Author: Michal Nemčok
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2016-03-02
Rifts and passive margins are extremely important for the petroleum industry, as they are areas of high sedimentation and can contain significant oil and gas resources. This book provides a comprehensive understanding of rifts and passive margins as a whole. It synthesises in one volume the existing information devoted to specific aspects of these vitally important hydrocarbon habitats. This collection of state-of-the-art information on the topic facilitates the better use of this knowledge to assess the risks of exploring and operating in these settings and the development of systematic and predictive hydrocarbon screening tools. The book will be invaluable for a broad range of readers, from advanced geology students and researchers to exploration geoscientists to exploration managers exploring for and developing hydrocarbon resources in analogous settings.
This work reviews the mechanism of rifting with a focus on pre-existing tectonic weaknesses in pre-rift and/or basement rocks, i.e., on tectonic inheritance. The passive margins that are studied in this book are the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Eastern North America and the East and West Indian Continental Margins. The continental rifts that have been analysed are the East African Rift System, the Brazilian Continental Rift Systems and the European Cenozoic Rift System. It states how rifts and passive margins serve as valuable locations for hydrocarbon exploration. Tectonic inheritance/heritage examines the influence of pre-existing/pre-rift elements on the geometry, genesis and propagation of rift-related faults. Such elements include anisotropies in the shallow crustal levels, as well as the rheology of the lithosphere. Inheritance greatly influences the architecture of rifted passive margins including the attitude of faults and geometry of horsts, (half-) grabens, transfer zones etc. Inheritance is also a determining factor in the width of rifts and rift shoulder topography.
Author: M Nemcok
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2016-09-26
The volume reviews current knowledge of transform margins and addresses fundamental questions for future research. Furthermore, the articles look at principal factors that influence the dynamics, kinematics and thermal regimes of continental break-up at transform margins and cover geophysics (bathymetry, seismic, gravity and magnetic studies), structural geology, sedimentology, geochemistry, plate reconstruction and thermo-mechanical numerical modelling.
Author: Webster Mohriak
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2013
The main focus of the book is the geological and geophysical interpretation of sedimentary basins along the South, Central and North Atlantic conjugate margins, but concepts derived from physical models, outcrop analogues and present-day margins are also discussed in some chapters. There is an encompassing description of several conjugate margins worldwide, based on recent geophysical and geological datasets. An overview of important aspects related to the geodynamic development and petroleum geology of Atlantic-type sedimentary basins is also included. Several chapters analyse genetic mechanisms and break-up processes associated with rift-phase structures and salt tectonics, providing a full description of conjugate margin basins based on deep seismic profiles and potential field methods.--
Author: Howard Johnson
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2008-01-01
Increasingly, researchers have reported that passive margins do not show a simple uninterrupted thermal sag pattern of post-rift subsidence following continental separation. Rather, the structural and stratigraphic development of such margins may record evidence of complex phases of differential subsidence, exhumation and fold development. Some of the fold structures observed on passive continental margins appear to be related to regional stresses transmitted through basement rocks, whereas others are related to gravitational sliding and toe-thrusting. This special publication concentrates on the first of these categories. The morphology and distribution of such folds, together with potential mechanisms for generation of regional stress, are described in a series of papers by authorities in the field. As well as being an enigmatic feature of passive margin geology, the compressive folds have significance in the exploration for petroleum.
Author: Juan I. Soto
Release Date: 2017-06-05
Permo-Triassic Salt Provinces of Europe, North Africa and the Atlantic Margins: Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Potential deals with the evolution and tectonic significance of the Triassic evaporite rocks in the Alpine orogenic system and the Neogene basins in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, and the western Mediterranean. As the nature of the Triassic evaporite sequences, the varied diapiric structures they feed, and the occurrence of hydrocarbons suggest that the Triassic evaporites represent an efficient system to trap hydrocarbons, this book explores the topic with a wide swath, also devoting content to a relatively unexplored topic, the mobilization and deformation of the Triassic salt in the western and northern Tethys (from Iberia and North Africa, Pyrenees and Alps, Adriatic and Ionian) during the subsequent Alpine orogenic processes. The book includes chapters updating varied topics, like the Permian and Triassic chronostratigraphic scales, palaeogeographic reconstructions of the western Tethys since the Late Permian, the petroleum systems associated with Permo-Triassic salt, allochthonous salt tectonics, and a latest revision of salt tectonic processes in the Permian Zechstein Basin, the Atlantic Margins (from Barents Sea, Scotia, Portugal, Morocco, and Mauritania), the Alpine folded belts in Europe, and the various Triassic salt provinces in North Africa. The book is the go-to guide for salt tectonic researchers and those working in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Presents the first reference book to cover salt tectonics of Permo-Triassic period rocks Features case studies of passive margins like the Barents and the North Sea, Greenland, Nova Scotia, offshore Mauritania, Morocco and Iberia, and folded belts like the Betics-Rif, Tell, Pyrenees, Atlas Mountains, Alps, Balkans, Apennines, the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, and the Zechstein Basin in Norway, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Poland Integrates field observations, seismic examples, well-log data and models developed in universities with highly technical and advanced subsurface studies developed by the petroleum industry
This volume contains papers giving an interdisciplinary review of 12 major rift systems from North and South America, Africa, Europe and Asia. These papers are written by an international group of academic and industrial specialists each of whom is most knowledgeable about the respective rift. The analyzed rifts were selected on the basis of availability of an as-complete-as-possible geological and geophysical data base. Thirteen papers deal with geodynamic processes governing the evolution of rifts. A comprehensive digest of the available stratigraphic, structural, geophysical and petrological data, together with an extensive list of references, is provided for each of the analyzed rift systems. The megatectonic setting and dynamics of evolution of each basin is discussed. Geodynamic models are tested against the record of the analyzed rifts. The question of "active" as against "passive" rifting is addressed. The rifts analyzed range in age from Precambrian to Recent and cover a wide spectrum of megatectonic settings. There is discussion of the evolution of rifts in a plate-tectonic frame. The case histories are followed by discussions addressing the global setting of rifts and geodynamic processes active during the development of rifted basins.
