Author: Ward Farnsworth
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2014-10-14
Restitution is the body of law concerned with taking away gains that someone has wrongfully obtained. The operator of a Ponzi scheme takes money from his victims by fraud and then invests it in stocks that rise in value. Or a company pays a shareholder excessive dividends or pays them to the wrong person. Or a man poisons his grandfather and then collects under the grandfather’s will. In each of these cases, one party is unjustly enriched at the expense of another. And in all of them the law of restitution provides a way to undo the enrichment and transfer the defendant’s gains to a party with better rights to them. Tort law focuses on the harm, or costs, that one party wrongfully imposes on another. Restitution is the mirror image; it corrects gains that one party wrongfully receives at another’s expense. It is an important topic for every lawyer and for anyone else interested in how the legal system responds to injustice. In Restitution, Ward Farnsworth presents a guide to this body of law that is compact, lively, and insightful—the first treatment of its kind that the American law of restitution has received. The book explains restitution doctrines, remedies, and defenses with unprecedented clarity and illustrates them with vivid examples. Farnsworth demonstrates that the law of restitution is guided by a manageable and coherent set of principles that have remarkable versatility and power. Restitution makes a complex and important area of law accessible, understandable, and interesting to any reader.
Author: Peter Birks
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2005-01-13
This new edition of Unjust Enrichment by the editor of the Clarendon Law Series, is a fully updated, clear and concise account of the law of unjust enrichment. It attempts to move away from the use of obscure terminology inherited from the past. This text is the first book to insist on the switch from restitution to unjust enrichment, from response to event. It organises modern law around five simple questions: Was the defendant enriched? If so, was it at the claimant's expense? If so, was it unjust? The fourth question is then what kind of right the claimant has, and the fifth is whether the defendant has any defences. This second edition was revised and updated by Peter Birks before his death from cancer on 6 July 2004 at the age of 62. It represents the final thinking of the world's leading authority on the subject.
Author: Gerhard Dannemann
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2009
This text provides a comprehensive description in the English language of the German law of unjust enrichment, by explaining how this works in the context of German law, and by discussing the implications this would have if the German system were implemented in an English legal environment.
Author: Graham Virgo
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2015-04-09
The third edition of The Principles of the Law of Restitution has been substantially rewritten to reflect the significant changes in the law of restitution and the expansion in the theoretical and critical commentary on the subject. It focuses on the identification and analysis of the principles which underpin the law of restitution as a whole, but with reference to its three distinct parts: unjust enrichment, restitution for wrongs, and the vindication ofproperty rights.
Author: David Johnston
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2002-04-18
Unjustified enrichment has been one of the most intellectually vital areas of private law. There is, however, still no unanimity among civil-law and common-law legal systems about how to structure this important branch of the law of obligations. Several key issues are considered comparatively in this 2002 book, including grounds for recovery of enrichment, defences, third-party enrichment, as well as proprietary and taxonomic questions. Two contributors deal with each topic, one a representative of a common-law system, the other a representative of a civil-law or mixed system. This approach illuminates not just similarities or differences between systems, but also what different systems can learn from one another. In an area of law whose territory is still partially uncharted and whose borders are contested, such comparative perspectives will be valuable for both academic analysis of the law and its development by the courts.
Author: George Panagopoulos
Publisher: Hart Publishing
Release Date: 2000
This important new book fills a large gap in legal literature by examining restitution in private international law, including both the jurisdiction and choice of law questions facing restitutionary claims with international elements. The book begins with a brief summary of the English domestic law of restitution and highlights some of the issues which may arise. It goes on to examine classification, or characterisation of restitutionary claims.. Restitution has a theoretical unity which enables the author to treat it essentially as a single issue for characterisation purposes. However, restitutionary claims arise in the context of contracts and wrongs; they may be at law or in equity; they may give rise to personal or proprietary remedies, whilst they may be contingent on tracing. Each of these contexts is analysed separately for the purposes of characterisation. The central part of the book examines the choice of law rule for restitutionary issues, and reviews the different approaches adopted in the US and UK and in other parts of the common law world. After weighing the merits of the different approaches the author adopts a choice of law rule for restitutionary issues which is the proper law of the unjust factor. Depending on whether the unjust factor is event-based or law-based, the choice of law rule will focus on either the law of the place, or alternatively, the legal system with which the unjust factor has its closest and most real connection. Jurisdiction is an area of increasing importance in private international law and the book provides a thorough analysis of the topic of jurisdiction for restitutionary claims, both under the Brussels Convention as well as the traditional common law rules contained in the Civil Procedure Rules. This is an important and timely new work for all lawyers interested in restitution, private international law and international commercial litigation.
