Author: Panel on Institutional Review Boards, Surveys, and Social Science Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2003-07-10
Genre: Social Science
Institutional review boards (IRBs) are the linchpins of the protection systems that govern human participation in research. In recent years, high-profile cases have focused attention on the weaknesses of the procedures for protecting participants in medical research. The issues surrounding participants protection in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences may be less visible to the public eye, but they are no less important in ensuring ethical and responsible research. This report examines three key issues related to human participation in social, behavioral, and economic sciences research: (1) obtaining informed, voluntary consent from prospective participants: (2) guaranteeing the confidentiality of information collected from participants, which is a particularly challenging problem in social sciences research; and (3) using appropriate review procedures for minimal-risk research. Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research will be important to policy makers, research administrators, research sponsors, IRB members, and investigators. More generally, it contains important information for all who want to unsure the best protectionfor participants and researchers alikein the social, behavioral, and economic sciences.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2003-06-26
Institutional review boards (IRBs) are the linchpins of the protection systems that govern human participation in research. In recent years, high-profile cases have focused attention on the weaknesses of the procedures for protecting participants in medical research. The issues surrounding participants protection in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences may be less visible to the public eye, but they are no less important in ensuring ethical and responsible research. This report examines three key issues related to human participation in social, behavioral, and economic sciences research: (1) obtaining informed, voluntary consent from prospective participants: (2) guaranteeing the confidentiality of information collected from participants, which is a particularly challenging problem in social sciences research; and (3) using appropriate review procedures for â€œminimal-riskâ€ research. Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research will be important to policy makers, research administrators, research sponsors, IRB members, and investigators. More generally, it contains important information for all who want to ensure the best protectionâ€"for participants and researchers alikeâ€"in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences.
Author: Peter V. Marsden
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Social Science
"The Handbook of Survey Research, Second Edition" builds on its widely-recognized 1983 predecessor by updating its previous historical account of the development of survey research and the evolution of social science before going on to examine new and expanded usages of survey research during the past half century. Editors Peter Marsden (Harvard University) and James D. Wright (University of Central Florida), long-time editor of Elsevier's Social Science Research, have created an authoritative reference book and an excellent starting point for anyone requiring a broad examination of the field. Detailed chapters include: sampling; measurement; questionnaire construction and question writing; survey implementation and management; survey data analysis; special types of surveys; and integrating surveys with other data collection methods. This handbook is distinguished from other texts by its greater comprehensiveness and depth of coverage including topics such as measurement models, the role of cognitive psychology, surveying networks, and cross-national/cross-cultural surveys. Timely and relevant it includes materials that are only now becoming highly influential topics.
Author: Nita Farahany
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2011-02-20
New discoveries from neuroscience and behavioral genetics are besieging criminal law. Novel scientific perspectives on criminal behavior could transform the criminal justice system and yet are being introduced in an ad hoc and often ill-conceived manner. Bringing together experts across multiple disciplines, including geneticists, neuroscientists, philosophers, policymakers, and legal scholars, The Impact of Behavioral Sciences on Criminal Law is a comprehensive collection of essays that address the emerging science from behavioral genetics and neuroscience and its developing impact on the criminal justice system. The essays survey how the science is and will likely be used in criminal law and the policy and the ethical issues that arise from its use for criminal law and for society.
Author: Elliott C. Kulakowski
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release Date: 2008-07-03
This reference text addresses the basic knowledge of research administration and anagement, and includes everything from a review of research administration and the infrastructure that is necessary to support research, to project development and post-project plans. Examples of concepts, case studies, a glossary of terms and acronyms, and references to books, journal articles, monographs, and federal regulations are also included.
Author: Timothy P. Johnson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2014-10-13
A comprehensive guidebook to the current methodologiesand practices used in health surveys A unique and self-contained resource, Handbook of HealthSurvey Methods presents techniques necessary for confrontingchallenges that are specific to health survey research. Thehandbook guides readers through the development of sample designs,data collection procedures, and analytic methods for studies aimedat gathering health information on general and targetedpopulations. The book is organized into five well-defined sections: Design andSampling Issues, Measurement Issues, Field Issues, Health Surveysof Special Populations, and Data Management and Analysis.Maintaining an easy-to-follow format, each chapter begins with anintroduction, followed by an overview of the main concepts,theories, and applications associated with each topic. Finally,each chapter provides connections to relevant online resources foradditional study and reference. The Handbook of Health SurveyMethods features: 29 methodological chapters written by highly qualified expertsin academia, research, and industry A treatment of the best statistical practices and specificmethodologies for collecting data from special populations such assexual minorities, persons with disabilities, patients, andpractitioners Discussions on issues specific to health research includingdeveloping physical health and mental health measures, collectinginformation on sensitive topics, sampling for clinical trials,collecting biospecimens, working with proxy respondents, andlinking health data to administrative and other external datasources Numerous real-world examples from the latest research in thefields of public health, biomedicine, and health psychology Handbook of Health Survey Methods is an ideal reference foracademics, researchers, and practitioners who apply survey methodsand analyze data in the fields of biomedicine, public health,epidemiology, and biostatistics. The handbook is also a usefulsupplement for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses onsurvey methodology.
