This book is an up-to-date text on rubber science and is a breakthrough among many rubber-related publications. Emphasis is placed on the most modern scientific approaches to rubber science, departing from the usual detailed descriptions of trial-and-error results of traditional rubber technology. The book is a good introduction to modern rubber science both for graduate students and for more or less experienced rubber engineers for updating their way of thinking in handling of technological problems. Due to the increasing importance of pneumatic tires of vehicles and aircraft in modern transportation, this work will be of great use for general readers as well, including those who are concerned with sustainable development.
Author: James E. Mark
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2013-05-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering
The 4e of The Science and Technology of Rubber provides a broad survey of elastomers with special emphasis on materials with a rubber-like elasticity. As in previous editions, the emphasis remains on a unified treatment of the material, exploring chemical aspects such as elastomer synthesis and curing, through recent theoretical developments and characterization of equilibrium and dynamic properties, to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing. Updated material stresses the continuous relationship between ongoing research in synthesis, physics, structure and mechanics of rubber technology and industrial applications. Special attention is paid to recent advances in rubber-like elasticity theory and new processing techniques for elastomers. Exciting new developments in green tire manufacturing and tire recycling are covered. Provides a complete survey of elastomers for engineers and researchers in a unified treatment: from chemical aspects like elastomer synthesis and curing to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing Contains important updates to several chapters, including elastomer synthesis, characterization, viscoelastic behavior, rheology, reinforcement, tire engineering, and recycling Includes a new chapter on the burgeoning field of bioelastomers
Author: A. K. Haghi
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-05-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Technical and technological development demands the creation of new materials that are stronger, more reliable, and more durable—materials with new properties. This book skillfully blends and integrates polymer science, plastic technology, and rubber technology to highlight new developments and trends in advanced polyblends. The fundamentals of polymerization, polymer characteristics, rheology and morphology, as well as composition, technology, testing and evaluation of various plastics, rubbers, fibers, adhesives, coatings, and composites are comprehensively presented in this informative volume. The book presents the developments of advanced polyblends and the respective tools to characterize and predict the material properties and behavior. It provides important original and theoretical experimental results that use non-routine methodologies often unfamiliar to many readers. Furthermore chapters on novel applications of more familiar experimental techniques and analyses of composite problems are included, which indicate the need for the new experimental approaches that are presented. This new book: • Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of polyblends and composites • Familiarizes the reader with new aspects of the techniques used in the examination of polymers, emphasizing plastic technology and rubber technology • Describes the types of techniques now available to the polymer chemist and technician and discusses their capabilities, limitations, and applications • Provides a balance between materials science and the mechanics aspects, basic and applied research, and high-technology and high-volume (low-cost) composite development Entrepreneurs and professionals engaged in production of as well as research and development in polymers will find the information presented here valuable and informative.
