Author: James H. Brown
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2000
Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.
Scaling (power-type) laws reveal the fundamental property of the phenomena--self similarity. Self-similar (scaling) phenomena repeat themselves in time and/or space. The property of self-similarity simplifies substantially the mathematical modeling of phenomena and its analysis--experimental, analytical and computational. The book begins from a non-traditional exposition of dimensional analysis, physical similarity theory and general theory of scaling phenomena. Classical examples of scaling phenomena are presented. It is demonstrated that scaling comes on a stage when the influence of fine details of initial and/or boundary conditions disappeared but the system is still far from ultimate equilibrium state (intermediate asymptotics). It is explained why the dimensional analysis as a rule is insufficient for establishing self-similarity and constructing scaling variables. Important examples of scaling phenomena for which the dimensional analysis is insufficient (self-similarities of the second kind) are presented and discussed. A close connection of intermediate asymptotics and self-similarities of the second kind with a fundamental concept of theoretical physics, the renormalization group, is explained and discussed. Numerous examples from various fields--from theoretical biology to fracture mechanics, turbulence, flame propagation, flow in porous strata, atmospheric and oceanic phenomena are presented for which the ideas of scaling, intermediate asymptotics, self-similarity and renormalization group were of decisive value in modeling.
Author: Thomas T. Samaras
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Release Date: 2007
Several books have been published on scaling in biology and its ramifications in the animal kingdom. However, none has specifically examined the multifaceted effects of how changes in human height create disproportionately larger changes in weight, surface area, strength and other physiological parameters. Yet, the impact of these non-linear effects on individual humans as well as our world's environment is enormous. Since increasing human body size has widespread ramifications, this book presents findings on the human species and its ecological niche. In biology, an ecological niche' refers to the role played by a species in its community and how the species interacts with its environment. Thus, a few chapters provide an ecological overview of how increasing human body size relates to human evolution, fitness, health, survival and the environment. This book provides a unique purview of the laws of scaling on human performance, health, longevity and the environment. Numerous examples from various research disciplines are used to illustrate the impact of increasing body size on many aspects of human enterprises, including work output, athletics and intellectual performance.
Author: William J. Jungers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-12-14
In very general terms, "scaling" can be defined as the structural and func tional consequences of differences in size (or scale) among organisms of more or less similar design. Interest in certain aspects of body size and scaling in primate biology (e. g. , relative brain size) dates to the turn of the century, and scientific debate and dialogue on numerous aspects of this general subject have continued to be a primary concern of primatologists, physical an thropologists, and other vertebrate biologists up to the present. Indeed, the intensity and scope of such research on primates have grown enormously in the past decade or so. Information continues to accumulate rapidly from many different sources, and the task of synthesizing the available data and theories on any given topic is becoming increasingly formidable. In addition to the formal exchange of new ideas and information among scientific experts in specific areas of scaling research, two of the major goals of this volume are an assessment of our progress toward understanding various size-related phe nomena in primates and the identification of future prospects for continuing advances in this realm. Although the subject matter and specific details of the issues considered in the 20 chapters that follow are very diversified, all topics share the same fundamental and unifying biological theme: body size variation in primates and its implications for behavior and ecology, anatomy and physiology, and evolution.
Author: J.P. Dempsey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2001-12-31
This Volume constitutes the Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on 'Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics', held in Fairbanks, Alaska from 13th to 16th of June 2000. Ice mechanics deals with essentially intact ice: in this discipline, descriptions of the motion and deformation of Arctic/ Antarctic and river/lake ice call for the development of physically based constitutive and fracture models over an enormous range in scale: 0.01 m - 10 km. Ice dynamics, on the other hand, deals with the movement of broken ice: descriptions of an aggregate of ice floes call for accurate modeling of momentum transfer through the sea/ice system, again over an enormous range in scale: 1 km (floe scale) - 500 km (basin scale). For ice mechanics, the emphasis on lab-scale (0.01 - 0.5 m) research con trasts with applications at the scale of order 1 km (ice-structure interaction, icebreaking); many important upscaling questions remain to be explored.
