Seismic Amplitude

Author: Rob Simm
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107011502
Release Date: 2014-04-17
Genre: Nature

Introduces practical seismic analysis techniques and evaluation of interpretation confidence, for graduate students and industry professionals - independent of commercial software products.

Seismic Amplitude Inversion in Reflection Tomography

Author: Yanghua Wang
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080540872
Release Date: 2003-02-25
Genre: Science

This is the first book of its kind on seismic amplitude inversion in the context of reflection tomography. The aim of the monograph is to advocate the use of ray-amplitude data, separately or jointly with traveltime data, in reflection seismic tomography. The emphasis of seismic exploration is on imaging techniques, so that seismic section can be interpreted directly as a geological section. In contrast it is perhaps ironic that, in decades of industrial seismology, one major aspect of waveform data that potentially is easier to measure and analyse has generally been ignored. That is, the information content of seismic amplitudes. Perhaps the potential complexity has deterred most researchers from a more thorough investigation of the practical use of seismic amplitude data. The author of this volume presents an authoritative and detailed study of amplitude data, as used in conjunction with traveltime data, to provide better constraints on the variation of seismic wave speed in the subsurface. One of the fundamental problems in conventional reflection seismic tomography using only traveltime data is the possible ambiguity between the velocity variation and the reflector depth. The inclusion of amplitude data in the inversion may help to resolve this problem because the amplitudes and traveltimes are sensitive to different features of the subsurface model, and thereby provide more accurate information about the subsurface structure and the velocity distribution. An essential goal of this monograph is to make the amplitude inversion method work with real reflection seismic data.

Seismic True amplitude Imaging

Author: Jörg Schleicher
Publisher: SEG Books
ISBN: 9781560801436
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Science

A rich literature exists on computational methods based on wave equations for seismic imaging and earth-parameter estimation. Somewhat lost in the advance to progressively more sophisticated computational techniques are the intuitive ideas with roots that reach back to Hagedoorn and are based on ray theory, the geometry of data, and the geometry of wave propagation. In Seismic True-Amplitude Imaging (SEG Geophysical Developments Series No. 12), the authors describe their research of many years, demonstrating that those simple ideas also lead to a broad description of the structure of the earth's interior and the changes in medium parameters across reflectors. Demonstrations in the open literature of the efficacy of their methods abound. Now those ideas have been collected and reorganized. The book gives a pictorial presentation of the basic principles of Kirchhoff-type imaging and proceeds to a comprehensive treatment of its kinematic and dynamic aspects. The text is a valuable addition to the library of anyone interested in the theory and practices of seismic data processing for imaging and parameter estimation with all its attendant processes.

Seismic True amplitude Imaging

Author: Jörg Schleicher
Publisher: SEG Books
ISBN: 9781560801436
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Science

A rich literature exists on computational methods based on wave equations for seismic imaging and earth-parameter estimation. Somewhat lost in the advance to progressively more sophisticated computational techniques are the intuitive ideas with roots that reach back to Hagedoorn and are based on ray theory, the geometry of data, and the geometry of wave propagation. In Seismic True-Amplitude Imaging (SEG Geophysical Developments Series No. 12), the authors describe their research of many years, demonstrating that those simple ideas also lead to a broad description of the structure of the earth's interior and the changes in medium parameters across reflectors. Demonstrations in the open literature of the efficacy of their methods abound. Now those ideas have been collected and reorganized. The book gives a pictorial presentation of the basic principles of Kirchhoff-type imaging and proceeds to a comprehensive treatment of its kinematic and dynamic aspects. The text is a valuable addition to the library of anyone interested in the theory and practices of seismic data processing for imaging and parameter estimation with all its attendant processes.

Seismic Amplitude Anomalies by Using Rock Physics and AVO in Sirikit Field Area Pitsanulok Basin Changwat Kamphaengphet

Author: Phatthanun Phaksuknithiwat
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:1005509289
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Amplitude variation with offset analysis

Seismic amplitude anomalies are the significant tools as a hydrocarbon-indicator; however, these anomalies can be originated by many causes. To investigate the causes of anomalies and classify their AVO (Amplitude-Versus-Offset) classes are the aim of this research. In this study the data from Sirikit petroleum field in Pitsanulok Basin were used. The techniques used in this study are Rock physics and AVO modeling. Firstly the several cross-plots of petrophysical parameters were performed. Then, fluids-substitution was modeled with 100% of water and 80% of gas and oil to observe the variations of impedances with particular fluids. Based on the models, acoustic impedance trends were used to classify classes of AVO responses. Lastly, Synthetic AVO gathers were generated in order to observe the seismic amplitudes with different types of fluids. The interested sand formations in this study area are 868-878 meters and 1280-1430 meters. As the result, the depth trend analysis showed that if we considered the interface at shales overlie sand, both of shallow and deep sands have acoustic impedance of sands lower than shales represented as class 2 or class 3 according to Rutherford's AVO classification system. In AVO modeling, the two interested sand have intercept and gradient decreasing with angles and give negative reflection coefficient that corresponding with the previous analysis and the geology of the study area, However, the bed thicknesses in this study are mostly thinner that tuning thickness especially at deep depth.

