Behavioral and Social Science Research

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309032780
Release Date: 1982-02-01
Genre: Social Science

Behavioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource specifies appropriate criteria for assessing the value, significance, and social utility of basic research in the social sciences. This report identifies illustrative areas of basic research in the social sciences that have developed analytic frameworks of high social utility and describes the development of these frameworks and their utilization. It also identifies illustrative areas of basic research in the social sciences that are likely to be of high value, significance, and/or social utility in the near future, reviews the current state of knowledge in these areas, and indicates research efforts needed to bring these areas to their full potential.

Behavioralism in Political Science

Author: Richard J. Gelles
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351314343
Release Date: 2017-09-08
Genre: Psychology

Changes in the thinking of science are usually accompanied by lively intellectual conflicts between opposing or divergent points of view. The clash of ideas is a major ingredient in the stimulation of the life of the mind in human culture. Such arguments and counter-arguments, of proofs and disproofs, permit changes in the arts and sciences to take place. Political science is not exempt from these conflicts. Since the middle of the twentieth century, the study of politics has been rocked by disagreements over its scope, theories, and methods. These disagreements were somewhat less frequent than in most sciences, natural or behavioral, but they have been at times bitter and persuasive. The subject matter of political sciencepolitics and all that is involved in politicshas a halo effect. The stakes of politics make people fight and sometimes die for what they claim as their due. Political scientists seem to confuse academic with political stakes, behaving as if the victories and defeats on the battleground of the intellect resemble those on the battleground of political life. Three issues seem critical to political science at the time this volume first appeared in the 1960s: First, disagreement over the nature of the knowledge of political thingsis a science of politics possible, or is the study of politics a matter of philosophy? Second, controversy over the place of values in the study of politicsa controversy that makes for a great deal of confusion. Third, disagreements over the basic units of analysis in the study of politicsshould the political scientist study individual and collective behavior, or limit the work to the study of institutions and large-scale processes? This collection brings together the most persuasive writings on these topics in the mid-1960s.

Ethical Imperialism

Author: Zachary M. Schrag
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801899141
Release Date: 2010-09-01
Genre: History

This short, smart analysis will engage scholars across academia.

A Review of the U S Global Change Research Program s Strategic Plan

Author: Committee to Advise the U.S. Global Change Research Program
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309252386
Release Date: 2012-01-27
Genre: Science

The U.S. government supports a large, diverse suite of activities that can be broadly characterized as "global change research." Such research offers a wide array of benefits to the nation, in terms of protecting public health and safety, enhancing economic strength and competitiveness, and protecting the natural systems upon which life depends. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which coordinates the efforts of numerous agencies and departments across the federal government, was officially established in 1990 through the U.S. Global Change Research Act (GCRA). In the subsequent years, the scope, structure, and priorities of the Program have evolved, (for example, it was referred to as the Climate Change Science Program [CCSP] for the years 2002-2008), but throughout, the Program has played an important role in shaping and coordinating our nation's global change research enterprise. This research enterprise, in turn, has played a crucial role in advancing understanding of our changing global environment and the countless ways in which human society affects and is affected by such changes. In mid-2011, a new NRC Committee to Advise the USGCRP was formed and charged to provide a centralized source of ongoing whole-program advice to the USGCRP. The first major task of this committee was to provide a review of the USGCRP draft Strategic Plan 2012-2021 (referred to herein as "the Plan"), which was made available for public comment on September 30, 2011. A Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Strategic Plan addresses an array of suggestions for improving the Plan, ranging from relatively small edits to large questions about the Program's scope, goals, and capacity to meet those goals. The draft Plan proposes a significant broadening of the Program's scope from the form it took as the CCSP. Outlined in this report, issues of key importance are the need to identify initial steps the Program will take to actually achieve the proposed broadening of its scope, to develop critical science capacity that is now lacking, and to link the production of knowledge to its use; and the need to establish an overall governance structure that will allow the Program to move in the planned new directions.

African American Perspectives on Political Science

Author: Wilbur C. Rich
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1592131107
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

African American political scientists speak out about their discipline, academic issues and racism in the profession.

Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

Author: Panel on Institutional Review Boards, Surveys, and Social Science Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309511360
Release Date: 2003-07-10
Genre: Social Science

Institutional review boards (IRBs) are the linchpins of the protection systems that govern human participation in research. In recent years, high-profile cases have focused attention on the weaknesses of the procedures for protecting participants in medical research. The issues surrounding participants protection in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences may be less visible to the public eye, but they are no less important in ensuring ethical and responsible research. This report examines three key issues related to human participation in social, behavioral, and economic sciences research: (1) obtaining informed, voluntary consent from prospective participants: (2) guaranteeing the confidentiality of information collected from participants, which is a particularly challenging problem in social sciences research; and (3) using appropriate review procedures for “minimal-risk” research. Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research will be important to policy makers, research administrators, research sponsors, IRB members, and investigators. More generally, it contains important information for all who want to unsure the best protection—for participants and researchers alike—in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences.

Review of Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309060301
Release Date: 1998-05-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The collapse of cod, flounder, and haddock fish stocks in the Northeast United States has caused widespread concern among managers and fishers in the United States and Canada. The diminishing stocks have forced managers to take strict regulatory measures. Numerous questions have been raised about the adequacy of stock assessment science used to evaluate the status of these stocks and the appropriateness of the management measures taken. Based on these concerns, Congress mandated that a scientific review of the methodology and data used to evaluate these stocks be conducted. In this volume, the committee concludes that although there are improvements to be made in data collection, modeling uncertainty, and communicating between fishers, managers, and scientists, the scientific methods used in the Northeast stock assessments are sound. Recommendations are made on how the stock assessment process can be improved.

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309084338
Release Date: 2004-04-06
Genre: Law

Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The standards by which the public judges police success have become more exacting and challenging. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing explores police work in the new century. It replaces myths with research findings and provides recommendations for updated policy and practices to guide it. The book provides answers to the most basic questions: What do police do? It reviews how police work is organized, explores the expanding responsibilities of police, examines the increasing diversity among police employees, and discusses the complex interactions between officers and citizens. It also addresses such topics as community policing, use of force, racial profiling, and evaluates the success of common police techniques, such as focusing on crime “hot spots.†It goes on to look at the issue of legitimacyâ€"how the public gets information about police work, and how police are viewed by different groups, and how police can gain community trust. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing will be important to anyone concerned about police work: policy makers, administrators, educators, police supervisors and officers, journalists, and interested citizens.

The Drama of the Commons

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309169984
Release Date: 2002-02-15
Genre: Social Science

The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.

Social Networks

Author: John Scott
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0415251117
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Social networks

This collection brings together the principal sources in the development of the techniques of social network analysis, from early metaphorical statements in Simmel and Radcliffe-Brown through the more systematic explorations in sociology and social anthropology, to contemporary formalizations. A new introduction explores the history of Social Networks and highlights the arguments of those who treat social network analysis as a loose, qualitative approach as well as those who see its potential in technical, mathematical uses. The thematically organized coverage includes: * Part I: Conceptualizing Social Networks * Part II: Topics and Developments in Graph Theory * Part III: Further Mathematical Models for Networks * Part IV: Applications: Family and Community * Part V: Applications: Corporate Power and Economic Structures * Part VI: Applications: Political, Protest, and Policy Networks * Part VII: Applications: Knowledge, Reputation, and Diffusion

Library and Information Science Trends and Research

Author: Amanda Spink
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 9781780527147
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This volume provides an understanding of new directions in library and information science/management, education and research in Europe. Coverage includes new research directions and curriculum changes due to the rapidly developing information world.

Handbook of Cognitive Aging

Author: Scott M. Hofer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781452278926
Release Date: 2008-03-20
Genre: Psychology

"Provides a unique perspective. I am particularly impressed with the sections on innovative design and methods to investigate cognitive aging and the integrative perspectives. None of the existing texts covers this material to the same level." —Donna J. La Voie, Saint Louis University "The emphasis on integrating the literature with theoretical and methodological innovations could have a far-reaching impact on the field." —Deb McGinnis, Oakland University The Handbook of Cognitive Aging: Interdisciplinary Perspectives clarifies the differences in patterns and processes of cognitive aging. Along with a comprehensive review of current research, editors Scott M. Hofer and Duane F. Alwin provide a solid foundation for building a multidisciplinary agenda that will stimulate further rigorous research into these complex factors. Key Features Gathers the widest possible range of perspectives by including cognitive aging experts in various disciplines while maintaining a degree of unity across chapters Examines the limitations of the extant literature, particularly in research design and measurement, and offers new suggestions to guide future research Highlights the broad scope of the field with topics ranging from demography to development to neuroscience, offering the most complete coverage available on cognitive aging