Author: Rob Simm
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2014-04-17
Seismic amplitudes yield key information on lithology and fluid fill, enabling interpretation of reservoir quality and likelihood of hydrocarbon presence. The modern seismic interpreter must be able to deploy a range of sophisticated geophysical techniques, such as seismic inversion, AVO (amplitude variation with offset), and rock physics modelling, as well as integrating information from other geophysical techniques and well data. This accessible, authoritative book provides a complete framework for seismic amplitude interpretation and analysis in a practical manner that allows easy application - independent of any commercial software products. Deriving from the authors' extensive industry expertise and experience of delivering practical courses on the subject, it guides the interpreter through each step, introducing techniques with practical observations and helping to evaluate interpretation confidence. Seismic Amplitude is an invaluable day-to-day tool for graduate students and industry professionals in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, and all subsurface disciplines making regular use of seismic data.
Author: Per Avseth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2010-06-10
Quantitative Seismic Interpretation demonstrates how rock physics can be applied to predict reservoir parameters, such as lithologies and pore fluids, from seismically derived attributes. The authors provide an integrated methodology and practical tools for quantitative interpretation, uncertainty assessment, and characterization of subsurface reservoirs using well-log and seismic data. They illustrate the advantages of these new methodologies, while providing advice about limitations of the methods and traditional pitfalls. This book is aimed at graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the areas of petroleum geoscience and exploration seismology. It will also interest environmental geophysicists seeking a quantitative subsurface characterization from shallow seismic data. The book includes problem sets and a case-study, for which seismic and well-log data, and Matlab codes are provided on a website (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521816014). These resources will allow readers to gain a hands-on understanding of the methodologies.
Author: M. Bacon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2007-10-18
3-D seismic data have become the key tool used in the petroleum industry to understand the subsurface. In addition to providing excellent structural images, the dense sampling of a 3-D survey makes it possible to map reservoir quality and the distribution of oil and gas. Topics covered in this book include basic structural interpretation and map-making; the use of 3-D visualisation methods; interpretation of seismic amplitudes, including their relation to rock and fluid properties; and the generation and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets. This new paperback edition includes an extra appendix presenting new material on novel acquisition design, pore pressure prediction from seismic velocity, elastic impedance inversion, and time lapse seismics. Written by professional geophysicists with many years' experience in the oil industry, the book is indispensable for geoscientists using 3-D seismic data, including graduate students and new entrants into the petroleum industry.
Author: André Luiz Romanelli Rosa
Publisher: SEG Books
Release Date: 2018-06-10
This updated translation connects the literature and routine activities of geophysicists. It shows how practical problems have links to seismic data analysis theory. Phase and amplitude distortions to the seismic signal, the physical processes that it undergoes, and the interpretation methods to recover rock physics properties are explained. Filling the gap between theoretical literature and the routine activities of geophysicists in the oil industry, The Seismic Signal and Its Meaning is a translation of the second edition of Análise do Sinal Sísmico, published in Portuguese by Sociedade Brasileira de Geofísica (SBGf). For those performing acquisition, processing, and/or interpretation, this book will aid an understanding of how practical problems may have important links to seismic data analysis theory. With an emphasis on providing an objective description of the physical and mathematical aspects that support these links, the rules necessary for robust reservoir characterization are presented. With an extensive development of Gassmann’s (and Biot) theory, the book concentrates on phase and amplitude distortions to the seismic signal, the physical processes that it undergoes, and the interpretation methods to recover rock physics properties. Capturing 30 years of teaching and improvement as a part of Petrobras’ internal courses, the book is a modern treatment, reflecting the many advances that have occurred in geophysics. The book serves as both a text and a reference.
Modern introduction to seismic data processing demonstrating exploration and global geophysics applications through real data and tutorial examples that can be demonstrated with the instructor's software of choice. The underlying physics and mathematics of analysis methods is presented, showing students the limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface.
