Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2014-11-10
Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss? Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, Reducing Coastal Risk states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources. Reducing Coastal Risk recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.
Author: Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning: Coastal Risk Reduction
Publisher: National Academy Press
Release Date: 2014-11-10
Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss? "Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts" reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, "Reducing Coastal Risk" states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources. "Reducing Coastal Risk" recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.
There is an urgent need to ensure that coastal areas are adapting to the impacts of climate change. Risks in these areas are projected to increase because of rising sea levels and development pressures. This report reviews how OECD countries can use their national adaptation planning processes...
This book contains papers presented at the International Conference on Coastal Cities and their Sustainable Future. First held in 2015, the conference evolved from a series of conferences on coastal processes, sustainable development, and city sustainability that began in 1992. The growth of world population and the preference for living in coastal areas has resulted in their ever-increasing development. Coastal areas are the most common destination which brings in economic growth but implies additional urban development and increases the need for resources, infrastructure and services. The activities common to coastal cities require the development of well-planned and managed urban environments, not only for reasons of efficiency and economics, but also to avoid inflicting environmental degradation and the resultant deterioration of quality of life and human health. To resolve these problems it is necessary to consider coastal cities as dynamic complex systems which need energy, water, food and other resources in order to work and generate diverse activities, with the aim of offering a socioeconomic climate and better quality of life. As a consequence, it is essential to integrate the management and sustainable development of coastal cities with science, technology, architecture, socio-economics and planning all collaborating to provide support to decision makers. Because of the complex nature of such integrated planning, the support of computational models is essential in order for planners to explore various options and to forecast future services and plans. These models seek to simulate the dynamic of coastal cities leading to potential solutions. The multidisciplinary papers in the book examine some of the possible models and potential solutions. Contents include topics such as: Landscape and urban planning and design; The coastal city and its environs; Infrastructures and eco-architecture; City heritage and regeneration; Urban transport and communications; Commercial ports, fishing and sports harbours; Energy systems; Water resources management; City/Waterfront interaction; Coastal city beaches; Quality of life and city leisure; Tourism and the city; Coastal processes; Water pollution; Air pollution; City waste management; Acoustical and thermal pollution; Coastal risk assessment; Coastal flooding; Landslides; Emergency plans and evacuation systems; Health services management; Intercity issues; Socio-economic issues; Legal aspects; Modelling and simulation of coastal city systems.
Author: Donna Marie Bilkovic
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2017-03-03
Living Shorelines: The Science and Management of Nature-based Coastal Protection compiles, synthesizes and interprets the current state of the knowledge on the science and practice of nature-based shoreline protection. This book will serve as a valuable reference to guide scientists, students, managers, planners, regulators, environmental and engineering consultants, and others engaged in the design and implementation of living shorelines. This volume provides a background and history of living shorelines, understandings on management, policy, and project designs, technical synthesis of the science related to living shorelines including insights from new studies, and the identification of research needs, lessons learned, and perspectives on future guidance. International perspectives are presented from leading researchers and managers in the East, West and Gulf coasts of the United States, Europe, Canada, and Australia that are working on natural approaches to shoreline management. The broad geographic scope and interdisciplinary nature of contributing authors will help to facilitate dialogue and transfer knowledge among different disciplines and across different regions. This book will provide coastal communities with the scientific foundation and practical guidance necessary to implement effective shoreline management that enhances ecosystem services and coastal resilience now and into the future.
This book is intended as a conceptual roadmap to show how some of the numerous pieces of complex coastal systems intersect and might interact under changing future environmental regimes. It is addressed to a non-technical but environmentally literate audience that includes the lay public, policy makers, planners, engineers and academics interested in the causes and consequences of global changes as they are likely to affect coastal systems. The book also outlines some strategies for anticipating and responding to the challenges that lie ahead. The purpose is not to offer a technical treatise on how to build better numerical models or to provide the cognoscenti with new scientific details or theories. Quite on the contrary the authors aim to provide a holistic, easy-accessible overview of coastal systems and therefore use a writing style that is non-technical, nonmathematical and non-jargonized throughout. Wherever scientific terms are required to avoid ambiguity, a clear and simple definition is presented and those definitions are repeated in the glossary. The authors aim to communicate with all who care about the future of coastal environments. In Part 1, they present some underlying general “big picture” concepts that are applicable to coastal processes and coastal change worldwide. Part 2 reviews some of the more important physical, ecological and societal causes and outcomes of coastal change. A selection of case studies of some prominent and highly vulnerable coastal regions is presented in Part 3. Some strategies for facilitating and supporting collaboration among the global scientific community to enhance future coastal resilience are outlined in Part 4.
