are meant to foster inquiry and develop mathematicalinsights whether or not one has a background in algebra. Theinsight offered is particularly important for prospective secondaryteachers who must major in the subject they teach to fulfill thelicensing requirements of many states. Affine and ProjectiveGeometry's broad scope and its communicative tone make it an idealchoice for all students and professionals who would like to furthertheir understanding of things mathematical.
An ideal text for undergraduate courses, this volume takes an axiomatic approach that covers relations between the basic theorems, conics, coordinate systems and linear transformations, quadric surfaces, and the Jordan canonical form. 1962 edition.
This text examines the 3 classical geometries and their relationship to general geometric structures, with particular focus on affine geometry, projective metrics, non-Euclidean geometry, and spatial geometry. 1953 edition.
Author: R. J. Mihalek
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2014-05-10
Projective Geometry and Algebraic Structures focuses on the relationship of geometry and algebra, including affine and projective planes, isomorphism, and system of real numbers. The book first elaborates on euclidean, projective, and affine planes, including axioms for a projective plane, algebraic incidence bases, and self-dual axioms. The text then ponders on affine and projective planes, theorems of Desargues and Pappus, and coordination. Topics include algebraic systems and incidence bases, coordinatization theorem, finite projective planes, coordinates, deletion subgeometries, imbedding theorem, and isomorphism. The publication examines projectivities, harmonic quadruples, real projective plane, and projective spaces. Discussions focus on subspaces and dimension, intervals and complements, dual spaces, axioms for a projective space, ordered fields, completeness and the real numbers, real projective plane, and harmonic quadruples. The manuscript is a dependable reference for students and researchers interested in projective planes, system of real numbers, isomorphism, and subspaces and dimensions.
Author: Jürgen Richter-Gebert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-02-04
Projective geometry is one of the most fundamental and at the same time most beautiful branches of geometry. It can be considered the common foundation of many other geometric disciplines like Euclidean geometry, hyperbolic and elliptic geometry or even relativistic space-time geometry. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating field and its applications. In particular, it explains how metric concepts may be best understood in projective terms. One of the major themes that appears throughout this book is the beauty of the interplay between geometry, algebra and combinatorics. This book can especially be used as a guide that explains how geometric objects and operations may be most elegantly expressed in algebraic terms, making it a valuable resource for mathematicians, as well as for computer scientists and physicists. The book is based on the author’s experience in implementing geometric software and includes hundreds of high-quality illustrations.
Highlighted by numerous examples, this book explores methods of the projective geometry of the plane. Examines the conic, the general equation of the 2nd degree, and the relationship between Euclidean and projective geometry. 1960 edition.
Author: V. I. Arnold
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2010-12-02
V. I. Arnold reveals some unexpected connections between such apparently unrelated theories as Galois fields, dynamical systems, ergodic theory, statistics, chaos and the geometry of projective structures on finite sets. The author blends experimental results with examples and geometrical explorations to make these findings accessible to a broad range of mathematicians, from undergraduate students to experienced researchers.
Bibliotheca Mathematica: A Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume V: Axiomatic Projective Geometry, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and theorems in axiomatic projective geometry, including set theory, incidence propositions, collineations, axioms, and coordinates. The publication first elaborates on the axiomatic method, notions from set theory and algebra, analytic projective geometry, and incidence propositions and coordinates in the plane. Discussions focus on ternary fields attached to a given projective plane, homogeneous coordinates, ternary field and axiom system, projectivities between lines, Desargues' proposition, and collineations. The book takes a look at incidence propositions and coordinates in space. Topics include coordinates of a point, equation of a plane, geometry over a given division ring, trivial axioms and propositions, sixteen points proposition, and homogeneous coordinates. The text examines the fundamental proposition of projective geometry and order, including cyclic order of the projective line, order and coordinates, geometry over an ordered ternary field, cyclically ordered sets, and fundamental proposition. The manuscript is a valuable source of data for mathematicians and researchers interested in axiomatic projective geometry.
Whicher explores the concepts of polarity and movement in modern projective geometry as a discipline of thought that transcends the limited and rigid space and forms of Euclid, and the corresponding material forces conceived in classical mechanics. Rudolf Steiner underlined the importance of projective geometry as "a method of training the imaginative faculties of thinking, so that they become an instrument of cognition no less conscious and exact than mathematical reasoning." This seminal approach allows for precise scientific understanding of the concept of creative fields of formative (etheric) forces at work in nature--in plants, animals and in the human being.