Seismic attributes play a key role in exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization (SEG Geophysical Developments No. 11), Satinder Chopra and Kurt J. Marfurt introduce the physical basis, mathematical implementation, and geologic expression of modern volumetric attributes including coherence, dip/azimuth, curvature, amplitude gradients, seismic textures, and spectral decomposition. The authors demonstrate the importance of effective color display and sensitivity to seismic acquisition and processing. Examples from different basins illustrate the attribute expression of tectonic deformation, clastic depositional systems, carbonate depositional systems and diagenesis, drilling hazards, and reservoir characterization. The book is illustrated generously with color figures throughout. "Seismic Attributes" will appeal to seismic interpreters who want to extract more information from data; seismic processors and imagers who want to learn how their efforts impact subtle stratigraphic and fracture plays; sedimentologists, stratigraphers, and structural geologists who use large 3D seismic volumes to interpret their plays within a regional, basinwide context; and reservoir engineers whose work is based on detailed 3D reservoir models. Copublished with EAGE.
Author: R. J. Davies
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2007-01-01
We are poised to embark on a new era of discovery in the study of geomorphology. The discipline has a long and illustrious history, but in recent years an entirely new way of studying landscapes and seascapes has been developed. It involves the use of 3D seismic data. Just as CAT scans allow medical staff to view our anatomy in 3D, seismic data now allows Earth scientists to do what the early geomorphologists could only dream of - view tens and hundreds of square kilometres of the Earth's subsurface in 3D and therefore see for the first time how landscapes have evolved through time. This volume demonstrates how Earth scientists are starting to use this relatively new tool to study the dynamic evolution of a range of sedimentary environments.
The Niger Delta is a prolific oil province within the West African subcontinent. Exploration activities have been concentrated in the onshore part of this basin, but as the delta becomes better understood, exploration influences are gradually being shifted to the offshore. Although the geology, tectonics and evolution of the Eocene-Pliocene sequence of the Niger Delta are fairly well known, these are expected to increase as new analytical tools and concepts evolve. This work was an integrated structural, seismic facies and stratigraphic study conducted in the Fabi Field, onshore western Niger Delta, and targeted at improving the present understanding of the structural development, sequence stratigraphic history, paleo-depositional environments and hydrocarbon reservoir potential of the field. Five wireline logs, biostratigraphic data, 3-D seismic section, check shot data and core data were analysed and utilized in this study. Well logs were used to determine the different lithologies, system tracts, stacking patterns and reservoir potentials of the field. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies were used to identify the reflection packages in order to determine the environment of deposition. Structural and horizon mapping results were used to generate time and depth structural map with the aid of a derived function calculated from the check shot data. The base of these sequences consists of massive and monotonous marine bioturbated shales, which grade into inter-bedding shallow marine fluvial sands with parallel-cross bedding laminations, silt and clays, while the upper part is a massive marine sandstone section. The gross reservoir thickness ranges from 150ft-700ft with net thickness of 20ft-175ft. Sequence stratigraphic analysis revealed that the succession consists of two sequence boundaries, dated 10.35Ma and 10.6Ma and two maximum flooding surfaces, dated 9.5Ma and 10.4Ma. The high percentage of the reflections with low to moderate amplitude/continuity of the parallel/divergent configuration is identified as a feature of delta platform facies, while the sigmoidal-hummoky reflections indicate a slope facies. The system tracts from the log are the trangressive and highstand system tracts, while growth faults(F1), antithetic faults(F3,F4) and synthetic faults (F2,F5,F6,F7) are the identified structures which are typical of the Niger Delta reservoir sandstone. Depositional setting of the Middle-Upper Miocene strata were influenced by fluvial, tidal and marine systems. The up dip areas on the depth structure maps with closure signify possible anticlinal structures where hydrocarbons could be entrapped. These could serve as possible appraisal locations where wells could be sited to optimize the development of the reservoir sands within the field using the structural model generated.