This book presents a brief synopsis of the current academic understanding of the plume hypothesis, its surface manifestations and its shortcomings. It also describes methods for estimating the uplift history of a region due to plume activity. It discusses different models for the elastic properties of the lithosphere and their estimation as a background for plume emplacement, and introduces the plume hypothesis, describing the major plume types and their effect on the lithosphere. Two chapters are dedicated to the dynamic and permanent topography produced by an impinging plume head below the lithosphere and its estimation. It also presents the historical background of the plume hypothesis, its criticisms and alternatives.
Author: M. Nemčok
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2013-10-24
This volume studies the driving dynamic for thick-skin tectonics. It evaluates the role of various factors that control the development of thick-skin architecture. The studied driving dynamics include individual plate movement rates, overall convergence rates, orogen movement sense with respect to mantle flow and pro-wedge versus retro-wedge location. Numerous internal factors that influence the architecture of thick-skinned dominated orogens have been considered. These include the role of the rheology of the deforming layers, the presence or absence of potential detachment horizons, basement buttresses, crustal thickness variations, inherited strength contrasts and the impact of pre-existing anisotropy in thick-skin orogenic deformation. External factors discussed include the role of both syn-tectonic erosion and deposition in deformation. The study areas begin with worldwide examples and close with a detailed coverage of the Northern Andes natural laboratory, which is characterized by particularly robust data coverage.
Author: Cathy Busby
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-12-07
Investigating the complex interplay between tectonics and sedimentation is a key endeavor in modern earth science. Many of the world's leading researchers in this field have been brought together in this volume to provide concise overviews of the current state of the subject. The plate tectonic revolution of the 1960's provided the framework for detailed models on the structure of orogens and basins, summarized in a 1995 textbook edited by Busby and Ingersoll. Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances focuses on key topics or areas where the greatest strides forward have been made, while also providing on-line access to the comprehensive 1995 book. Breakthroughs in new techniques are described in Section 1, including detrital zircon geochronology, cosmogenic nuclide dating, magnetostratigraphy, 3-D seismic, and basin modelling. Section 2 presents the new models for rift, post-rift, transtensional and strike slip basin settings. Section 3 addresses the latest ideas in convergent margin tectonics, including the sedimentary record of subduction intiation and subduction, flat-slab subduction, and arc-continent collision; it then moves inboard to forearc basins and intra-arc basins, and ends with a series of papers formed under compessional strain regimes, as well as post-orogenic intramontane basins. Section 4 examines the origin of plate interior basins, and the sedimentary record of supercontinent formation. This book is required reading for any advanced student or professional interested in sedimentology, plate tectonics, or petroleum geoscience. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/busby/sedimentarybasins.
Author: Wolfgang Frisch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-11-02
How are mountains formed? Why are there old and young mountains? Why do the shapes of South America and Africa fit so well together? Why is the Pacific surrounded by a ring of volcanoes and earthquake prone areas while the edges of the Atlantic are relatively peaceful? Frisch and Meschede and Blakey answer all these questions and more through the presentation and explanation of the geo-dynamic processes upon which the theory of continental drift is based and which have lead to the concept of plate tectonics.
The region of the São Francisco river valley in eastern Brazil encompasses two main components of the geologic framework of the South American continent: the São Francisco craton and its marginal orogenic belts. Cratons, as the oldest, differentiated and relatively stable pieces of the continental lithosphere, preserve a substantial part of the Earth's memory. Orogenic belts, on the other hand, record collisional processes that occurred during a limited time span. Because of their topographic relief, mountain belts developed along craton margins provide however access to rock successions not exposed in the low lands of the adjacent cratons. The combination of geologic information obtained in cratonic domains and their marginal orogenic belts thus form the basis for deciphering substantial periods of Earth’s history. Corresponding to the most intensively studied portion of the Precambrian nucleus of the South American plate, the São Francisco craton and its margins host a rock record that spans from the Paleoarchean to the Cenozoic. Precambrian sedimentary successions that witness ancient Earth processes - many of them of global significance - are especially well preserved and exposed in this region. With all these attributes the São Francisco craton together with its fringing orogenic belts can be viewed as a ‘continent within a continent’ or a ‘continent in miniature’.