Algorithms are what we do in order not to have to do something. Algorithms consist of instructions to carry out tasks -- usually dull, repetitive ones. Starting from simple building blocks, computer algorithms enable machines to recognize and produce speech, translate texts, categorize and summarize documents, describe images, and predict the weather. A task that would take hours can be completed in virtually no time by using a few lines of code in a modern scripting program. This book offers an introduction to algorithms through the real-world problems they solve. The algorithms are presented in pseudocode and can readily be implemented in a computer language.The book presents algorithms simply and accessibly, without overwhelming readers or insulting their intelligence. Readers should be comfortable with mathematical fundamentals and have a basic understanding of how computers work; all other necessary concepts are explained in the text. After presenting background in pseudocode conventions, basic terminology, and data structures, chapters cover compression, cryptography, graphs, searching and sorting, hashing, classification, strings, and chance. Each chapter describes real problems and then presents algorithms to solve them. Examples illustrate the wide range of applications, including shortest paths as a solution to paragraph line breaks, strongest paths in elections systems, hashes for song recognition, voting power Monte Carlo methods, and entropy for machine learning. Real-World Algorithms can be used by students in disciplines from economics to applied sciences. Computer science majors can read it before using a more technical text.
Author: Brian Christian
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Business & Economics
A fascinating exploration of how insights from computer algorithms can be applied to our everyday lives, helping to solve common decision-making problems and illuminate the workings of the human mind All our lives are constrained by limited space and time, limits that give rise to a particular set of problems. What should we do, or leave undone, in a day or a lifetime? How much messiness should we accept? What balance of new activities and familiar favorites is the most fulfilling? These may seem like uniquely human quandaries, but they are not: computers, too, face the same constraints, so computer scientists have been grappling with their version of such issues for decades. And the solutions they've found have much to teach us. In a dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, acclaimed author Brian Christian and cognitive scientist Tom Griffiths show how the algorithms used by computers can also untangle very human questions. They explain how to have better hunches and when to leave things to chance, how to deal with overwhelming choices and how best to connect with others. From finding a spouse to finding a parking spot, from organizing one's inbox to understanding the workings of memory, Algorithms to Live By transforms the wisdom of computer science into strategies for human living.
Author: Raymond Chiong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-11-13
Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the prediction of soil properties, automated tissue classification for MRI images, and database query optimisation, among others. These chapters demonstrate how different types of problems can be successfully solved using variants of EAs and how the solution approaches are constructed, in a way that can be understood and reproduced with little prior knowledge on optimisation.
Bio-inspired Algorithms for Engineering builds a bridge between the proposed bio-inspired algorithms developed in the past few decades and their applications in real-life problems, not only in an academic context, but also in the real world. The book proposes novel algorithms to solve real-life, complex problems, combining well-known bio-inspired algorithms with new concepts, including both rigorous analyses and unique applications. It covers both theoretical and practical methodologies, allowing readers to learn more about the implementation of bio-inspired algorithms. This book is a useful resource for both academic and industrial engineers working on artificial intelligence, robotics, machine learning, vision, classification, pattern recognition, identification and control. Presents real-time implementation and simulation results for all the proposed schemes Offers a comparative analysis and rigorous analysis of the convergence of proposed algorithms Provides a guide for implementing each application at the end of each chapter Includes illustrations, tables and figures that facilitate the reader’s comprehension of the proposed schemes and applications
Author: Gabriel Luque
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-06-15
This book is the result of several years of research trying to better characterize parallel genetic algorithms (pGAs) as a powerful tool for optimization, search, and learning. Readers can learn how to solve complex tasks by reducing their high computational times. Dealing with two scientific fields (parallelism and GAs) is always difficult, and the book seeks at gracefully introducing from basic concepts to advanced topics. The presentation is structured in three parts. The first one is targeted to the algorithms themselves, discussing their components, the physical parallelism, and best practices in using and evaluating them. A second part deals with the theory for pGAs, with an eye on theory-to-practice issues. A final third part offers a very wide study of pGAs as practical problem solvers, addressing domains such as natural language processing, circuits design, scheduling, and genomics. This volume will be helpful both for researchers and practitioners. The first part shows pGAs to either beginners and mature researchers looking for a unified view of the two fields: GAs and parallelism. The second part partially solves (and also opens) new investigation lines in theory of pGAs. The third part can be accessed independently for readers interested in applications. The result is an excellent source of information on the state of the art and future developments in parallel GAs.
