Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences

Author: Mary Douglas
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 0871542110
Release Date: 1985
Genre: Business & Economics

Every day, it seems, we become aware of some new technological or chemical hazard. Yet it is also possible that this very awareness is new, or at least newly heightened. Why are certain kinds of risks suddenly so salient? Are public perceptions of risk simply the sum of individual reactions to individual events, or do social and cultural influences play a role in shaping our definitions of safety, acceptable risk, and danger? Prompted by public outcries and by the confusion and uncertainty surrounding risk management policy, social scientists have begun to address themselves to the issue of risk perception. But as anthropologist Mary Douglas points out, they have been singularly reluctant to examine the cultural bases of risk perception, preferring to concentrate on the individual perceiver making individual choices. This approach leaves unexamined a number of crucial social factors—our concepts of what is “natural” or “artificial,” for example; our beliefs about fairness, and our moral judgements about the kind of society in which we want to live. This provocative and path-breaking report seeks to open a sociological approach to risk perception that has so far been systematically neglected. Describing first some exceptions to the general neglect of culture, Douglas builds on these clues and on her own broad anthropological perspective to make a compelling case for focusing on social factors in risk perception. She offers a challenge and a promising new agenda to all who study perceptions of risk and, by extension, to those who study human cognition and choice as well. "An altogether brilliant piece of writing—far-reaching and a joy to read." —Amartya Sen, Oxford University A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Social Science Frontiers Series

Risk and Acceptability

Author: Mary Douglas
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135033736
Release Date: 2013-04-15
Genre: Reference

First published in 1985, Mary Douglas intended Risk and Acceptability as a review of the existing literature on the state of risk theory. Unsatisfied with the current studies of risk, which she found to be flawed by individualistic and psychologistic biases, she instead uses the book to argue risk analysis from an anthropological perspective. Douglas raises questions about rational choice, the provision of public good and the autonomy of the individual.

Risikopolitik im Sozialstaat

Author: Martin Lengwiler
Publisher: Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar
ISBN: 3412086061
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Accident insurance

Sozialversicherungen haben den Umgang mit Risiken seit dem ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert fundamental verandert. Am Beispiel der staatlichen Unfallversicherung der Schweiz wird dieser Wandel, eingebettet in den europaischen und transatlantischen Kontext, untersucht. Das Buch verfolgt die Entwicklung der Risikoforschung von der Planung der staatlichen Unfallversicherung vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg bis zu ihrer Konsolidierung nach 1945. Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitspsychologie und Versicherungsmathematik spielten fur die Organisation und Durchfuhrung der Unfallversicherung eine Schlusselrolle. Der Staat erlaubte diesen Disziplinen, ihre Risikokonzepte empirisch zu uberprufen und dadurch die Grundlagen fur die moderne Risikoforschung zu bereiten. Beleuchtet wird auch der Aufstieg des Praventionsgedankens in der Industriearbeit nach 1945, der ein goldenes Zeitalter der sozialstaatlichen Risikoforschung einlautete. Insgesamt verweist die Studie auf das methodologisch noch kaum ausgeschopfte Potential einer Verbindung von Sozial- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

Exploring Uncertainty

Author: Sabina Jeschke
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783658008970
Release Date: 2013-04-02
Genre: Business & Economics

Der Umgang mit Ungewissheit und Unsicherheit besitzt in allen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen und -kulturen hohe Relevanz. Insgesamt zeichnet sich die Tendenz ab, dass "schwach strukturierte" Szenarien sowohl an Bedeutung als auch an "Erfolg" gewinnen und Konzepte, die sich gezielte Inkaufnahme und Umgang mit Unsicherheit auszeichnen, aufgrund höherer Geschwindigkeit und Flexibilität häufig "deterministischeren" Konzepten überlegen sind. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Frage nach eienr fachübergreifenden Sichtweiseauf das Kozept der Ungewissheit, insbesondere auch vor dem Hintergrund unterschiedlicher internationaler, disziplinärer und geographischer Kulturen. Dieses Fachbuch beleuchtet das gleichsam grundlegende wie zukunftsweisende Thema Ungewissheit auf hohem wissenschaftlichen Niveau, wichtige Impulse für die multi-, inter- und transdisziplinäre Bearbeitung des Forschungsfeldes werden diskutiert.​

Handbuch soziale Probleme

Author: Günter Albrecht
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783322996404
Release Date: 2013-03-13
Genre: Social Science

In den Sozialwissenschaften und in der Gesellschaft wächst das Interesse an der theoretischen und praktischen Bewältigung sozialer Probleme. Dennoch ist dieses Forschungsfeld im Hinblick auf theoretische Hintergründe vernachlässigt worden. In diesem Handbuch wird erstmals im deutschsprachigen Raum das disparate Wissen über soziale Probleme gesammelt und systematisch zusammengefaßt. Neben den zentralen Problemen moderner Gesellschaften - Armut, Arbeitslosigkeit, ethnische Minderheiten, Frauendiskriminierung, Gewalt, Körperbehinderung, Drogenmißbrauch, Alter und Altern u. a. - behandelt das Handbuch auch die Entstehung und die sich wandelnden Bewertungen sozialer Probleme. Damit verbunden ist eine Analyse der Berufe, Organisationen und Institutionen, die sich mit der Bewältigung sozialer Probleme befassen. Darüber hinaus werden die Methoden und Probleme der empirischen Forschung ausführlich dargestellt. Das Buch schließt somit eine große Forschungslücke. Die Beiträge haben eine klare soziologische Orientierung, vermitteln aber auch Juristen, Psychologen, Pädagogen, Sozialarbeitern, Politikern und interessierten Laien alle wichtigen Informationen.

