Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph I. Goldstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493966769
Release Date: 2017-11-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners — engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers — will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope’s software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules – no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes an online supplement—an extensive "Database of Electron–Solid Interactions"—which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3

Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387857311
Release Date: 2011-04-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Scanning electr on microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis can produce magnified images and in situ chemical information from virtually any type of specimen. The two instruments generally operate in a high vacuum and a very dry environment in order to produce the high energy beam of electrons needed for imaging and analysis. With a few notable exceptions, most specimens destined for study in the SEM are poor conductors and composed of beam sensitive light elements containing variable amounts of water. In the SEM, the imaging system depends on the specimen being sufficiently electrically conductive to ensure that the bulk of the incoming electrons go to ground. The formation of the image depends on collecting the different signals that are scattered as a consequence of the high energy beam interacting with the sample. Backscattered electrons and secondary electrons are generated within the primary beam-sample interactive volume and are the two principal signals used to form images. The backscattered electron coefficient ( ? ) increases with increasing atomic number of the specimen, whereas the secondary electron coefficient ( ? ) is relatively insensitive to atomic number. This fundamental diff- ence in the two signals can have an important effect on the way samples may need to be prepared. The analytical system depends on collecting the x-ray photons that are generated within the sample as a consequence of interaction with the same high energy beam of primary electrons used to produce images.

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461332732
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

This book has evolved by processes of selection and expansion from its predecessor, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), published by Plenum Press in 1975. The interaction of the authors with students at the Short Course on Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis held annually at Lehigh University has helped greatly in developing this textbook. The material has been chosen to provide a student with a general introduction to the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis suitable for application in such fields as biology, geology, solid state physics, and materials science. Following the format of PSEM, this book gives the student a basic knowledge of (1) the user-controlled functions of the electron optics of the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe, (2) the characteristics of electron-beam-sample inter actions, (3) image formation and interpretation, (4) x-ray spectrometry, and (5) quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Each of these topics has been updated and in most cases expanded over the material presented in PSEM in order to give the reader sufficient coverage to understand these topics and apply the information in the laboratory. Throughout the text, we have attempted to emphasize practical aspects of the techniques, describing those instru ment parameters which the microscopist can and must manipulate to obtain optimum information from the specimen. Certain areas in particular have been expanded in response to their increasing importance in the SEM field. Thus energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, which has undergone a tremendous surge in growth, is treated in substantial detail.

Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475790276
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Medical

This book has its origins in the intensive short courses on scanning elec tron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis which have been taught annually at Lehigh University since 1972. In order to provide a textbook containing the materials presented in the original course, the lecturers collaborated to write the book Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), which was published by Plenum Press in 1975. The course con tinued to evolve and expand in the ensuing years, until the volume of material to be covered necessitated the development of separate intro ductory and advanced courses. In 1981 the lecturers undertook the project of rewriting the original textbook, producing the volume Scan ning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (SEMXM). This vol ume contained substantial expansions of the treatment of such basic material as electron optics, image formation, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, a number of chapters, which had been included in the PSEM vol ume, including those on magnetic contrast and electron channeling con trast, had to be dropped for reasons of space. Moreover, these topics had naturally evolved into the basis of the advanced course. In addition, the evolution of the SEM and microanalysis fields had resulted in the devel opment of new topics, such as digital image processing, which by their nature became topics in the advanced course.

Scanning Electron Microscopy X Ray Microanalysis and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Author: Charles E. Lyman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461306351
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

During the last four decades remarkable developments have taken place in instrumentation and techniques for characterizing the microstructure and microcomposition of materials. Some of the most important of these instruments involve the use of electron beams because of the wealth of information that can be obtained from the interaction of electron beams with matter. The principal instruments include the scanning electron microscope, electron probe x-ray microanalyzer, and the analytical transmission electron microscope. The training of students to use these instruments and to apply the new techniques that are possible with them is an important function, which. has been carried out by formal classes in universities and colleges and by special summer courses such as the ones offered for the past 19 years at Lehigh University. Laboratory work, which should be an integral part of such courses, is often hindered by the lack of a suitable laboratory workbook. While laboratory workbooks for transmission electron microscopy have-been in existence for many years, the broad range of topics that must be dealt with in scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis has made it difficult for instructors to devise meaningful experiments. The present workbook provides a series of fundamental experiments to aid in "hands-on" learning of the use of the instrumentation and the techniques. It is written by a group of eminently qualified scientists and educators. The importance of hands-on learning cannot be overemphasized.

Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology

Author: S. J. B. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113944638X
Release Date: 2005-08-25
Genre: Science

Originally published in 2005, this book covers the closely related techniques of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specifically from a geological viewpoint. Topics discussed include: principles of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, general principles of SEM image formation, production of X-ray 'maps' showing elemental distributions, procedures for qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), the use of both 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs fitted with X-ray spectrometers, and practical matters such as sample preparation and treatment of results. Throughout, there is an emphasis on geological aspects not mentioned in similar books aimed at a more general readership. The book avoids unnecessary technical detail in order to be easily accessible, and forms a comprehensive text on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as those working in industrial laboratories.

Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy

Author: Ray Egerton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387258000
Release Date: 2011-02-11
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Scanning and stationary-beam electron microscopes are indispensable tools for both research and routine evaluation in materials science, the semiconductor industry, nanotechnology and the biological, forensic, and medical sciences. This book introduces current theory and practice of electron microscopy, primarily for undergraduates who need to understand how the principles of physics apply in an area of technology that has contributed greatly to our understanding of life processes and "inner space." Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy will appeal to technologists who use electron microscopes and to graduate students, university teachers and researchers who need a concise reference on the basic principles of microscopy.

Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461344223
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

In the spring of 1963, a well-known research institute made a market survey to assess how many scanning electron microscopes might be sold in the United States. They predicted that three to five might be sold in the first year a commercial SEM was available, and that ten instruments would saturate the marketplace. In 1964, the Cambridge Instruments Stereoscan was introduced into the United States and, in the following decade, over 1200 scanning electron microscopes were sold in the U. S. alone, representing an investment conservatively estimated at $50,000- $100,000 each. Why were the market surveyers wrongil Perhaps because they asked the wrong persons, such as electron microscopists who were using the highly developed transmission electron microscopes of the day, with resolutions from 5-10 A. These scientists could see little application for a microscope that was useful for looking at surfaces with a resolution of only (then) about 200 A. Since that time, many scientists have learned to appreciate that information content in an image may be of more importance than resolution per se. The SEM, with its large depth of field and easily that often require little or no sample prepara interpreted images of samples tion for viewing, is capable of providing significant information about rough samples at magnifications ranging from 50 X to 100,000 X. This range overlaps considerably with the light microscope at the low end, and with the electron microscope at the high end.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Ludwig Reimer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662135624
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron specimen interactions, imaging modes, the interpretation of micrographs and the use of quantitative modes "in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). lt forms a counterpart to Transmission Electron Microscopy (Vol. 36 of this Springer Series in Optical Sciences) . The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Münster and from a German text entitled Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie (Springer-Verlag), published in collaboration with my colleague Gerhard Pfefferkorn. In the introductory chapter, the principles of the SEM and of electron specimen interactions are described, the most important imaging modes and their associated contrast are summarized, and general aspects of eiemental analysis by x-ray and Auger electron emission are discussed. The electron gun and electron optics are discussed in Chap. 2 in order to show how an electron probe of small diameter can be formed, how the elec tron beam can be blanked at high frequencies for time-resolving exper iments and what problems have tobe taken into account when focusing.

Microscopy Methods in Nanomaterials Characterization

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780323461474
Release Date: 2017-05-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Microscopy Methods in Nanomaterials Characterization fills an important gap in the literature with a detailed look at microscopic and X-ray based characterization of nanomaterials. These microscopic techniques are used for the determination of surface morphology and the dispersion characteristics of nanomaterials. This book deals with the detailed discussion of these aspects, and will provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of morphological tools, such as instrumentation, sample preparation and different kinds of analyses, etc. In addition, it covers the latest developments and trends morphological characterization using a variety of microscopes. Materials scientists, materials engineers and scientists in related disciplines, including chemistry and physics, will find this to be a detailed, method-orientated guide to microscopy methods of nanocharacterization. Takes a method-orientated approach that includes case studies that illustrate how to carry out each characterization technique Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each microscopy characterization technique, giving the reader greater understanding of conditions for different techniques Presents an in-depth discussion of each technique, allowing the reader to gain a detailed understanding of each

Electron Microscopy

Author: John J. Bozzola
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN: 0763701920
Release Date: 1999-01
Genre: Medical

Electron Microscopy covers all of the important aspects of electron microscopy for biologists, including theory of scanning and transmission, specimen preparation, digital imaging and image analysis, laboratory safety and interpretation of images. The text also contains a complete atlas of ultrastructure.

Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization

Author: C. R. Brundle
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 0750691689
Release Date: 1992
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization is a comprehensive volume on analytical techniques used in materials science for the characterization of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. This flagship volume in the Materials Characterization Series is a unique, stand-alone reference for materials science practitioners, process engineers, students and anyone with a need to know about the capabilities available in materials analysis. An encyclopedia of 50 concise articles, this book will also be a practical companion to the forthcoming books in the Series. It describes widely-ranging techniques in a jargon-free manner and includes summary pages for each technique to supply a quick survey of its capabilities.

Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science

Author: Adam J. Schwartz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387881362
Release Date: 2010-03-11
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Electron backscatter diffraction is a very powerful and relatively new materials characterization technique aimed at the determination of crystallographic texture, grain boundary character distributions, lattice strain, phase identification, and much more. The purpose of this book is to provide the fundamental basis for electron backscatter diffraction in materials science, the current state of both hardware and software, and illustrative examples of the applications of electron backscatter diffraction to a wide-range of materials including undeformed and deformed metals and alloys, ceramics, and superconductors. The text has been substantially revised from the first edition, and the authors have kept the format as close as possible to the first edition text. The new developments covered in this book include a more comphrensive coverage of the fundamentals not covered in the first edition or other books in the field, the advances in hardware and software since the first edition was published, and current examples of application of electron backscatter diffraction to solve challenging problems in materials science and condensed-matter physics.