Author: Douglas G McIlwraith
Publisher: Manning Publications
Release Date: 2016-09-08
Summary Algorithms of the Intelligent Web, Second Edition teaches the most important approaches to algorithmic web data analysis, enabling you to create your own machine learning applications that crunch, munge, and wrangle data collected from users, web applications, sensors and website logs. Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications. About the Technology Valuable insights are buried in the tracks web users leave as they navigate pages and applications. You can uncover them by using intelligent algorithms like the ones that have earned Facebook, Google, and Twitter a place among the giants of web data pattern extraction. About the Book Algorithms of the Intelligent Web, Second Edition teaches you how to create machine learning applications that crunch and wrangle data collected from users, web applications, and website logs. In this totally revised edition, you'll look at intelligent algorithms that extract real value from data. Key machine learning concepts are explained with code examples in Python's scikit-learn. This book guides you through algorithms to capture, store, and structure data streams coming from the web. You'll explore recommendation engines and dive into classification via statistical algorithms, neural networks, and deep learning. What's Inside Introduction to machine learning Extracting structure from data Deep learning and neural networks How recommendation engines work About the Reader Knowledge of Python is assumed. About the Authors Douglas McIlwraith is a machine learning expert and data science practitioner in the field of online advertising. Dr. Haralambos Marmanis is a pioneer in the adoption of machine learning techniques for industrial solutions. Dmitry Babenko designs applications for banking, insurance, and supply-chain management. Foreword by Yike Guo. Table of Contents Building applications for the intelligent web Extracting structure from data: clustering and transforming your data Recommending relevant content Classification: placing things where they belong Case study: click prediction for online advertising Deep learning and neural networks Making the right choice The future of the intelligent web Appendix - Capturing data on the web
Author: Martin Erwig
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2017-08-11
Picture a computer scientist, staring at a screen and clicking away frantically on a keyboard, hacking into a system, or perhaps developing an app. Now delete that picture. In Once Upon an Algorithm, Martin Erwig explains computation as something that takes place beyond electronic computers, and computer science as the study of systematic problem solving. Erwig points out that many daily activities involve problem solving. Getting up in the morning, for example: You get up, take a shower, get dressed, eat breakfast. This simple daily routine solves a recurring problem through a series of well-defined steps. In computer science, such a routine is called an algorithm. Erwig illustrates a series of concepts in computing with examples from daily life and familiar stories. Hansel and Gretel, for example, execute an algorithm to get home from the forest. The movie Groundhog Day illustrates the problem of unsolvability; Sherlock Holmes manipulates data structures when solving a crime; the magic in Harry Potter's world is understood through types and abstraction; and Indiana Jones demonstrates the complexity of searching. Along the way, Erwig also discusses representations and different ways to organize data; "intractable" problems; language, syntax, and ambiguity; control structures, loops, and the halting problem; different forms of recursion; and rules for finding errors in algorithms. This engaging book explains computation accessibly and shows its relevance to daily life. Something to think about next time we execute the algorithm of getting up in the morning.
Computers can't LEARN... Right?! Machine Learning is a branch of computer science that wants to stop programming computers using a list of detailed instructions and instead use a set of high-level commands which they can apply to many unknown scenarios - these are called algorithms. In practice, they want to give computers the ability to Learn and to ADAPT. We can use these algorithms to obtain insights, recognize patterns and make predictions from data, images, sounds or videos we have never seen before (or even knew existed). Unfortunately, the true power and applications of today's Machine Learning Algorithms is misunderstood by most people. Through this book I want fix this confusion, I want to shed light on the most relevant Machine Learning Algorithms used in the industry: Supervised Learning Algorithms K-Nearest Neighbour Na�ve Bayes Regressions Unsupervised Learning Algorithms: Support Vector Machines Decision Trees
Author: Ed Finn
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2017-03-10
The gap between theoretical ideas and messy reality, as seen in Neal Stephenson, Adam Smith, and Star Trek. We depend on—we believe in—algorithms to help us get a ride, choose which book to buy, execute a mathematical proof. It's as if we think of code as a magic spell, an incantation to reveal what we need to know and even what we want. Humans have always believed that certain invocations—the marriage vow, the shaman's curse—do not merely describe the world but make it. Computation casts a cultural shadow that is shaped by this long tradition of magical thinking. In this book, Ed Finn considers how the algorithm—in practical terms, “a method for solving a problem”—has its roots not only in mathematical logic but also in cybernetics, philosophy, and magical thinking. Finn argues that the algorithm deploys concepts from the idealized space of computation in a messy reality, with unpredictable and sometimes fascinating results. Drawing on sources that range from Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash to Diderot's Encyclopédie, from Adam Smith to the Star Trek computer, Finn explores the gap between theoretical ideas and pragmatic instructions. He examines the development of intelligent assistants like Siri, the rise of algorithmic aesthetics at Netflix, Ian Bogost's satiric Facebook game Cow Clicker, and the revolutionary economics of Bitcoin. He describes Google's goal of anticipating our questions, Uber's cartoon maps and black box accounting, and what Facebook tells us about programmable value, among other things. If we want to understand the gap between abstraction and messy reality, Finn argues, we need to build a model of “algorithmic reading” and scholarship that attends to process, spearheading a new experimental humanities.