The Drama of the Commons

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309169984
Release Date: 2002-02-15
Genre: Social Science

The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.

Communicating Risks to the Public

Author: R.E Kasperson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400919525
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).

The Healing Bond

Author: Susan Budd
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415090520
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Health & Fitness

These questions are investigated from a variety of professional and academic perspectives, covering both 'orthodox' and 'non-orthodox' forms of healing practice. The contributors look at health care as a whole and deal with specific areas of health such as midwifery, psychoanalysis, naturopathy, the relations between medicine and the state, and the appeal of 'quacks'. They also confront particular issues of current concern, including medical litigation, codes of ethics for complementary practitioners, and cooperation between orthodox and complementary medicine.

Future Risks and Risk Management

Author: B. Brehmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792330579
Release Date: 1994-09-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Future Risks and Risk Management provides a broad perspective on risk, including basic philosophical issues concerned with values, psychological issues, such as the perception of risk, the factors that generate risks in current and future technological and social systems, including both technical and organizational factors. No other volume adopts this broad perspective. Future Risks and Risk Management will be useful in a variety of contexts, both for teaching and as a source book for the risk professional needing to be informed of the broader issues in the field.

Social impact analysis

Author: Laurence Goldman
Publisher: Berg Publishers
ISBN: STANFORD:36105110294134
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Social Science

This book addresses the nature, purpose and processes associated with social impact analysis. Because resource development projects occur in human as well as ecological environments, stakeholders - landowners, companies and governments - are compelled to ensure that the benefits of any project are maximized while the negative risks are minimized. Achieving such objectives means implementing programs which monitor and evaluate the ongoing effects of a project on the social and cultural lives of the impacted populace. This book aims to provide a teaching and training resource for students, social scientists (anthropologists, sociologists, human geographers, environmentalists, engineers, etc.) and indigenous personnel and operators who are tasked with community affairs programs in those countries where resource development projects are implemented. The constituent chapters provide how-to guides and frameworks that are generously illustrated with case studies drawn variously from North America and the Asia-Pacific region. Topics addressed include Legal Frameworks and Compliance Procedures, Social Mapping, Environmental Reports, Social and Economic Impact Studies, Social Monitoring Techniques, Project Development, Statistical Packages and Report Production.This book is unique in so far as it seeks to prioritize application over theory. Moreover, it is the first training resource that is sensitive to non-western indigenes' need to assimilate and apply skills engendered by Western countries.

Environmental Risks and the Media

Author: Barbara Adam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134610921
Release Date: 2013-01-11
Genre: Social Science

Environmental Risks and the Media explores the ways in which environmental risks, threats and hazards are represented, transformed and contested by the media. At a time when popular conceptions of the environment as a stable, natural world with which humanity interferes are being increasingly contested, the medias methods of encouraging audiences to think about environmental risks - from the BSE or 'mad cow' crisis to global climate change - are becoming more and more controversial. Examining large-scale disasters, as well as 'everyday' hazards, the contributors consider the tensions between entertainment and information in media coverage of the environment. How do the media frame 'expert', 'counter-expert' and 'lay public' definitions of environmental risk? What role do environmental pressure groups like Greenpeace or 'eco-warriors' and 'green guerrillas' play in shaping what gets covered and how? Does the media emphasis on spectacular events at the expense of issue-sensitive reporting exacerbate the public tendency to overestimate sudden and violent risks and underestimate chronic long-term ones?


Author: University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research
ISBN: UOM:39015071888668
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Social Sciences

Policy Studies Review

ISBN: MINN:31951P004483976
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Policy sciences

Some vols. include special issues.

Policy uncertainty and risk

Author: Tomas Hellström
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
ISBN: 0792372344
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Business & Economics

Policy Uncertainty and Risk presents a contribution to risk analysis and risk management in public policy and management at large. Special emphasis is put on the utilization of scientific knowledge by decision-makers in instances where knowledge in both spheres of science and administration is highly uncertain and contested. The book therefore contributes a model of science-practitioner interaction in a policy area of strong current relevance. The perspective is a realist constructivist one, which means that risk and policy are taken to be socially predicated insofar as we can choose and change the way we define and interact with its practices. It is realist insofar as we continually use such constructions to re-define and re-structure the world we live in. Although essentially theory-driven and conceptually oriented, the authors develop their argument for a new interpretation of policy-relevant science through a number of pressing case studies. These studies include the recent BSE/CJD crises in the UK, the introduction of Marine Protected Areas in Sweden, and the current practices surrounding risk management in corporate bodies. Drawing on empirical cases and theoretical explication, the book provides a number of suggestions as to how risk analysis and risk management may be more properly conceived of both from a practitioner as well as from an academic point of view.