Author: Peter S. Johnson
Publisher: Hanser Verlag
Release Date: 2001
1 Overview of Rubber Processing p. 1 1.1 Introduction p. 1 1.2 Testing p. 2 1.2.1 Raw Materials Quality Assurance p. 2 1.2.2 Processability Testing of Mixed Compounds p. 2 1.2.3 End Product Testing p. 3 1.3 Conclusion p. 3 References p. 4 2 Raw Materials Acceptance and Specifications p. 5 2.1 Introduction p. 5 2.2 Raw Materials Specifications p. 5 2.2.1 Elastomers p. 6 2.2.2 Fillers p. 7 3 Mixing of Rubber Compounds p. 9 3.1 Introduction p. 9 3.2 Material Flow to the Mixer p. 10 3.2.1 Receipt and Storage of Raw Materials p. 11 3.2.2 Feeding, Weighing, and Charging Raw Materials p. 12 184.108.40.206 Weighing Major Ingredients p. 14 220.127.116.11 Small Component Weighing p. 14 3.3 The Mixing Process p. 15 3.3.1 Incorporation p. 16 3.3.2 Dispersion p. 17 3.3.3 Distribution p. 19 3.3.4 Plasticization p. 20 3.3.5 Natural Rubber Mastication p. 20 3.3.6 Flow Visualization and Modeling of the Mixing Process p. 20 18.104.22.168 Flow Visualization p. 21 22.214.171.124 Modeling p. 21 3.3.7 Flow Behavior on Mills p. 24 3.4 Internal Mixers p. 26 3.4.1 Developments in Internal Mixers p. 29 126.96.36.199 Farrel Mixers p. 29 188.8.131.52 Kobelco Stewart Bolling Mixers p. 30 184.108.40.206 Krupp-Midwest Werner und Pfleiderer Mixers p. 31 220.127.116.11. Pomini Mixers p. 31 3.4.2 Choosing a Mixer p. 32 3.4.3 Inspection and Preventative Maintenance of Mixers p. 32 3.4.4 Internal Mixer Operation p. 33 18.104.22.168 Mixing Procedures p. 33 22.214.171.124 Temperature Control in Internal Mixers p. 37 126.96.36.199 Rotor Speed p. 37 188.8.131.52 Ram Pressure p. 38 184.108.40.206 Batch Size p. 38 220.127.116.11 Dump Criteria p. 40 3.4.5 Control of the Mixing Process p. 41 3.4.6 Scale-Up p. 41 3.5 Take-Off Systems p. 43 3.5.1 Dump Mills p. 43 3.5.2 Packaging p. 44 3.5.3 Single Pass Mixing p. 45 3.6 Other Mixing Equipment p. 45 3.6.1 Mill Mixing p. 45 3.6.2 Continuous Mixing p. 47 3.7 Custom Compounding p. 47 3.8 Troubleshooting the Mixing Process p. 48 3.8.1 Inadequate Dispersion or Distribution p. 49 3.8.2 Scorchy Compound p. 49 3.8.3 Contamination p. 49 3.8.4 Poor Handling on Dump Mill p. 49 3.8.5 Batch-to-Batch Variation p. 49 3.9 Concluding Comments p. 50 References p. 50 4 Flow Behavior of Compounds p. 53 4.1 Introduction p. 53 4.2 Fundamentals of Rheology p. 53 4.3 Effect of Compounding Ingredients on Processing Behavior p. 58 4.3.1 Elastomers p. 58 4.3.2 Fillers p. 59 18.104.22.168 Carbon Blacks p. 59 4.3.3 Plasticizers and Processing Aids p. 60 22.214.171.124 Plasticizers p. 61 126.96.36.199 Processing Aids p. 62 4.3.4 Elasticity p. 63 4.3.5 Conclusion p. 64 References p. 64 5 Testing of Compounds After Mixing p. 65 5.1 Introduction p. 65 5.2 Processability Test Instruments p. 68 5.2.1 The Mooney Viscometer p. 68 188.8.131.52 Delta Mooney p. 69 184.108.40.206 TMS Rheometer p. 70 5.2.2 Capillary Rheometers p. 80 5.2.3 Oscillating Disk Curemeters p. 73 5.2.4 Rotorless Curemeters p. 75 5.2.5 Dynamic Mechanical Rheological Testers p. 75 5.2.6 Stress Relaxation Instruments p. 75 5.2.7 ODR Cure Times Correlation with MDR p. 77 5.3 Comparison of Alpha Technologies Processability Test Instruments p. 78 5.4 Conclusion p. 80 References p. 80 6 The Curing Process p. 83 6.1 Introduction p. 84 6.2 Scorch or Premature Vulcanization p. 84 References p. 85 7 Calendering of Rubber p. 87 7.1 Introduction p. 87 7.2 Equipment p. 87 7.3 Processes p. 88 7.3.1 Feeding p. 88 7.3.2 Sheeting p. 88 7.3.3 Frictioning p. 88 7.3.4 Coating p. 89 7.3.5 Roller Dies p. 89 7.3.6 Downstream Processes p. 90 7.4 Modeling the Calendering Process p. 90 7.5 Troubleshooting Problems in Calendering p. 91 7.5.1 Scorch p. 91 7.5.2 Blistering p. 91 7.5.3 Rough or Holed Sheet p. 91 7.5.4 Tack p. 91 7.5.5 Bloom p. 91 7.6 Conclusions p. 91 References p. 92 8 Extrusion of Rubber p. 93 8.1 Introduction p. 93 8.2 Feeding p. 93 8.2.1 Cold-Feed versus Hot-Feed Extruders p. 94 8.3 Mass Transfer, Conveying, or Pumping p. 96 8.3.1 Flow Mechanism p. 97 8.3.2 Extruder Designs p. 98 220.127.116.11 The Maillefer Screw p. 99 18.104.22.168 The Iddon Screw p. 