Author: Tom Hyer
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2010
Derivatives Algorithms provides a unique expert overview of the abstractions and coding methods which support real-world derivatives trading. Written by an industry professional with extensive experience in large-scale trading operations, it describes the fundamentals of library code structure, and innovative advanced solutions to thorny issues in implementation. For the reader already familiar with C++ and arbitrage-free pricing, the book offers an invaluable glimpse of how they combine on an industrial scale. Topics range from interface design through code generation to the protocols that support ever more complex trades and models.
Author: John MacCormick
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2012-01-03
Every day, we use our computers to perform remarkable feats. A simple web search picks out a handful of relevant needles from the world's biggest haystack: the billions of pages on the World Wide Web. Uploading a photo to Facebook transmits millions of pieces of information over numerous error-prone network links, yet somehow a perfect copy of the photo arrives intact. Without even knowing it, we use public-key cryptography to transmit secret information like credit card numbers; and we use digital signatures to verify the identity of the websites we visit. How do our computers perform these tasks with such ease? This is the first book to answer that question in language anyone can understand, revealing the extraordinary ideas that power our PCs, laptops, and smartphones. Using vivid examples, John MacCormick explains the fundamental "tricks" behind nine types of computer algorithms, including artificial intelligence (where we learn about the "nearest neighbor trick" and "twenty questions trick"), Google's famous PageRank algorithm (which uses the "random surfer trick"), data compression, error correction, and much more. These revolutionary algorithms have changed our world: this book unlocks their secrets, and lays bare the incredible ideas that our computers use every day.
Global threats of terrorism, drug-smuggling and other crimes have led to a significant increase in research on game theory for security. Game theory provides a sound mathematical approach to deploy limited security resources to maximize their effectiveness. A typical approach is to randomize security schedules to avoid predictability, with the randomization using artificial intelligence techniques to take into account the importance of different targets and potential adversary reactions. This book distills the forefront of this research to provide the first and only study of long-term deployed applications of game theory for security for key organizations such as the Los Angeles International Airport police and the US Federal Air Marshals Service. The author and his research group draw from their extensive experience working with security officials to intelligently allocate limited security resources to protect targets, outlining the applications of these algorithms in research and the real world.
Author: John Paul Mueller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2017-04-11
Discover how algorithms shape and impact our digital world All data, big or small, starts with algorithms. Algorithms are mathematical equations that determine what we see—based on our likes, dislikes, queries, views, interests, relationships, and more—online. They are, in a sense, the electronic gatekeepers to our digital, as well as our physical, world. This book demystifies the subject of algorithms so you can understand how important they are business and scientific decision making. Algorithms for Dummies is a clear and concise primer for everyday people who are interested in algorithms and how they impact our digital lives. Based on the fact that we already live in a world where algorithms are behind most of the technology we use, this book offers eye-opening information on the pervasiveness and importance of this mathematical science—how it plays out in our everyday digestion of news and entertainment, as well as in its influence on our social interactions and consumerism. Readers even learn how to program an algorithm using Python! Become well-versed in the major areas comprising algorithms Examine the incredible history behind algorithms Get familiar with real-world applications of problem-solving procedures Experience hands-on development of an algorithm from start to finish with Python If you have a nagging curiosity about why an ad for that hammock you checked out on Amazon is appearing on your Facebook page, you'll find Algorithm for Dummies to be an enlightening introduction to this integral realm of math, science, and business.