This book examines the role of unjust enrichment in the contractual context, defined as contracts which are (a) terminated for breach, or (b) subsisting, or (c) unenforceable. The book makes three claims in relation to the orthodox common law account of restitution (founded on unjust enrichment) in the contractual context. Firstly, the orthodox account correctly proceeds on the basis that the restitutionary claim in the contractual context is founded on an independent cause of action in unjust enrichment, rather than some equitable notion of unconscientiousness or the law of contract. Secondly, the book departs from the orthodox account by rejecting the unjust factors approach and endorsing the absence of basis approach for the law of unjust enrichment. Finally, the book argues that the right to restitution in the contractual context should be determined by the conditionality of the transfer of the benefit rather than a requirement such as the termination of the contract, as the orthodox account dictates. To that end the book proposes the following model, under which the right to restitution in the contractual context is determined by the resolution of the following two questions: (1) Was the transfer of the benefit (eg of money or services) conditional? (2) Was there a qualifying failure of condition? A condition can be, and often is, the other contracting party's counter-performance, but it may also be an event not promised by either party. What qualifies as a failure of condition depends on the type of contract in question. This book identifies two types of contracts, namely those which are apportioned (eg instalment contracts) and those which are unapportioned. It is only in relation to the latter that termination is required. It is a particular strength of the book that it is underpinned by detailed and original historical analysis which makes a novel and distinct contribution to the history of the laws of unjust enrichment and contract. 'Dr Baloch has produced the definitive study of the inter-relationship between contract and unjust enrichment. This has been achieved by carefully considering the historical roots of our common law, and how this is to be understood in its best light in the modern era.' Robert H Stevens, University College, London. 'Dr Baloch's exploration of the boundary between contractual and unjust enrichment liability in the 17th to 19th centuries has important things to say about the history of ideas of 'contract' in this period.' Mike Macnair, Oxford University. 'This is an innovative and rigorous book which engages with one of the most difficult areas in the law of unjust enrichment, namely the relationship between the law of unjust enrichment and the law of contract. Baloch roots his treatment of the modern law in its history and the historical analysis throughout is very careful and well grounded in the primary sources.' David Ibbetson, Cambridge University. 'This is a valuable book, thoughtful and well researched. It is concerned to build a model that fits comfortably with the cases, and its focus is on the work of modern commentators. Those concerned with the relationship of contract and the law of restitution whether at a theoretical level or in practice will benefit by careful study of what Dr Baloch has to say, whether or not they agree with it.' Jack Beatson, Royal Courts of Justice, 14 February 2009 (From the foreword)
Author: Charlie Webb
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2016-02-11
In law, gains, like losses, don't always lie where they fall. That there exists a body of law dealing with liability for gains is now settled and the circumstances in which the law requires defendants to give up their gains are well documented in the work of unjust enrichment lawyers. The same cannot be said, however, of the reasons for ordering restitution of such gains. It is often suggested that unjust enrichment's existence can be demonstrated without inquiry into these reasons, into the principles of justice it represents and invokes. Yet while we can indeed show that there exists a body of claims dealing with the recovery of mistaken payments and the like without going on to inquire into their rationale, the same cannot be said for unjust enrichment's existence as a distinct ground of such claims. For if unjust enrichment exists as a body of like cases and claims, truly independent of contract and tort, then it does so by virtue of the distinct reasons it identifies and to which these claims respond. Reason and Restitution offers an analysis of the reasons which support and shape claims in unjust enrichment and how these reasons bear on the law's application and development. The identity of these reasons matters since it establishes how, and to what extent, unjust enrichment really is independent of contract and tort, giving us a clearer understanding of unjust enrichment's relationship to these and other concepts and categories. But, more importantly, it matters to those charged with the practical tasks of deciding cases and making laws, for it is these reasons alone which can direct how judges and legislators ought respond to these claims.
Author: Eli Ball
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date: 2016-12-15
This book presents an account of attribution in unjust enrichment. Attribution refers to how and when two parties Â? a claimant and a defendant Â? are relevantly connected to each other for unjust enrichment purposes. It is reflected in the familiar expression that a defendant be 'enriched at the claimant's expense'. This book presents a structured account of attribution, consisting of two requirements: first, the identification of an enrichment to the defendant and a loss to the claimant; and, secondly, the identification of a connection between that enrichment and that loss. These two requirements must be kept separate from other considerations often subsumed within the expression 'enrichment at the claimant's expense' which in truth have nothing to do with attribution, and which instead qualify unjust enrichment liability for reasons that should be analysed in their own terms. The structure of attribution so presented fits a normative account of unjust enrichment based upon each party's exchange capacities. A defendant is enriched when he receives something that he has not paid for under prevailing market conditions, while a claimant suffers a loss when he loses the opportunity to charge for something under the same conditions. A counterfactual test Â? asking whether enrichment and loss arise 'but for' each other Â? provides the best generalisation for testing whether enrichment and loss are connected, thereby satisfying the requirements of attribution in unjust enrichment.