Quantitative Seismic Interpretation

Author: Per Avseth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107320277
Release Date: 2010-06-10
Genre: Science

Quantitative Seismic Interpretation demonstrates how rock physics can be applied to predict reservoir parameters, such as lithologies and pore fluids, from seismically derived attributes. The authors provide an integrated methodology and practical tools for quantitative interpretation, uncertainty assessment, and characterization of subsurface reservoirs using well-log and seismic data. They illustrate the advantages of these new methodologies, while providing advice about limitations of the methods and traditional pitfalls. This book is aimed at graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the areas of petroleum geoscience and exploration seismology. It will also interest environmental geophysicists seeking a quantitative subsurface characterization from shallow seismic data. The book includes problem sets and a case-study, for which seismic and well-log data, and Matlab codes are provided on a website (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521816014). These resources will allow readers to gain a hands-on understanding of the methodologies.

Practical Seismic Data Analysis

Author: Hua-Wei Zhou
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107728851
Release Date: 2014-01-23
Genre: Science

This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.

Seismic Wave Propagation and Scattering in the Heterogeneous Earth Second Edition

Author: Haruo Sato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642230295
Release Date: 2012-01-28
Genre: Science

Seismic waves - generated both by natural earthquakes and by man-made sources - have produced an enormous amount of information about the Earth's interior. In classical seismology, the Earth is modeled as a sequence of uniform horizontal layers (or spherical shells) having different elastic properties and one determines these properties from travel times and dispersion of seismic waves. The Earth, however, is not made of horizontally uniform layers, and classic seismic methods can take large-scale inhomogeneities into account. Smaller-scale irregularities, on the other hand, require other methods. Observations of continuous wave trains that follow classic direct S waves, known as coda waves, have shown that there are heterogeneities of random size scattered randomly throughout the layers of the classic seismic model. This book focuses on recent developments in the area of seismic wave propagation and scattering through the randomly heterogeneous structure of the Earth, with emphasis on the lithosphere. The presentation combines information from many sources to present a coherent introduction to the theory of scattering in acoustic and elastic materials and includes analyses of observations using the theoretical methods developed. The second edition especially includes new observational facts such as the spatial variation of medium inhomogeneities and the temporal change in scattering characteristics and recent theoretical developments in the envelope synthesis in random media for the last ten years. Mathematics is thoroughly rewritten for improving the readability. Written for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students of geophysics or planetary sciences, this book should also be of interest to civil engineers, seismologists, acoustical engineers, and others interested in wave propagation through inhomogeneous elastic media.

Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis of the 2014 2015 B r arbunga Holuhraun Dike Propagation and Eruption

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:1032171090
Release Date: 2018
Genre:

Abstract: Magma is transported in brittle rock through dikes and sills. This movement may be accompanied by the release of seismic energy that can be tracked from the Earth's surface. Locating dikes and deciphering their dynamics is therefore of prime importance in understanding and potentially forecasting volcanic eruptions. The Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method aims to track melt propagation using the amplitudes recorded across a seismic network without picking the arrival times of individual earthquake phases. This study validates this methodology by comparing SARA locations (filtered between 2 and 16 Hz) with the earthquake locations (same frequency band) recorded during the 2014–2015 Bár ∂ arbunga‐Holuhraun dike intrusion and eruption in Iceland. Integrating both approaches also provides the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of magma migration during the dike intrusion and ensuing eruption. During the intrusion SARA locations correspond remarkably well to the locations of earthquakes. Several exceptions are, however, observed. (1) A low‐frequency signal was possibly associated with a subglacial eruption on 23 August. (2) A systematic retreat of the seismicity was also observed to the back of each active segment during stalled phases and was associated with a larger spatial extent of the seismic energy source. This behavior may be controlled by the dike's shape and/or by dike inflation. (3) During the eruption SARA locations consistently focused at the eruptive site. (4) Tremor‐rich signal close to ice cauldrons occurred on 3 September. This study demonstrates the power of the SARA methodology, provided robust site amplification; Quality Factors and seismic velocities are available. Plain Language Summary: Locating earthquakes usually implies picking phase arrivals ( P and S waves). Another technique called Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) was recently introduced to locate them only by using the amplitude recorded at different pairs of seismic stations. However, this technique was never proven to be true. This study shows that the earthquake locations derived by SARA compares remarkably well with the locations of 30, 000 seismic events triggered when magma migrated in the Icelandic crust prior to the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption. But the results also provide new insight into the magma dynamics that led to the largest eruption of the last two centuries in Europe. We show that ground vibration was continuously triggered during the 2 week period preceding the eruption when magma forced its way toward the eruption site but also during the eruption itself. Several intriguing features were observed including low‐frequency vibrations possibly associated with eruption below the ice, or large patches of seismic activity when the magma stopped propagating toward the eruption site. This methodology performs very well, provided some parameters are available, and allows to gain insights into the complex dynamics associated with magma movements. Key Points: This work provides a proof of concept of the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) Seismic energy continuously released even in the absence of earthquakes detected by traditional techniques Seismic observations during stalled phases are explained by changes in the dike shape and/or dike inflation.

