Proof Theory

Author: Wolfram Pohlers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354069319X
Release Date: 2008-10-01
Genre: Mathematics

The kernel of this book consists of a series of lectures on in?nitary proof theory which I gave during my time at the Westfalische ̈ Wilhelms–Universitat ̈ in Munster ̈ . It was planned as a successor of Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1407. H- ever, when preparing it, I decided to also include material which has not been treated in SLN 1407. Since the appearance of SLN 1407 many innovations in the area of - dinal analysis have taken place. Just to mention those of them which are addressed in this book: Buchholz simpli?ed local predicativity by the invention of operator controlled derivations (cf. Chapter 9, Chapter 11); Weiermann detected applications of methods of impredicative proof theory to the characterization of the provable recursive functions of predicative theories (cf. Chapter 10); Beckmann improved Gentzen’s boundedness theorem (which appears as Stage Theorem (Theorem 6. 6. 1) in this book) to Theorem 6. 6. 9, a theorem which is very satisfying in itself - though its real importance lies in the ordinal analysis of systems, weaker than those treated here. Besides these innovations I also decided to include the analysis of the theory (? –REF) as an example of a subtheory of set theory whose ordinal analysis only 2 0 requires a ?rst step into impredicativity. The ordinal analysis of(? –FXP) of non- 0 1 0 monotone? –de?nable inductive de?nitions in Chapter 13 is an application of the 1 analysis of(? –REF).

Proof And Computation Digitization In Mathematics Computer Science And Philosophy

Author: Mainzer Klaus
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789813270954
Release Date: 2018-05-30
Genre: Mathematics

This book is for graduate students and researchers, introducing modern foundational research in mathematics, computer science, and philosophy from an interdisciplinary point of view. Its scope includes Predicative Foundations, Constructive Mathematics and Type Theory, Computation in Higher Types, Extraction of Programs from Proofs, and Algorithmic Aspects in Financial Mathematics. By filling the gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and advanced research papers, the book gives a scholarly account of recent developments and emerging branches of the aforementioned fields. Contents: Proof and Computation (K Mainzer) Constructive Convex Programming (J Berger and G Svindland) Exploring Predicativity (L Crosilla) Constructive Functional Analysis: An Introduction (H Ishihara) Program Extraction (K Miyamoto) The Data Structures of the Lambda Terms (M Sato) Provable (and Unprovable) Computability (S Wainer) Introduction to Minlog (F Wiesnet) Readership: Graduate students, researchers, and professionals in Mathematics and Computer Science. Keywords: Proof Theory;Computability Theory;Program Extraction;Constructive Analysis;PredicativityReview: Key Features: This book gathers recent contributions of distinguished experts It makes emerging fields accessible to a wider audience, appealing to a broad readership with diverse backgrounds It fills a gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and state-of-the-art research papers

Feferman on Foundations

Author: Gerhard Jäger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319633343
Release Date: 2018-04-04
Genre: Mathematics

This volume honours the life and work of Solomon Feferman, one of the most prominent mathematical logicians of the latter half of the 20th century. In the collection of essays presented here, researchers examine Feferman’s work on mathematical as well as specific methodological and philosophical issues that tie into mathematics. Feferman’s work was largely based in mathematical logic (namely model theory, set theory, proof theory and computability theory), but also branched out into methodological and philosophical issues, making it well known beyond the borders of the mathematics community. With regard to methodological issues, Feferman supported concrete projects. On the one hand, these projects calibrate the proof theoretic strength of subsystems of analysis and set theory and provide ways of overcoming the limitations imposed by Gödel’s incompleteness theorems through appropriate conceptual expansions. On the other, they seek to identify novel axiomatic foundations for mathematical practice, truth theories, and category theory. In his philosophical research, Feferman explored questions such as “What is logic?” and proposed particular positions regarding the foundations of mathematics including, for example, his “conceptual structuralism.” The contributing authors of the volume examine all of the above issues. Their papers are accompanied by an autobiography presented by Feferman that reflects on the evolution and intellectual contexts of his work. The contributing authors critically examine Feferman’s work and, in part, actively expand on his concrete mathematical projects. The volume illuminates Feferman’s distinctive work and, in the process, provides an enlightening perspective on the foundations of mathematics and logic.

Concepts of Proof in Mathematics Philosophy and Computer Science

Author: Dieter Probst
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9781501502644
Release Date: 2016-07-25
Genre: Philosophy

This book provides the reader with research arising from the Humboldt-Kolleg ‘Proof’ held in Bern in fall 2013, which gathered leading experts actively involved with the concept ‘proof’ in philosophy, mathematics and computer science. This volume aims to do justice to the breadth and depth of the subject and presents relevant current conceptions and technical advances featuring ‘proof’ in those fields.

Logic Construction Computation

Author: Ulrich Berger
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110324921
Release Date: 2012-01-01
Genre: Philosophy

Over the last few decades the interest of logicians and mathematicians in constructive and computational aspects of their subjects has been steadily growing, and researchers from disparate areas realized that they can benefit enormously from the mutual exchange of techniques concerned with those aspects. A key figure in this exciting development is the logician and mathematician Helmut Schwichtenberg to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 70th birthday and his turning emeritus. The volume contains 20 articles from leading experts about recent developments in Constructive set theory, Provably recursive functions, Program extraction, Theories of truth, Constructive mathematics, Classical vs. intuitionistic logic, Inductive definitions, and Continuous functionals and domains.

