Author: Mary Douglas
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Release Date: 1985
Genre: Business & Economics
Every day, it seems, we become aware of some new technological or chemical hazard. Yet it is also possible that this very awareness is new, or at least newly heightened. Why are certain kinds of risks suddenly so salient? Are public perceptions of risk simply the sum of individual reactions to individual events, or do social and cultural influences play a role in shaping our definitions of safety, acceptable risk, and danger? Prompted by public outcries and by the confusion and uncertainty surrounding risk management policy, social scientists have begun to address themselves to the issue of risk perception. But as anthropologist Mary Douglas points out, they have been singularly reluctant to examine the cultural bases of risk perception, preferring to concentrate on the individual perceiver making individual choices. This approach leaves unexamined a number of crucial social factors—our concepts of what is “natural” or “artificial,” for example; our beliefs about fairness, and our moral judgements about the kind of society in which we want to live. This provocative and path-breaking report seeks to open a sociological approach to risk perception that has so far been systematically neglected. Describing first some exceptions to the general neglect of culture, Douglas builds on these clues and on her own broad anthropological perspective to make a compelling case for focusing on social factors in risk perception. She offers a challenge and a promising new agenda to all who study perceptions of risk and, by extension, to those who study human cognition and choice as well. "An altogether brilliant piece of writing—far-reaching and a joy to read." —Amartya Sen, Oxford University A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Social Science Frontiers Series
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2002-02-15
Genre: Social Science
The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.
Sustainability policies shape the ways that society and the economy interact with the environment, natural resources and ecosystems, and address issues such as water, energy and food security, and climate change. These policies are complex and are, at times, obscured by contestation, uncertainty and sometimes ignorance. Ultimately, sustainability problems are social problems and they need to be addressed through social and policy change. Social Science and Sustainability draws on the wide-ranging experience of CSIRO’s social scientists in the sustainability policy domain. These researchers have extensive experience in addressing complex issues of society–nature relationships, usually in interdisciplinary collaboration with natural scientists. This book describes some of the evidence-based concepts, frameworks and methodologies they have developed, which may guide a transition to sustainability. Contributions range from exploring ways to enhance livelihoods and alleviate poverty, to examining Australians’ responses to climate change, to discussing sociological perspectives on sustainability and how to make policy relevant. Researchers, policy-makers and decision-makers around the globe will find this book a valuable and thought-provoking contribution to the sustainability literature. It is also suited to academics and students in postgraduate-level courses in social sciences and sustainability, or in courses in applied sociology, applied social psychology and other applied social sciences.
Author: R.E Kasperson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).
Author: Peter Taylor-Gooby
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Social Science
This book is designed as an introduction to recent social science work on risk and is intended primarily for students in sociology, social psychology, and psychology, although it will also be useful for those studying political science, government, public policy, and economics. It is writtenby leading experts actively involved in research in the field.The book discusses the basic issues in risk research, paying attention to the contributions from different academic disciplines and reviewing debates in the recent literature. It then moves on to examine work on risk across the main areas of activity, discussing recent research and identifying thethemes that are currently subject to debate.The areas covered in substantive chapters are: Crime; the Environment; Everyday Life and Leisure Time; Family and Partnership; Health and Illness; Life Course, Youth and Old Age; Risk Regulation and Management; Social Inequality (covering gender, ethnicity, disability, and social class); Media;Social and Public Policy; as well as theoretical foundations and current issues in research.
Author: Susan Budd
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Health & Fitness
These questions are investigated from a variety of professional and academic perspectives, covering both 'orthodox' and 'non-orthodox' forms of healing practice. The contributors look at health care as a whole and deal with specific areas of health such as midwifery, psychoanalysis, naturopathy, the relations between medicine and the state, and the appeal of 'quacks'. They also confront particular issues of current concern, including medical litigation, codes of ethics for complementary practitioners, and cooperation between orthodox and complementary medicine.
Author: B. Brehmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1994-09-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Future Risks and Risk Management provides a broad perspective on risk, including basic philosophical issues concerned with values, psychological issues, such as the perception of risk, the factors that generate risks in current and future technological and social systems, including both technical and organizational factors. No other volume adopts this broad perspective. Future Risks and Risk Management will be useful in a variety of contexts, both for teaching and as a source book for the risk professional needing to be informed of the broader issues in the field.
This book addresses the nature, purpose and processes associated with social impact analysis. Because resource development projects occur in human as well as ecological environments, stakeholders - landowners, companies and governments - are compelled to ensure that the benefits of any project are maximized while the negative risks are minimized. Achieving such objectives means implementing programs which monitor and evaluate the ongoing effects of a project on the social and cultural lives of the impacted populace. This book aims to provide a teaching and training resource for students, social scientists (anthropologists, sociologists, human geographers, environmentalists, engineers, etc.) and indigenous personnel and operators who are tasked with community affairs programs in those countries where resource development projects are implemented. The constituent chapters provide how-to guides and frameworks that are generously illustrated with case studies drawn variously from North America and the Asia-Pacific region. Topics addressed include Legal Frameworks and Compliance Procedures, Social Mapping, Environmental Reports, Social and Economic Impact Studies, Social Monitoring Techniques, Project Development, Statistical Packages and Report Production.This book is unique in so far as it seeks to prioritize application over theory. Moreover, it is the first training resource that is sensitive to non-western indigenes' need to assimilate and apply skills engendered by Western countries.
Author: Paul T. Durbin
Publisher: Rr Bowker Llc
Release Date: 1988
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
Includes coverage of General Science; History of Science, Technology, & Medicine; Philosophy of Science & Pseudoscience; Mathematics; Statistics & Probability; Information & Communication Science; Earth & Space Sciences; Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Ecology & Environmental Science; Genetics; Medicine; Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry; Engineering & Technology; Energy; Ethics of Science, Technology, & Medicine. See main listing under Bibliography for more information.