Author: Paul D. Umbach
Publisher: Jossey-Bass Inc Pub
Release Date: 2005-10-06
New technologies have revolutionized survey research processes and how researchers and institutions of higher education college information from subjects. At the same time, it seems that increasing demands for accountability are forcing colleges and universities to conduct mroe high-quality surveys to gauge institutional effectiveness. In addition to affecting survey implementation, new technologies have improved the researcher's ability to conduct effective analyses of survey data. Data analytic software continues to become more flexible and new hardware allows greater spped and processing ability. This volume examines these emerging issues in survey research and highlights lessons learned from past research on survey methods. It serves as a useful guide to anymore conducting surveys in a rapidly changing environment
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2013-08-26
Genre: Social Science
On July 26, 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) with the purpose of soliciting comments on how current regulations for protecting research participants could be modernized and revised. The rationale for revising the regulations was as follows: this ANPRM seeks comment on how to better protect human subjects who are involved in research, while facilitating valuable research and reducing burden, delay, and ambiguity for investigators. The current regulations governing human subjects research were developed years ago when research was predominantly conducted at universities, colleges, and medical institutions, and each study generally took place at only a single site. Although the regulations have been amended over the years, they have not kept pace with the evolving human research enterprise, the proliferation of multisite clinical trials and observational studies, the expansion of health services research, research in the social and behavioral sciences, and research involving databases, the Internet, and biological specimen repositories, and the use of advanced technologies, such as genomics. Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule: Perspectives of Social and Behavioral Scientists: Workshop Summary focuses on six broad topic areas: 1. Evidence on the functioning of the Common Rule and of institutional review boards (IRBs), to provide context for the proposed revisions. 2. The types and levels of risks and harms encountered in social and behavioral sciences, and issues related to the severity and probability of harm, because the ANPRM asks for input on calibration of levels of review to levels of risk. 3. The consent process and special populations, because new rules have been proposed to improve informed consent (e.g., standard consent form, consent for future uses of biospecimens, and re-consenting for further use of existing research data). 4. Issues related to the protection of research participants in studies that involve use of existing data and data sharing, because the ANPRM proposed applying standards for protecting the privacy of healthcare data to research data. 5. Multidisciplinary and multisite studies, because the ANPRM proposed a revision to the regulations that would allow multisite studies to be covered by a single IRB. 6. The purview and roles of IRBs, because the ANPRM included possible revisions to categories of research that could entail changes in IRB oversight.
Author: David A. Buchanan
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
Release Date: 2009-01-01
Research conducted on high-risk populations raises unique ethical and legal questions. While collecting data, researchers conducting descriptive, non-intervention studies may be faced with threats of harm to or by the participants, such as suicide, child abuse, or violence. At what point should the researcher override confidentiality protection agreements? How do researchers address the tensions between successfully recruiting participants while communicating their obligation to disclose threatening behaviors? How do researchers identify and adequately communicate to participants the limits of confidentiality protection? Research With High-Risk Populations provides guidance to social scientists regarding their ethical and legal responsibilities to respond appropriately to threats of harm that may arise during the course of data collection. Contributing authors include leading researchers, ethicists, lawyers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members from across the country who illuminate the complexities of the issues using case studies from their own research projects. This collection of ethical and legal analyses examines both the challenges of conducting research designed to responsibly gain a better understanding of the origins of serious health problems, and the moral and legal obligations of researchers who learn of threats of violence in the course of pursuing the primary objectives of the research. This book maps out an appropriate balance between protecting human research participants from harm and generating new scientific knowledge. It will enable researchers and IRB members to become more knowledgeable about the different ways of allowing valuable research to go forward, while minimizing the potential for harm and protecting all parties involved
Author: Michael Solem
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Release Date: 2009
"Aspiring Academics is a set of essays designed to help graduate students and early career faculty get started in their careers in geography and related social and environmental sciences. Rather than viewing faculty work as a collection of unrelated tasks, Aspiring Academics stresses the interdependence of teaching, research, and service and the importance of achieving a healthy balance in professional and personal life. Drawing on several years of research, the chapters provide accessible, forward-looking advice on topics that often cause the most stress in the first years of a college or university appointment." "Aspiring Academics also features a companion website offering dozens of activities that can be used in workshops, seminars, and informal gatherings of graduate students and faculty. Written in a spirit of collegiality and sharing of support, visitors to the website can participate in discussion forums and contribute their own resources and tips for others."--Jacket.
Release Date: 2005
Genre: American literature
Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.
As students of culture, ethnographers must have curiosity, openness, and humility - three traits vital for "getting with"people. But how do ethnographers go about developing relationships with people in the field? And how do they learn from these people so they can conduct a systematic study of the culture? These key questions can best be answered by sharing field experiences among a diverse group of ethnographers. Yet researchers often become so embedded in the extensive data collections, analysis, and writing that the opportunity rarely occurs to share experiences, fieldwork, and current projects. Leading ethnographers recognized the need for a forum where information could be exchanged. The major ethnography conference (held at the University of Pennsylvania in November 2003) presented by established ethnographers along with graduate students the chance to participate in an exciting format where works-in-progress could be shared. This intimate setting built a bridge to take ethnography into the future while reestablishing ties to scholarly roots. Using the Chicago School and its emphasis on "bringing back the news" from unknown or misknown social worlds as a foundation, these conferences created a buzz where information was freely shared and ethnographers connected. The University of Pennsylvania conference became the springboard for the articles in this special volume of The ANNALS. Contemporary ethnography is much too large, too diverse, too contentious to be represented in its entirety in a single collection of articles. However, this weighty volume represents a distinctive approach to ethnography that seeks to engage, reassert, and reassess three recurring themes found in classic Chicago-style fieldwork: I. The focus on discovery, rather than on theory or method II. "Loyalty to the phenomenon" - emphasizing what people are actually doing versus what theory suggests people are doing III. The collection of original data, as well as the collection of ethnographic data in original ways This unique volume offers the rare chance to learn what ethnographers are doing in the field as well as the different approaches taken and styles used in conducting fieldwork. It also provides poignant insight for public policy students and practitioners. The articles included in this volume reflect a wide range of stories and researchers from around the country and around the world. Taken together they provide the big picture of the challenges and boons of fieldwork and examined experiences.