Seismic Stratigraphy Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterisation

Author: P.C.H. Veeken
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080466303
Release Date: 2006-11-13
Genre: Science

The interest in seismic stratigraphic techniques to interpret reflection datasets is well established. The advent of sophisticated subsurface reservoir studies and 4D monitoring, for optimising the hydrocarbon production in existing fields, does demonstrate the importance of the 3D seismic methodology. The added value of reflection seismics to the petroleum industry has clearly been proven over the last decades. Seismic profiles and 3D cubes form a vast and robust data source to unravel the structure of the subsurface. It gets nowadays exploited in ever greater detail. Larger offsets and velocity anisotropy effects give for instance access to more details on reservoir flow properties like fracture density, porosity and permeability distribution, Elastic inversion and modelling may tell something about the change in petrophysical parameters. Seismic investigations provide a vital tool for the delineation of subtle hydrocarbon traps. They are the basis for understanding the regional basin framework and the stratigraphic subdivision. Seismic stratigraphy combines two very different scales of observation: the seismic and well-control. The systematic approach applied in seismic stratigraphy explains why many workers are using the principles to evaluate their seismic observations. The here presented modern geophysical techniques allow more accurate prediction of the changes in subsurface geology. Dynamics of sedimentary environments are discussed with its relation to global controling factors and a link is made to high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. ‘Seismic Stratigraphy Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterisation’ summarizes basic seismic interpretation techniques and demonstrates the benefits of intergrated reservoir studies for hydrocarbon exploration. Topics are presented from a practical point of view and are supported by well-illustrated case histories. The reader (student as well as professional geophysicists, geologists and reservoir engineers) is taken from a basic level to more advanced study techniques. * Overview reflection seismic methods and its limitations. * Link between basic seismic stratigraphic principles and high resolution sequence stratigraphy. * Description of various techniques for seismic reservoir characterization and synthetic modelling. * Overview nversion techniques, AVO and seismic attributes analysis.

3 D Seismic Interpretation

Author: M. Bacon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107268708
Release Date: 2007-10-18
Genre: Science

3-D seismic data have become the key tool used in the petroleum industry to understand the subsurface. In addition to providing excellent structural images, the dense sampling of a 3-D survey makes it possible to map reservoir quality and the distribution of oil and gas. Topics covered in this book include basic structural interpretation and map-making; the use of 3-D visualisation methods; interpretation of seismic amplitudes, including their relation to rock and fluid properties; and the generation and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets. This new paperback edition includes an extra appendix presenting new material on novel acquisition design, pore pressure prediction from seismic velocity, elastic impedance inversion, and time lapse seismics. Written by professional geophysicists with many years' experience in the oil industry, the book is indispensable for geoscientists using 3-D seismic data, including graduate students and new entrants into the petroleum industry.

Seismic Reflections of Rock Properties

Author: Jack Dvorkin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521899192
Release Date: 2014-03-13
Genre: Science

An accessible guide to using the rock physics-based forward modeling approach for seismic subsurface mapping, for researchers and petroleum geologists.

Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization

Author: Satinder Chopra
Publisher: SEG Books
ISBN: 9781560801412
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Science

Seismic attributes play a key role in exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization (SEG Geophysical Developments No. 11), Satinder Chopra and Kurt J. Marfurt introduce the physical basis, mathematical implementation, and geologic expression of modern volumetric attributes including coherence, dip/azimuth, curvature, amplitude gradients, seismic textures, and spectral decomposition. The authors demonstrate the importance of effective color display and sensitivity to seismic acquisition and processing. Examples from different basins illustrate the attribute expression of tectonic deformation, clastic depositional systems, carbonate depositional systems and diagenesis, drilling hazards, and reservoir characterization. The book is illustrated generously with color figures throughout. "Seismic Attributes" will appeal to seismic interpreters who want to extract more information from data; seismic processors and imagers who want to learn how their efforts impact subtle stratigraphic and fracture plays; sedimentologists, stratigraphers, and structural geologists who use large 3D seismic volumes to interpret their plays within a regional, basinwide context; and reservoir engineers whose work is based on detailed 3D reservoir models. Copublished with EAGE.