Author: Graham Taylor
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-01-02
Evolutionary biomechanics is the study of evolution through the analysis of biomechanical systems. Its unique advantage is the precision with which physical constraints and performance can be predicted from first principles. Instead of reviewing the entire breadth of the biomechanical literature, a few key examples are explored in depth as vehicles for discussing fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and evolutionary theory. Each chapter develops a conceptual theme, developing the underlying theory and techniques required for analyses in evolutionary biomechanics. Examples from terrestrial biomechanics, metabolic scaling, and bird flight are used to analyse how physics constrains the design space that natural selection is free to explore, and how adaptive evolution finds solutions to the trade-offs between multiple complex conflicting performance objectives. Evolutionary Biomechanics is suitable for graduate level students and professional researchers in the fields of biomechanics, physiology, evolutionary biology and palaeontology. It will also be of relevance and use to researchers in the physical sciences and engineering.
An area at the intersection of solid mechanics, materials science, and stochastic mathematics, mechanics of materials often necessitates a stochastic approach to grasp the effects of spatial randomness. Using this approach, Microstructural Randomness and Scaling in Mechanics of Materials explores numerous stochastic models and methods used in the mechanics of random media and illustrates these in a variety of applications. The book first offers a refresher in several tools used in stochastic mechanics, followed by two chapters that outline periodic and disordered planar lattice (spring) networks. Subsequent chapters discuss stress invariance in classical planar and micropolar elasticity and cover several topics not yet collected in book form, including the passage of a microstructure to an effective micropolar continuum. After forming this foundation in various methods of stochastic mechanics, the book focuses on problems of microstructural randomness and scaling. It examines both representative and statistical volume elements (RVEs/SVEs) as well as micromechanically based stochastic finite elements (SFEs). The author also studies nonlinear elastic and inelastic materials, the stochastic formulation of thermomechanics with internal variables, and wave propagation in random media. The concepts discussed in this comprehensive book can be applied to many situations, from micro and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) to geophysics.
Author: Eric C. Faulques
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2004-09-07
A comprehensive discussion of the key role of modern spectroscopic investigations in interdisciplinary materials science and engineering, covering emerging materials that are either absolutely novel or well-known materials with recently discovered, exciting properties. The types of spectroscopy discussed include optical, electronic and magnetic, UV-visible absorption, Rayleigh scattering, photoluminescence, vibrational, magnetic resonance, electron energy loss, EXAFS, XANES, optical tomography, time-resolved spectroscopy, and point contact spectroscopy. The materials studied are highly topical, with a focus on carbon and silicon nanomaterials including nanotubes, fullerenes, nanoclusters, metallic superconducting phases, molecular materials, magnetic and charge-stripe oxides, and biomaterials. Theoretical treatments are presented of molecular vibrational dynamics, vibration-induced decay of electronic excited states, nanoscale spin-orbit coupling in 2D Si-based structures, and the growth of semiconductor clusters.
Author: Jean Requin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1991-08-31
This volume represents the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on the topic of "Motor Neuroscience" held at the Hotel San 15-24, 1990. The San Bastiano Hotel Bastiano, Calcatoggio (Corsica), September provided a beautiful setting for the ten day ASI in aresort on the west coast of Corsica, near the island's capital city of Ajaccio. The motivation of this ASI originated from the success of an ASI that we organized eleven years ago at Senanque Abbey in the south of France. Our earlier meeting was successful in providing some coherence to a widely scattered literature while providing up to date knowledge on motor control and learning. Our goal for the second ASI was essentially the same. We wanted to appraise the main theoretical ideas that currently characterize the field by bringing together many of the internationally known scientists who are doing much of the contemporary work. It is our hope that these proceedings will provide some conceptual unification to an expanding and diverse literature on motor control.
Vision, more than any other sense, dominates our mental life. Our conscious visual experience of the world is so rich and detailed that we can hardly distinguish it from the real thing. But as Goodale and Milner make clear in their prize-winning book, Sight Unseen, our visual experience of the world is not all there is to vision. Some of the most important things that vision does for us never reach our consciousness at all. In this updated and extended new edition, Goodale and Milner explore one of the most extraordinary neurological cases of recent years—one that profoundly changed scientific views on the visual brain. It is the story of Dee Fletcher—a young woman who became blind to shape and form as a result of brain damage. Dee was left unable to recognize objects or even tell one simple geometric shape from another. As events unfolded, however, Goodale and Milner found that Dee wasn't in fact blind — she just didn't know that she could see. They showed, for example, that Dee could reach out and grasp objects with amazing dexterity, despite being unable to perceive their shape, size, or orientation. Taking us on a journey into the unconscious brain, the two scientists who made this incredible discovery tell the amazing story of their work, and the surprising conclusion they were forced to reach. Written to be accessible to students and popular science readers, this book is a fascinating illustration of the power of the 'unconscious' mind.