Author: Richard Devlin
Release Date: 2016-12-30
Regulating Judges presents a novel approach to judicial studies. It goes beyond the traditional clash of judicial independence versus judicial accountability. Drawing on regulatory theory, Richard Devlin and Adam Dodek argue that judicial regulation is multi-faceted and requires us to consider the complex interplay of values, institutional norms, procedures, resources and outcomes. Inspired by this conceptual framework, the book invites scholars from 19 jurisdictions to describe and critique the regulatory regimes for a variety of countries from around the world. This innovative and provocative analysis of the many different ways that judiciaries around the world are regulated covers common law, civil law and other legal systems, and the developed and developing world. Contributors include a diverse talent pool of established scholars and new voices for a globally inclusive comparative examination of judiciaries in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The overall conclusion is that the regulation of judges is very much a work in progress, and that a variety of actors bear responsibility for moving the project forward.Scholars in the fields of law, social sciences, regulation theory, and public administration will find Regulating Judges an impactful read, as will regulators, public policy makers and analysts, and judges themselves.
Author: Graham Gee
Release Date: 2017-09-11
What should be the primary goals of a judicial appointments system, and how much weight should be placed on diversity in particular? Why is achieving a diverse judiciary across the UK taking so long? Is it time for positive action? What role should the current judiciary play in the appointment of our future judges? There is broad agreement within the UK and other common law countries that diversity raises important questions for a legal system and its officials, but much less agreement about the full implications of recognising diversity as an important goal of the judicial appointments regime. Opinions differ, for example, on the methods, forms, timing and motivations for judicial diversity. To mark the tenth anniversary of the creation of the Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC) in England and Wales, this collection includes contributions from current and retired judges, civil servants, practitioners, current and former commissioners on the JAC and leading academics from Australia, Canada, South Africa and across the UK. Together they provide timely and authoritative insights into past, current and future debates on the search for diversity in judicial appointments. Topics discussed include the role and responsibility of independent appointment bodies; assessments of the JAC’s first ten years; appointments to the UK Supreme Court; the pace of change; definitions of ‘merit’ and ‘diversity’; mandatory retirement ages; the use of ceiling quotas; and the appropriate role of judges and politicians in the appointments process.
Author: Bruce Peabody
Publisher: JHU Press
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Political Science
The judiciary in the United States has been subject in recent years to increasingly vocal, aggressive criticism by media members, activists, and public officials at the federal, state, and local level. This collection probes whether these attacks as well as proposals for reform represent threats to judicial independence or the normal, even healthy, operation of our political system. In addressing this central question, the volume integrates new scholarship, current events, and the perennial concerns of political science and law. The contributors—policy experts, established and emerging scholars, and attorneys—provide varied scholarly viewpoints and assess the issue of judicial independence from the diverging perspectives of Congress, the presidency, and public opinion. Through a diverse range of methodologies, the chapters explore the interactions and tensions among these three interests and the courts and discuss how these conflicts are expressed—and competing interests accommodated. In doing so, they ponder whether the U.S. courts are indeed experiencing anything new and whether anti-judicial rhetoric affords fresh insights. Case studies from Israel, the United Kingdom, and Australia provide a comparative view of judicial controversy in other democratic nations. A unique assessment of the rise of criticism aimed at the judiciary in the United States, The Politics of Judicial Independence is a well-organized and engagingly written text designed especially for students. Instructors of judicial process and judicial policymaking will find the book, along with the materials and resources on its accompanying website, readily adaptable for classroom use.
Author: Marta Simoncini
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date: 2018-06-28
The importance of administration in the EU has been growing progressively together with the development of EU competences and tasks in the internal market. From the original model of a Community leaving enforcement with the Member States, the EU has become a complex legal order where administrative tasks are spread among different actors, including EU institutions, EU agencies and national administrations. Within this complex administrative law landscape, agencies and their powers have been essentially 'upgraded'. This volume asks whether any such 'upgrade' is compatible with EU law and its principles. Exploring both the case law of the CJEU and the regulation relating to EU agencies, the volume asks a crucial question about the legitimacy of the ever-increasing role of agencies in the enforcement of EU law.
Author: Mark Bovens
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-05-15
Genre: Political Science
Over the past two decades public accountability has become not only an icon in political, managerial, and administrative discourse but also the object of much scholarly analysis across a broad range of social and administrative sciences. This handbook provides a state of the art overview of recent scholarship on public accountability. It collects, consolidates, and integrates an upsurge of inquiry currently scattered across many disciplines and subdisciplines. It provides a one-stop-shop on the subject, not only for academics who study accountability, but also for practitioners who are designing, adjusting, or struggling with mechanisms for accountable governance. Drawing on the best scholars in the field from around the world, The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability showcases conceptual and normative as well as the empirical approaches in public accountability studies. In addition to giving an overview of scholarly research in a variety of disciplines, it takes stock of a wide range of accountability mechanisms and practices across the public, private and non-profit sectors, making this volume a must-have for both practitioners and scholars, both established and new to the field.