Author: Charles Mitchell
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date: 2006-04-18
It is now well established that the law of unjust enrichment forms an important and distinctive part of the English law of obligations. Restitutionary awards for unjust enrichment and for wrongdoing are clearly recognised for what they are. But these are recent developments. Before the last decade of the twentieth century the very existence of a separate law of unjust enrichment was controversial, its scope and content matters of dispute. In this collection of essays, a group of leading scholars look back and reappraise some of the landmark cases in the law of restitution. They range from the early seventeenth century to the mid-twentieth century, and shed new light on some classic decisions. Some argue that the importance of their case has been overstated; others, that it has been overlooked, or misconceived. All persuasively invite the reader to think again about some well-known authorities. The book is an essential resource for anyone, scholar, student or practitioner, with an interest in this fascinating area of the law.
Author: Charles R. Epp
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2010-02-15
Genre: Political Science
It’s a common complaint: the United States is overrun by rules and procedures that shackle professional judgment, have no valid purpose, and serve only to appease courts and lawyers. Charles R. Epp argues, however, that few Americans would want to return to an era without these legalistic policies, which in the 1970s helped bring recalcitrant bureaucracies into line with a growing national commitment to civil rights and individual dignity. Focusing on three disparate policy areas—workplace sexual harassment, playground safety, and police brutality in both the United States and the United Kingdom—Epp explains how activists and professionals used legal liability, lawsuit-generated publicity, and innovative managerial ideas to pursue the implementation of new rights. Together, these strategies resulted in frameworks designed to make institutions accountable through intricate rules, employee training, and managerial oversight. Explaining how these practices became ubiquitous across bureaucratic organizations, Epp casts today’s legalistic state in an entirely new light.
Author: E. J. H. Schrage
Release Date: 2001-01-01
Increasingly, in both common law and civil law jurisdictions, lawyers are seeking to formulate a law of restitution that can provide a reliable remedy in unjust enrichment actions. This pursuit has generated renewed interest in how the law of obligations should be divided. The movement can be seen as both a product of the recent calls for, and recognition of, an English law of restitution and a consequence, in civil law jurisdictions (where traditionally taxonomy has been taken far more seriously), of the modern quest for a general remedy which will overcome the widely-felt disadvantages of existing alternatives. This collection of essays is concerned with these modern developments. It identifies what constitutes unjust enrichment at the plaintiff's expense, and its available remedies, in a number of jurisdictions. Authors explore the boundaries between the law of restitution, the law of torts, and the law of contract. Their analyses reveal how the principle of restitution has permeated, hesitatingly at first and then with greater force, on a case-by-case basis, not only private law but also administrative law, criminal law, and other branches of the law. In the final analysis, unjust enrichment proves to be anything but a Trojan horse smuggled into the well-built structure of the law of obligations; it is a fully-fledged cause of action deserving an appropriate and satisfactory remedy. Scholars and jurists from thirteen countries met in Amsterdam on 18-20 October 2000, for a conference commemorating the late Professor Marcel Henri Bregstein (1900-1957). This book, which presents revised versions of the papers read during this conference, greatly clarifies the status and primary trends in this important area of legal theory and practice, and is sure to be of value to legal scholars and practitioners everywhere.
Author: Paul G. Mahoney
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2015-03-23
In "Securities Regulation Reassessed," Paul Mahoney shows that policy responses to financial crises are broadly similar across place and time: political actors, hoping to avoid blame for a financial crisis, create a narrative of market failure, arguing that misbehavior by securities market participants, rather than prior policy errors, is the primary cause of the crisis. Politically obliged regulators craft reforms that purport to solve problems which are either non-existent or only tangentially related to the crisis; yet they increase the complexity and expense of compliance, resulting in consolidation and concentration of market share in the hands of already leading financial firms. "Securities Regulation Reassessed" illustrates these points primarily but not exclusively with evidence from the New Deal-era securities reforms in the United States. Against the conventional wisdom that regards the New Deal reforms as successful, Mahoney provides substantial countervailing evidence, showing instead that Congress s diagnoses were systematically inaccurate and its remedies reduced competition in the securities industry. Looking farther into history, the work treats several key episodes prior to the New Deal, including the English financial crises of 1697 and 1720 and the blue sky era of the 1910s and 1920s in the United States. Finally, Mahoney considers the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 from the same analytical perspective. Mahoney finds a predictable pattern for efforts at securities reform: they require huge effort to enact, and yield little objectively measurable payoff and some objectively measurable harm."
Author: Peter Birks
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1985
This new edition of a landmark study of the law of restitution has been substantially revised and updated. Concentrating on structural principles rather than detailed rules, the book is an invaluable guide to this difficult area of law.