Applied Logic for Computer Scientists

Author: Mauricio Ayala-Rincón
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319516530
Release Date: 2017-03-24
Genre: Computers

This book provides an introduction to logic and mathematical induction which are the basis of any deductive computational framework. A strong mathematical foundation of the logical engines available in modern proof assistants, such as the PVS verification system, is essential for computer scientists, mathematicians and engineers to increment their capabilities to provide formal proofs of theorems and to certify the robustness of software and hardware systems. The authors present a concise overview of the necessary computational and mathematical aspects of ‘logic’, placing emphasis on both natural deduction and sequent calculus. Differences between constructive and classical logic are highlighted through several examples and exercises. Without neglecting classical aspects of computational logic, the authors also highlight the connections between logical deduction rules and proof commands in proof assistants, presenting simple examples of formalizations of the correctness of algebraic functions and algorithms in PVS. Applied Logic for Computer Scientists will not only benefit students of computer science and mathematics but also software, hardware, automation, electrical and mechatronic engineers who are interested in the application of formal methods and the related computational tools to provide mathematical certificates of the quality and accuracy of their products and technologies.

Logic Language Information and Computation

Author: Hiroakira Ono
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642022616
Release Date: 2009-06-07
Genre: Computers

Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this book constitutes the 4th volume of the FoLLI LNAI subline; containing the refereed proceedings of the 16h International Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, WoLLIC 2009, held in Tokyo, Japan, in June 2009. The 25 revised full papers presented together with six tutorials and invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers cover some of the most active areas of research on the frontiers between computation, logic, and linguistics, with particular interest in cross-disciplinary topics. Typical areas of interest are: foundations of computing and programming; novel computation models and paradigms; broad notions of proof and belief; formal methods in software and hardware development; logical approach to natural language and reasoning; logics of programs, actions and resources; foundational aspects of information organization, search, flow, sharing, and protection.

Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic

Author: Stephen George Simpson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521884396
Release Date: 2009-05-29
Genre: Mathematics

This volume examines appropriate axioms for mathematics to prove particular theorems in core areas.

A Short Introduction to Intuitionistic Logic

Author: Grigori Mints
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306469756
Release Date: 2006-04-11
Genre: Mathematics

Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.

Applied Graph Theory in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Author: Abraham Kandel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540680208
Release Date: 2007-04-11
Genre: Mathematics

This book presents novel graph-theoretic methods for complex computer vision and pattern recognition tasks. It presents the application of graph theory to low-level processing of digital images, presents graph-theoretic learning algorithms for high-level computer vision and pattern recognition applications, and provides detailed descriptions of several applications of graph-based methods to real-world pattern recognition tasks.

Mathematica for Theoretical Physics

Author: Gerd Baumann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038725112X
Release Date: 2006-01-16
Genre: Science

Class-tested textbook that shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Delivers dozens of fully interactive examples for learning and implementation, constants and formulae can readily be altered and adapted for the user’s purposes. New edition offers enlarged two-volume format suitable to courses in mechanics and electrodynamics, while offering dozens of new examples and a more rewarding interactive learning environment. Notebooks for problem solving and learning.

Proof Theory

Author: Wolfram Pohlers
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540468257
Release Date: 2009-06-10
Genre: Mathematics

Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.

Visualization Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics

Author: P. Mancosu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402033353
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Mathematics

In the 20th century philosophy of mathematics has to a great extent been dominated by views developed during the so-called foundational crisis in the beginning of that century. These views have primarily focused on questions pertaining to the logical structure of mathematics and questions regarding the justi?cation and consistency of mathematics. Paradigmatic in this - spect is Hilbert’s program which inherits from Frege and Russell the project to formalize all areas of ordinary mathematics and then adds the requi- ment of a proof, by epistemically privileged means (?nitistic reasoning), of the consistency of such formalized theories. While interest in modi?ed v- sions of the original foundational programs is still thriving, in the second part of the twentieth century several philosophers and historians of mat- matics have questioned whether such foundational programs could exhaust the realm of important philosophical problems to be raised about the nature of mathematics. Some have done so in open confrontation (and hostility) to the logically based analysis of mathematics which characterized the cl- sical foundational programs, while others (and many of the contributors to this book belong to this tradition) have only called for an extension of the range of questions and problems that should be raised in connection with an understanding of mathematics. The focus has turned thus to a consideration of what mathematicians are actually doing when they produce mathematics. Questions concerning concept-formation, understanding, heuristics, changes instyle of reasoning, the role of analogies and diagrams etc.

Probabilistic Behavior of Harmonic Functions

Author: Rodrigo Banuelos
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9783034887281
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

Harmonic analysis and probability have long enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship that has been rich and fruitful. This monograph, aimed at researchers and students in these fields, explores several aspects of this relationship. The primary focus of the text is the nontangential maximal function and the area function of a harmonic function and their probabilistic analogues in martingale theory. The text first gives the requisite background material from harmonic analysis and discusses known results concerning the nontangential maximal function and area function, as well as the central and essential role these have played in the development of the field.The book next discusses further refinements of traditional results: among these are sharp good-lambda inequalities and laws of the iterated logarithm involving nontangential maximal functions and area functions. Many applications of these results are given. Throughout, the constant interplay between probability and harmonic analysis is emphasized and explained. The text contains some new and many recent results combined in a coherent presentation.