This is the first book of its kind on seismic amplitude inversion in the context of reflection tomography. The aim of the monograph is to advocate the use of ray-amplitude data, separately or jointly with traveltime data, in reflection seismic tomography. The emphasis of seismic exploration is on imaging techniques, so that seismic section can be interpreted directly as a geological section. In contrast it is perhaps ironic that, in decades of industrial seismology, one major aspect of waveform data that potentially is easier to measure and analyse has generally been ignored. That is, the information content of seismic amplitudes. Perhaps the potential complexity has deterred most researchers from a more thorough investigation of the practical use of seismic amplitude data. The author of this volume presents an authoritative and detailed study of amplitude data, as used in conjunction with traveltime data, to provide better constraints on the variation of seismic wave speed in the subsurface. One of the fundamental problems in conventional reflection seismic tomography using only traveltime data is the possible ambiguity between the velocity variation and the reflector depth. The inclusion of amplitude data in the inversion may help to resolve this problem because the amplitudes and traveltimes are sensitive to different features of the subsurface model, and thereby provide more accurate information about the subsurface structure and the velocity distribution. An essential goal of this monograph is to make the amplitude inversion method work with real reflection seismic data.
Seismic amplitude anomalies are the significant tools as a hydrocarbon-indicator; however, these anomalies can be originated by many causes. To investigate the causes of anomalies and classify their AVO (Amplitude-Versus-Offset) classes are the aim of this research. In this study the data from Sirikit petroleum field in Pitsanulok Basin were used. The techniques used in this study are Rock physics and AVO modeling. Firstly the several cross-plots of petrophysical parameters were performed. Then, fluids-substitution was modeled with 100% of water and 80% of gas and oil to observe the variations of impedances with particular fluids. Based on the models, acoustic impedance trends were used to classify classes of AVO responses. Lastly, Synthetic AVO gathers were generated in order to observe the seismic amplitudes with different types of fluids. The interested sand formations in this study area are 868-878 meters and 1280-1430 meters. As the result, the depth trend analysis showed that if we considered the interface at shales overlie sand, both of shallow and deep sands have acoustic impedance of sands lower than shales represented as class 2 or class 3 according to Rutherford's AVO classification system. In AVO modeling, the two interested sand have intercept and gradient decreasing with angles and give negative reflection coefficient that corresponding with the previous analysis and the geology of the study area, However, the bed thicknesses in this study are mostly thinner that tuning thickness especially at deep depth.
Author: Per Avseth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2010-06-10
Quantitative Seismic Interpretation demonstrates how rock physics can be applied to predict reservoir parameters, such as lithologies and pore fluids, from seismically derived attributes. The authors provide an integrated methodology and practical tools for quantitative interpretation, uncertainty assessment, and characterization of subsurface reservoirs using well-log and seismic data. They illustrate the advantages of these new methodologies, while providing advice about limitations of the methods and traditional pitfalls. This book is aimed at graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the areas of petroleum geoscience and exploration seismology. It will also interest environmental geophysicists seeking a quantitative subsurface characterization from shallow seismic data. The book includes problem sets and a case-study, for which seismic and well-log data, and Matlab codes are provided on a website (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521816014). These resources will allow readers to gain a hands-on understanding of the methodologies.
A rich literature exists on computational methods based on wave equations for seismic imaging and earth-parameter estimation. Somewhat lost in the advance to progressively more sophisticated computational techniques are the intuitive ideas with roots that reach back to Hagedoorn and are based on ray theory, the geometry of data, and the geometry of wave propagation. In Seismic True-Amplitude Imaging (SEG Geophysical Developments Series No. 12), the authors describe their research of many years, demonstrating that those simple ideas also lead to a broad description of the structure of the earth's interior and the changes in medium parameters across reflectors. Demonstrations in the open literature of the efficacy of their methods abound. Now those ideas have been collected and reorganized. The book gives a pictorial presentation of the basic principles of Kirchhoff-type imaging and proceeds to a comprehensive treatment of its kinematic and dynamic aspects. The text is a valuable addition to the library of anyone interested in the theory and practices of seismic data processing for imaging and parameter estimation with all its attendant processes.
Author: M. Bacon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2007-10-18
3-D seismic data have become the key tool used in the petroleum industry to understand the subsurface. In addition to providing excellent structural images, the dense sampling of a 3-D survey makes it possible to map reservoir quality and the distribution of oil and gas. Topics covered in this book include basic structural interpretation and map-making; the use of 3-D visualisation methods; interpretation of seismic amplitudes, including their relation to rock and fluid properties; and the generation and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets. This new paperback edition includes an extra appendix presenting new material on novel acquisition design, pore pressure prediction from seismic velocity, elastic impedance inversion, and time lapse seismics. Written by professional geophysicists with many years' experience in the oil industry, the book is indispensable for geoscientists using 3-D seismic data, including graduate students and new entrants into the petroleum industry.
This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.
Author: William Ashcroft
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-03-08
This book is written for advanced earth science students, geologists, petroleum engineers and others who want to get quickly ‘up to speed’ on the interpretation of reflection seismic data. It is a development of material given to students on the MSc course in Petroleum Geology at Aberdeen University and takes the form of a course manual rather than a systematic textbook. It can be used as a self-contained course for individual study, or as the basis for a class programme. The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress. Some tutorials may only involve drawing simple diagrams, but many are computer-aided (PC based) with graphics output to give insight into key steps in seismic data processing or into the seismic response of some common geological scenarios. Part I of the book covers basic ideas and it ends with two tutorials in 2-D structural interpretation. Part II concentrates on the current seismic reflection contribution to reservoir studies, based on 3-D data.
Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes.
Author: James L. Allen
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Amplitude variation with offset analysis
This book is intended to be a practical look at seismic amplitude variation with offset (AVO) analysis, a geophysical technique that has dramatically increased the drilling success ration in the Eocene Yegua Formation of onshore Texas. The technique has resulted in a wildcat drilling success rate of fifty percent in the Yegua, a large increase from pre-AVO drilling.
Seismic attributes play a key role in exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization (SEG Geophysical Developments No. 11), Satinder Chopra and Kurt J. Marfurt introduce the physical basis, mathematical implementation, and geologic expression of modern volumetric attributes including coherence, dip/azimuth, curvature, amplitude gradients, seismic textures, and spectral decomposition. The authors demonstrate the importance of effective color display and sensitivity to seismic acquisition and processing. Examples from different basins illustrate the attribute expression of tectonic deformation, clastic depositional systems, carbonate depositional systems and diagenesis, drilling hazards, and reservoir characterization. The book is illustrated generously with color figures throughout. "Seismic Attributes" will appeal to seismic interpreters who want to extract more information from data; seismic processors and imagers who want to learn how their efforts impact subtle stratigraphic and fracture plays; sedimentologists, stratigraphers, and structural geologists who use large 3D seismic volumes to interpret their plays within a regional, basinwide context; and reservoir engineers whose work is based on detailed 3D reservoir models. Copublished with EAGE.