Author: Richard E. Jackson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2019-01-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This carefully targeted and rigorous new textbook introduces engineering students to the fundamental principles of applied Earth science, highlighting how modern soil and rock mechanics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, seismology and environmental geochemistry affect geotechnical and environmental practice. Key geological topics of engineering relevance including soils and sediments, rocks, groundwater, and geologic hazards are presented in an accessible and engaging way. A broad range of international case studies add real-world context, and demonstrate practical applications in field and laboratory settings to guide site characterization. End-of-chapter problems are included for self-study and evaluation, and supplementary online materials include electronic figures, additional examples, solutions, and guidance on useful software. Featuring a detailed glossary introducing key terminology, this text requires no prior geological training and is essential reading for senior undergraduate or graduate students in civil, geological, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. It is also a useful reference and bridge for Earth science graduates embarking on engineering geology courses.
Author: David G. Groves
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Release Date: 2014-02-19
Like many coastal regions, Louisiana faces significant risks from storms and resulting storm surge and flooding, as well as coastal land loss. Furthermore, these risks are likely to be exacerbated by continued population growth, economic development, and climate change. In recent years the need to address these challenges has grown more compelling as a consequence of the experiences with hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Isaac, and Sandy.
Author: H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. Panel on Risk, Vulnerability, and the True Costs of Coastal Hazards
Publisher: Island Press
Release Date: 2000
Society has limited hazard mitigation dollars to invest. Which actions will be most cost effective, considering the true range of impacts and costs incurred? In 1997, the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment began a two-year study with a panel of experts to help develop new strategies to identify and reduce the costs of weather-related hazards associated with rapidly increasing coastal development activities.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards presents the panel's findings, offering the first in-depth study that considers the costs of coastal hazards to natural resources, social institutions, business, and the built environment. Using Hurricane Hugo, which struck South Carolina in 1989, as a case study, it provides for the first time information on the full range of economic costs caused by a major coastal hazard event. The book: describes and examines unreported, undocumented, and hidden costs such as losses due to business interruption, reduction in property values, interruption of social services, psychological trauma, damage to natural systems, and others examines the concepts of risk and vulnerability, and discusses conventional approaches to risk assessment and the emerging area of vulnerability assessment recommends a comprehensive framework for developing and implementing mitigation strategies documents the human impact of Hurricane Hugo and provides insight from those who lived through it.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards takes a structured approach to the problem of coastal hazards, offering a new framework for community-based hazard mitigation along with specific recommendations for implementation. Decisionmakers -- both policymakers and planners -- who are interested in coastal hazard issues will find the book a unique source of new information and insight, as will private-sector decisionmakers including lenders, investors, developers, and insurers of coastal property.
Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 1999-07-15
After discussions with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Office of Naval Research, the National Research Council (NRC) convened a committee under the auspices of the Marine Board to examine present and anticipated national needs in coastal engineering research and education and assess the adequacy and effectiveness of existing institutions in meeting those needs.
Author: David M. Cochran Jr.