100 22.214.171.124 The Transfermix p. 101 126.96.36.199 The EVK Screw p. 101 188.8.131.52 The Pin Barrel Extruder p. 101 184.108.40.206 The Cavity Transfer Mixer p. 102 220.127.116.11 Vented Extruders p. 104 18.104.22.168 Dump Extruders p. 104 22.214.171.124 Strainers p. 105 126.96.36.199 Extruder Barrels p. 105 8.4 Extruder Operation and Control p. 105 8.5 Shaping p. 108 8.5.1 Extruder Heads p. 108 188.8.131.52 Coextrusion p. 109 184.108.40.206 Crossheading p. 109 220.127.116.11 Shear Heads p. 109 8.5.2 Dies p. 111 18.104.22.168 Pressure Drop p. 111 22.214.171.124 Die Swell p. 111 8.6 Take-Off and Curing p. 112 8.6.1 Continuous Vulcanization Systems p. 113 126.96.36.199 Pressurized Steam Systems p. 113 188.8.131.52 Hot Air Curing Systems p. 113 184.108.40.206 Hot Air Fluidized Bed Systems p. 114 220.127.116.11 Liquid Salt Bath Systems p. 114 18.104.22.168 Microwave Systems p. 114 22.214.171.124 Shear Head Systems p. 115 126.96.36.199 Electron Beam Systems p. 115 188.8.131.52 Steel Belt Presses p. 116 184.108.40.206 Ultrasonic Vulcanization p. 116 8.7 Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process p. 116 8.7.1 Low Output Rate p. 116 8.7.2 Poor Dimensional Stability of Extrudate p. 117 8.7.3 Excessive Heat Buildup in Compound p. 117 8.7.4 Rough Surface on Extrudate p. 117 8.7.5 Contamination p. 117 8.7.6 Porosity in Extrudate p. 117 8.7.7 Strip Difficult to Feed p. 117 8.7.8 Surging Output p. 118 8.8 Concluding Comments p. 118 References p. 118 9 Molding of Rubber p. 119 9.1 Introduction p. 119 9.2 Compression and Transfer Molding p. 120 9.3 Injection Molding of Rubber p. 122 9.3.1 Injection Molding Equipment p. 125 220.127.116.11 Delivery Systems p. 125 18.104.22.168 Nozzles, Runners, and Gates p. 127 22.214.171.124 Molds p. 128 126.96.36.199 Automatic Ejection p. 129 188.8.131.52 Deflashing p. 129 9.3.2 The Injection Molding Process p. 130 184.108.40.206 Injection Temperature p. 130 220.127.116.11 Screw Speed p. 131 18.104.22.168 Back Pressure p. 131 22.214.171.124 Injection Pressure p. 131 126.96.36.199 Summary p. 131 9.3.3 Monitoring and Modeling the Injection Molding Process p. 131 9.3.4 Control of the Injection Molding Process p. 132 9.3.5 Compounds for Injection Molding p. 133 9.3.6 Problems in Injection Molding of Rubber p. 133 References p. 136 10 Finished Product Testing p. 137 10.1 Introduction p. 137 10.2 Test of Filler Distribution and Dispersion p. 138 10.2.1 Microscopy p. 138 10.2.2 Surface Roughness p. 138 10.3 Tests on Cured Specimens p. 138 10.3.1 Tensile Tests p. 139 10.3.2 Hardness p. 139 10.3.3 Compression Set p. 139 10.3.4 Solvent Resistance p. 140 10.3.5 Aging p. 140 10.3.6 Ozone Cracking p. 140 References p. 140 Index p. 143
Author: Robert Horigan Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2008-03-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Taking a mechanistic approach that emphasizes the physical behavior of rubber as it slides, Analyzing Friction in the Design of Rubber Products and Their Paired Surfaces integrates the engineering and scientific evidence demonstrating that the laws of metallic friction do not apply to rubber. The book also presents a newly developed, scientifically based unified theory of rubber friction that incorporates a fourth basic rubber friction force: surface deformation hysteresis. With applications that phenomenologically treat both static and dynamic rubber friction, the book offers practical guidance for implementing the unified theory in the analysis and design processes. The use of this theory enables comprehensive calculations of rubber friction, thereby offering opportunities to enhance public safety. While the theory applies to all elastomeric products where friction is an issue, the author primarily focuses on: • Analyzing friction in the design of rubber tires and their contacted pavements • The geometric design of roadways • Motor vehicle accident reconstruction • Analyzing slip resistance in the design of footwear and their contacted walking surfaces Supported by extensive analytical evidence, this book details what rubber friction is and why it behaves the way it does.
