Scanning Electron Microscopy and X ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461502159
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This text provides students as well as practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers and the use of x-rays for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Separate chapters cover SEM sample preparation methods for hard materials, polymers, and biological specimens. In addition techniques for the elimination of charging in non-conducting specimens are detailed.

Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387857311
Release Date: 2011-04-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Scanning electr on microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis can produce magnified images and in situ chemical information from virtually any type of specimen. The two instruments generally operate in a high vacuum and a very dry environment in order to produce the high energy beam of electrons needed for imaging and analysis. With a few notable exceptions, most specimens destined for study in the SEM are poor conductors and composed of beam sensitive light elements containing variable amounts of water. In the SEM, the imaging system depends on the specimen being sufficiently electrically conductive to ensure that the bulk of the incoming electrons go to ground. The formation of the image depends on collecting the different signals that are scattered as a consequence of the high energy beam interacting with the sample. Backscattered electrons and secondary electrons are generated within the primary beam-sample interactive volume and are the two principal signals used to form images. The backscattered electron coefficient ( ? ) increases with increasing atomic number of the specimen, whereas the secondary electron coefficient ( ? ) is relatively insensitive to atomic number. This fundamental diff- ence in the two signals can have an important effect on the way samples may need to be prepared. The analytical system depends on collecting the x-ray photons that are generated within the sample as a consequence of interaction with the same high energy beam of primary electrons used to produce images.

Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475790276
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Medical

This book has its origins in the intensive short courses on scanning elec tron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis which have been taught annually at Lehigh University since 1972. In order to provide a textbook containing the materials presented in the original course, the lecturers collaborated to write the book Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), which was published by Plenum Press in 1975. The course con tinued to evolve and expand in the ensuing years, until the volume of material to be covered necessitated the development of separate intro ductory and advanced courses. In 1981 the lecturers undertook the project of rewriting the original textbook, producing the volume Scan ning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (SEMXM). This vol ume contained substantial expansions of the treatment of such basic material as electron optics, image formation, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, a number of chapters, which had been included in the PSEM vol ume, including those on magnetic contrast and electron channeling con trast, had to be dropped for reasons of space. Moreover, these topics had naturally evolved into the basis of the advanced course. In addition, the evolution of the SEM and microanalysis fields had resulted in the devel opment of new topics, such as digital image processing, which by their nature became topics in the advanced course.

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461332732
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

This book has evolved by processes of selection and expansion from its predecessor, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), published by Plenum Press in 1975. The interaction of the authors with students at the Short Course on Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis held annually at Lehigh University has helped greatly in developing this textbook. The material has been chosen to provide a student with a general introduction to the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis suitable for application in such fields as biology, geology, solid state physics, and materials science. Following the format of PSEM, this book gives the student a basic knowledge of (1) the user-controlled functions of the electron optics of the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe, (2) the characteristics of electron-beam-sample inter actions, (3) image formation and interpretation, (4) x-ray spectrometry, and (5) quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Each of these topics has been updated and in most cases expanded over the material presented in PSEM in order to give the reader sufficient coverage to understand these topics and apply the information in the laboratory. Throughout the text, we have attempted to emphasize practical aspects of the techniques, describing those instru ment parameters which the microscopist can and must manipulate to obtain optimum information from the specimen. Certain areas in particular have been expanded in response to their increasing importance in the SEM field. Thus energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, which has undergone a tremendous surge in growth, is treated in substantial detail.

Scanning Electron Microscopy X Ray Microanalysis and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Author: Charles E. Lyman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461306351
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

During the last four decades remarkable developments have taken place in instrumentation and techniques for characterizing the microstructure and microcomposition of materials. Some of the most important of these instruments involve the use of electron beams because of the wealth of information that can be obtained from the interaction of electron beams with matter. The principal instruments include the scanning electron microscope, electron probe x-ray microanalyzer, and the analytical transmission electron microscope. The training of students to use these instruments and to apply the new techniques that are possible with them is an important function, which. has been carried out by formal classes in universities and colleges and by special summer courses such as the ones offered for the past 19 years at Lehigh University. Laboratory work, which should be an integral part of such courses, is often hindered by the lack of a suitable laboratory workbook. While laboratory workbooks for transmission electron microscopy have-been in existence for many years, the broad range of topics that must be dealt with in scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis has made it difficult for instructors to devise meaningful experiments. The present workbook provides a series of fundamental experiments to aid in "hands-on" learning of the use of the instrumentation and the techniques. It is written by a group of eminently qualified scientists and educators. The importance of hands-on learning cannot be overemphasized.

Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461344223
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

In the spring of 1963, a well-known research institute made a market survey to assess how many scanning electron microscopes might be sold in the United States. They predicted that three to five might be sold in the first year a commercial SEM was available, and that ten instruments would saturate the marketplace. In 1964, the Cambridge Instruments Stereoscan was introduced into the United States and, in the following decade, over 1200 scanning electron microscopes were sold in the U. S. alone, representing an investment conservatively estimated at $50,000- $100,000 each. Why were the market surveyers wrongil Perhaps because they asked the wrong persons, such as electron microscopists who were using the highly developed transmission electron microscopes of the day, with resolutions from 5-10 A. These scientists could see little application for a microscope that was useful for looking at surfaces with a resolution of only (then) about 200 A. Since that time, many scientists have learned to appreciate that information content in an image may be of more importance than resolution per se. The SEM, with its large depth of field and easily that often require little or no sample prepara interpreted images of samples tion for viewing, is capable of providing significant information about rough samples at magnifications ranging from 50 X to 100,000 X. This range overlaps considerably with the light microscope at the low end, and with the electron microscope at the high end.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Ludwig Reimer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540389675
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

Scanning Electron Microscopy provides a description of the physics of electron-probe formation and of electron-specimen interactions. The different imaging and analytical modes using secondary and backscattered electrons, electron-beam-induced currents, X-ray and Auger electrons, electron channelling effects, and cathodoluminescence are discussed to evaluate specific contrasts and to obtain quantitative information.

Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology

Author: Weilie Zhou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387396200
Release Date: 2007-03-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book presents scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fundamentals and applications for nanotechnology. It includes integrated fabrication techniques using the SEM, such as e-beam and FIB, and it covers in-situ nanomanipulation of materials. The book is written by international experts from the top nano-research groups that specialize in nanomaterials characterization. The book will appeal to nanomaterials researchers, and to SEM development specialists.

Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology

Author: S. J. B. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113944638X
Release Date: 2005-08-25
Genre: Science

Originally published in 2005, this book covers the closely related techniques of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specifically from a geological viewpoint. Topics discussed include: principles of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, general principles of SEM image formation, production of X-ray 'maps' showing elemental distributions, procedures for qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), the use of both 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs fitted with X-ray spectrometers, and practical matters such as sample preparation and treatment of results. Throughout, there is an emphasis on geological aspects not mentioned in similar books aimed at a more general readership. The book avoids unnecessary technical detail in order to be easily accessible, and forms a comprehensive text on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as those working in industrial laboratories.

Industrial Applications Of Electron Microscopy

Author: Zhigang Li
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824745769
Release Date: 2002-12-04
Genre: Science

Providing proven strategies for solutions to research, development, and production dilemmas, this reference details the instrumentation and underlying principles for utilization of electron microscopy in the manufacturing, automotive, semiconductor, photographic film, pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, forensic, glass, and pulp and paper industries. The book covers safety, calibration, and troubleshooting techniques, as well as methods in sample preparation and image collection, interpretation, and analysis. It includes contributions from microscopy experts based at major corporations and scientists from universities and major research centers.

Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy

Author: Ray Egerton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387258000
Release Date: 2011-02-11
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Scanning and stationary-beam electron microscopes are indispensable tools for both research and routine evaluation in materials science, the semiconductor industry, nanotechnology and the biological, forensic, and medical sciences. This book introduces current theory and practice of electron microscopy, primarily for undergraduates who need to understand how the principles of physics apply in an area of technology that has contributed greatly to our understanding of life processes and "inner space." Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy will appeal to technologists who use electron microscopes and to graduate students, university teachers and researchers who need a concise reference on the basic principles of microscopy.

Microscopy Methods in Nanomaterials Characterization

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780323461474
Release Date: 2017-05-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Microscopy Methods in Nanomaterials Characterization fills an important gap in the literature with a detailed look at microscopic and X-ray based characterization of nanomaterials. These microscopic techniques are used for the determination of surface morphology and the dispersion characteristics of nanomaterials. This book deals with the detailed discussion of these aspects, and will provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of morphological tools, such as instrumentation, sample preparation and different kinds of analyses, etc. In addition, it covers the latest developments and trends morphological characterization using a variety of microscopes. Materials scientists, materials engineers and scientists in related disciplines, including chemistry and physics, will find this to be a detailed, method-orientated guide to microscopy methods of nanocharacterization. Takes a method-orientated approach that includes case studies that illustrate how to carry out each characterization technique Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each microscopy characterization technique, giving the reader greater understanding of conditions for different techniques Presents an in-depth discussion of each technique, allowing the reader to gain a detailed understanding of each