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Release Date: 2014-03-01
Genre: Social Science
Southeastern Geographer VOLUME 54, NUMBER 1 : SPRING 2014 Table of Contents Introduction to Southeastern Geographer, Volume 54, Number 1 David M. Cochran and Carl A. Reese Part I: Papers The Great Lakes-to-Florida Highway: A Politics of Road Space in 1920s West Virginia and Virginia Jessey Gilley Do Incentives Work? An Analysis of Residential Solar Energy Adoption in Miami-Dade County, Florida Jeffery Onsted and Aileen Varela-Margolles Disaster Vulnerability of Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: A Comparison of Texas and North Carolina Christine E. Gares and Burrell E. Montz Louisiana: Apprehending a Complex Web of Vernacular Regional Geography John McEwen Spatial Trends and Factors Associated with Hardwood Mortality in the Southeastern United States Michael Crosby, Zhaofei Fan, Theodor D. Leninger, Martin A. Spetich and A. Brady Self Part II: Reviews The Geography of Wine: How Landscapes, Cultures, Terror, and the Weather Make a Good Drop Brian J. Sommers Reviewed by David M. Cochran, Jr. Dear Appalachia: Readers, Identity, and Popular Fiction since 1878 Emily Satterwhite Reviewed by Taulby H. Edmondson Trash Animals: How We Live with Nature's Filthy, Feral, Invasive, and Unwanted Species Kelsi Nagy and David Johnson II Reviewed by Matthew L. Fahrenbruch Southeastern Geographer is published by UNC Press for the Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers (www.sedaag.org). The quarterly journal publishes the academic work of geographers and other social and physical scientists, and features peer-reviewed articles and essays that reflect sound scholarship and contain significant contributions to geographical understanding, with a special interest in work that focuses on the southeastern United States.
Author: David M. Bush
Publisher: Duke University Press
Release Date: 1996-01-01
Genre: Business & Economics
Living by the Rules of the Sea is a primer for people living along the nation's coastlines, those considering moving to the coast, or those who want a greater understanding of the risks and dangers posed by living at the seacoast. Published as part of Duke University Press's Living with the Shore series, but without a direct focus on the coastline of one particular state, this book is intended as an overall guide to coastal physical processes, risk assessment of potential property damage from coastal natural hazards, and property damage mitigation. Over the past twenty years, the authors have mapped and studied most of the barrier islands in the United States and have experienced coastal processes such as storms and shoreline retreat at close range. They represent a coastal geology/oceanographic perspective that is decidedly in favor of preserving the natural protective capabilities of the native coastal environment. While strongly anti-engineering in outlook, Living by the Rules of the Sea does provide a review of coastal engineering techniques. It also examines methods of repairing damage to the natural environment that lessen the prospect of further property damage. Finally, it employs a more inclusive "coastal zone" approach rather than simply concentrating on a more narrowly defined shoreline. Barrier islands are viewed as part of a larger system in which changes in one part of the system--for example, the mining of sand dunes or dredging offshore for beach replenishment sand--can have profound effects on another part of the system, predictable effects even though they may not be visible for years or decades. A comprehensive handbook with references to recent storms including hurricanes Andrew, Gilbert, Hugo, Emily, and Opal, Living by the Rules of the Sea is designed to help people make better and more informed choices about where or if to live at the coast.
Author: R. Paepe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1990-10-31
Shortly after the creation of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels) in 1970, currently labelled as VUB, a Department of Quaternary Geology was installed within the Faculty of Science in 1974. At the beginning it dealt mainly with the study of periglacial loess deposits of the Pleistocene Glacial Period in Central Belgium and with coastal deposits in relation to sea level rise during the warm Holocene period covering the last 10,000 years, in which the dawn of civilization took place step by step. Today the same research teams widen their scope of interest: they are presently studying the loess plateau in the People's Republic of China and the world-wide problems associated with sea level rise, coastal erosion being one of the most devastating natural hazards. More and more emphasis is put on problems concerning environmental engineering and those dealing with global change. Since 1975 UNESCO sponsored a number of symposia of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA), whose secretariat was located on the VUB Campus grounds from 1973 to 1982. In 1981 the Applied Geology Department ofthe Faculty of Applied Sciences was created. The NATO-Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) , organized in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain) in March 1989 was a climax of this series of Global Change gatherings. As Rector of the VUB, I am satisfied that the VUB, through its Earth Technology Institute, of both USA and Belgium could cooperate with NATO and the National Science Foundations in cosponsoring such an initiative.