Author: John S. Dick
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Release Date: 2014-07-03
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Rubber Technology: Compounding and Testing for Performance is a practical guide to cost-effective formulating of rubber compounds to achieve optimal processing and performance. It provides a thorough discussion of the principles of rubber compounding, rubber testing, and how various compound changes will effect different properties and test measurements. Rubber compounding is discussed as a series of interdependent systems such as the elastomer system, the filler-oil system, the cure system, etc. A holistic approach is used to show how changes in these different systems will affect specific compound properties. Much attention is given to trade-offs in properties and emphasis is placed on finding the best balance for compound cost, processing properties, and product performance. Contents: - Processing Characteristics and Testing - Compound Performance Characteristics and Testing - Rubber Compound Economics - Methodology for Compounding - Overview of Elastomer Selection - General Purpose Elastomers and Blend - Specialty Elastomers and Blends - Polyurethanes - Thermoplastic Elastomers - Recycled Rubber - Carbon Black and Oil Loadings - Non-Black Filler Loadings - Synthetic Plasticizers and Processing Aids - Sulfur Cure Systems - Cures for Specialty Elastomers - Peroxide Cure System - Resin Cures, Resin Reinforcement, and Resin Tackifiers - AO Systems - Adhesion Promoters to Brass / Bronze Coated Substrates - Blowing Agents - Flame Retardants - Mixing
This book presents selected papers on various aspects of rubber engineering, technology, and exploitation. The contributions range from new methods of the modification of filler surface and crosslinks structure of rubber vulcanizates, through modern functional elastomer composites, to aspects of their thermal stability, flammability, and ozone degradation. Each chapter contains a brief introduction to a particular topic, a description of the experimental techniques, and a discussion on the results obtained, followed by conclusions. The book will help to broaden the knowledge of researchers in the field of rubber compounding, crosslinking, and behavior under various exploitation conditions. The research and development presented in this book has potential for industrial applications as well as for new materials and technologies. The book also details theoretical background to a number of experimental techniques, which should make it interesting to research students and professionals.
Author: John Scheirs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2000-10-03
Intended as a practical guide for polymer technologists, engineers and analysts in the plastics, composites and rubber fields, this title describes a range of techniques and strategies for compositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials and products. Numerous examples illustrate the application of analytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems in the polymer industry. The reader is guided towards the most appropriate method of analysis and measurement and the most likely reasons for the failure. Areas covered include: * Migration and interaction of additives * Mechanical stress and stress cracking * Crazing and fracture * Residual stress and weld lines * Contamination and discoloration Numerous pedagogical methods, illustrative flow diagrams, figures and tables are used throughout the text to make it an invaluable guide to all analysts and polymer engineers in industrial or academic laboratories.
Author: Mark R Finlay
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2009-04-24
Growing American Rubber explores America's quest during tense decades of the twentieth century to identify a viable source of domestic rubber. Straddling international revolutions and world wars, this unique and well-researched history chronicles efforts of leaders in business, science, and government to sever American dependence on foreign suppliers. Mark Finlay plots out intersecting networks of actors including Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, prominent botanists, interned Japanese Americans, Haitian peasants, and ordinary citizensùall of whom contributed to this search for economic self-sufficiency. Challenging once-familiar boundaries between agriculture and industry and field and laboratory, Finlay also identifies an era in which perceived boundaries between natural and synthetic came under review. Although synthetic rubber emerged from World War II as one solution, the issue of ever-diminishing natural resources and the question of how to meet twenty-first-century consumer, military, and business demands lingers today.
Author: Robert O. Ebewele
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2000-03-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Your search for the perfect polymers textbook ends here - with Polymer Science and Technology. By incorporating an innovative approach and consolidating in one volume the fundamentals currently covered piecemeal in several books, this efficient text simplifies the learning of polymer science. The book is divided into three main sections: polymer fundamentals; polymer formation and conversion into useful articles; and polymer properties and applications. Polymer Science and Technology emphasizes the basic, qualitative understanding of the concepts rather than rote memorization or detailed mathematical analysis. Since the book focuses on the ultimate property of the finished product, it minimizes laborious descriptions of experimental procedures used for the characterization of polymers. Instead, the author highlights how the various stages involved in the production of the finished product influence its properties. Well-organized, clear-cut, and user-friendly, Polymer Science and Technology is an outstanding textbook for teaching junior and senior level undergraduates and first year graduate students in an introductory course covering the challenging subject of polymers.
Author: Chellappa Chandrasekaran
Publisher: William Andrew
Release Date: 2017-05-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Anticorrosive Rubber Lining discusses the state-of-the-art in this evolving industry, including sections on the best materials and formulations to use, what's best for a particular application, which repair technique is best for a given application, how long a rubber lining is likely to last, vulcanization parameters, and more. This book deals with the important field of anticorrosive rubber lining and its applications in various industries, including oil and gas, nuclear, aerospace, maritime, and many more, highlighting many of the technological aspects involved. The author offers a unique perspective due to the exclusiveness of the case histories presented, including many industrial rubber lining practices which are mostly kept within the industry. The technical information on rubber presented here is a practical tool to enable engineers to make the best use of rubber linings to prevent corrosion in chemical plants. The book includes valuable insights into bonding systems, surface preparation, and coating methodologies, and also covers failure analysis of failed systems. Includes up-to-date technical information on special compounding and processing technology of recently developed synthetic rubbers Provides detailed case studies from industry sectors, including aerospace, nuclear energy, and mining Presents rare, valuable insider knowledge of current industry practice