Author: C. Scott Peters
Release Date: 2017-09-05
Genre: Political Science
State judicial elections are governed by a unique set of rules that enforce longstanding norms of judicial independence by limiting how judicial candidates campaign. These rules have been a key part of recent debates over judicial elections and have been the subject of several U.S. Supreme Court cases. Regulating Judicial Elections provides the first accounting of the efficacy and consequences of such rules. C. Scott Peters re-frames debates over judicial elections by shifting away from all-or-nothing claims about threats to judicial independence and focusing instead on the trade-offs inherent in our checks and balances system. In doing so, he is able to examine the costs and benefits of state ethical restrictions. Peters finds that while some parts of state codes of conduct achieve their desired goals, others may backfire and increase the politicization of judicial elections. Moreover, modest gains in the protection of independence come at the expense of the effectiveness of elections as accountability mechanisms. These empirical findings will inform ongoing normative debates about judicial elections.
Author: Aidan Hehir
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Release Date: 2012-04-11
Genre: Political Science
From Kosovo to Libya, humanitarian intervention is seldom out of the news. While the 'Responsibility to Protect' (R2P) has often been at the centre of these debates, its effectiveness as a means of preventing and resolving mass atrocities is disputed. The book provides a systematic overview of the theory and practice of R2P, and examines how the doctrine has been interpreted and implemented since it was first conceived. Aidan Hehir argues that, while it has undeniably raised international consciousness regarding humanitarian intervention, R2P has not significantly improved the international response to large-scale intra-state crises. Hehir advances an alternative strategy involving a strengthening of international law – based around obligations rather than discretionary rights – and major structural reform to the United Nations. Broad-ranging and insightful, this innovative text provides a clear grasp of the key issues and debates surrounding humanitarian intervention and advances a major new critique of R2P.
International courts and tribunals are often asked to review decisions originally made by domestic decision-makers. This can often be a source of tension, as the international courts and tribunals need to judge how far to defer to the original decisions of the national bodies. As international courts and tribunals have proliferated, different courts have applied differing levels of deference to those originial decisions, which can lead to a fragmentation in international law. International courts in such positions rely on two key doctrines: the standard of review and the margin of appreciation. The standard of review establishes the extent to which national decisions relating to factual, legal, or political issues arising in the case are re-examined in the international court. The margin of appreciation is the extent to which national legislative, executive, and judicial decision-makers are allowed to reflect diversity in their interpretation of human rights obligations. The book begins by providing an overview of the margin of appreciation and standard of review, recognising that while the margin of appreciation explicitly acknowledges the existence of such deference, the standard of review does not: it is rather a procedural mechanism. It looks in-depth at how the public policy exception has been assessed by the European Court of Justice and the WTO dispute settlement bodies. It examines how the European Court of Human Rights has taken an evidence-based approach towards the margin of appreciation, as well as how it has addressed issues of hate speech. The Inter-American system is also investigated, and it is established how far deference is possible within that legal organisation. Finally, the book studies how a range of other international courts, such as the International Criminal Court, and the Law of the Sea Tribunal, have approached these two core doctrines.
Author: Martin L. Friedland
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
Since his call to the Bar in 1960, Martin L. Friedland has been involved in a number of important public policy issues, including bail, legal aid, gun control, securities regulation, access to the law, judicial independence and accountability, and national security. My Life in Crime and other Academic Adventures offers a first-hand account of the development of these areas of law from the perspective of a man who was heavily involved in their formation and implementation. It is also the story of a distinguished academic, author, and former dean of law at the University of Toronto. Moving beyond the boundaries of conventional memoir, Friedland offers an extended meditation on public policy issues and significant events in the field of law, discussing their historical impact and predicting the course of their future development. Given his personal experience, there is no other person more suited to discuss these hugely important issues. Friedland puts the law and legal institutions into a wider context, looking at the role of personalities, politics, and pressure groups in the establishment of laws that continue to have tremendous importance for Canadians. My Life in Crime and other Academic Adventures reflects upon a life devoted to education, scholarship, and the law, and is an insider account of public policy issues that have come to shape life in this country in the twentieth century and beyond.
Over the past twenty years, the volume of international litigation and arbitration has increased exponentially. As the number of new international courts and tribunals has proliferated, the diversity and volume of advocates appearing before the international courts has also increased. With this increase, the ethical standards that apply to counsel have become a growing field of interest to practitioners of public international law. Problems threatening the integrity of the international judicial process and concerns about divergent ethical standards amongst counsel have multiplied in the international judicial system, prompting early attempts by senior members of the 'international bar' to articulate common ethical standards. Professional Ethics at the International Bar examines the question of how to articulate common ethical standards for counsel appearing before international courts and tribunals, and the legal powers and practical ability of international courts to prescribe and enforce such standards. It conducts original research into both the theory and practice of the issues arising from this nascent process of professionalization. Using various sources, including interviews with judges, registrars, and senior practitioners, it argues that the professionalization of advocacy through the articulation of common ethical standards is both desirable and feasible in order to protect the integrity and fairness of the international judicial process.
Author: J. Steets
Release Date: 2010-10-13
Genre: Political Science
A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. This book presents a new model of accountability which ensures that public-private partnerships don't erode public accountability. It defines concrete accountability standards for different types of partnerships.