Selective Incapacitation and the Serious Offender

Author: Rudy Haapanen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461232667
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Psychology

And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one ofthy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. Matthew 5. 30 The great War on Pover,ty of the 1960s focused on the root causes of crime, unemployment, lack of education, and discrimination. It was eventually agreed that the War on Poverty failed as a crime control program, and the focus of policy shifted toward more proximate causes of crime. Infact, it seems safe to say that since the 1960s, the United States has looked primarily to the criminal justice system to solve its crime problem. With the 1990s upon us, what can we say about the success of crime control policies that rely on the criminal justice system? The picture, taken one approach or program at a time, is not good. It is now generally agreed that the criminal justice system fails to rehabilitate offenders, to make them less likely to commit criminal acts as a result of treatment or training; that the system fails to deter potential offenders, to make them less likely to commit criminal acts out of fear of penal sanctions; and that such programs as increased police patrols, reinstatement of the death penalty, and modification of the exclusionary rule are unlikely to have much effect on crime, at least within the limits imposed on them by reasonable assessments of their costs.

Key Issues in Criminal Career Research

Author: Alex R. Piquero
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521613094
Release Date: 2007-01-08
Genre: Social Science

This book examines several contentious and under-studied criminal career issues using one of the world's most important longitudinal studies, the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys followed in criminal records to age 40. The analysis reported in the book explores issues related to prevalence, offending frequency, specialization, onset sequences, co-offending, chronicity, career length, and trajectory estimation. The results of the study are considered in the context of developmental/life-course theories, and the authors outline an agenda for criminal career research generally, and within the context of the CSDD specifically.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Author: John F. MacLeod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199697243
Release Date: 2012-08-23
Genre: Law

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via as well as the OAPEN Library platform, It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Encyclopedia of Criminology

Author: J. Mitchell Miller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135455446
Release Date: 2013-12-17
Genre: Reference

This three-volume work offers a comprehensive review of the pivotal concepts, measures, theories, and practices that comprise criminology and criminal justice. No longer just a subtopic of sociology, criminology has become an independent academic field of study that incorporates scholarship from numerous disciplines including psychology, political science, behavioral science, law, economics, public health, family studies, social work, and many others. The three-volume Encyclopedia of Criminology presents the latest research as well as the traditional topics which reflect the field's multidisciplinary nature in a single, authoritative reference work. More than 525 alphabetically arranged entries by the leading authorities in the discipline comprise this definitive, international resource. The pivotal concepts, measures, theories, and practices of the field are addressed with an emphasis on comparative criminology and criminal justice. While the primary focus of the work is on American criminology and contemporary criminal justice in the United States, extensive global coverage of other nations' justice systems is included, and the increasing international nature of crime is explored thoroughly. Providing the most up-to-date scholarship in addition to the traditional theories on criminology, the Encyclopedia of Criminology is the essential one-stop reference for students and scholars alike to explore the broad expanse of this multidisciplinary field.

Urban Crime Criminals and Victims

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461390770
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Psychology

Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Public Policy Crime and Criminal Justice

Author: Barry W. Hancock
ISBN: STANFORD:36105060445066
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Law

Designed to provide readers with a “whole-system” view of policy, crime, and criminal justice, this unique anthology offers a collection of original works that explore the issues related to public policy and crime. . Organizes articles strategically--beginning with a general discussion of public policy to the causes of crime to the components of the criminal justice system to the implications for policy. For those in the Public Affairs, Criminology, Criminal Justice, Political Science, Police Studies, and Public Administration fields.

The Criminal Career

Author: Britta Kyvsgaard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139434713
Release Date: 2002-11-14
Genre: Social Science

How can the average 'criminal career' be characterized and how common are career criminals? Does offending become more specialized and/or more serious as people get older? Do female careers in crime differ from those of males in substance or only in magnitude? Britta Kyvsgaard examines these questions through her longitudinal analysis of the life circumstances and criminal pursuits of 45,000 Danish offenders. This 2002 book provides a remarkably broad assessment of the full spectrum of criminal career patterns. The data, unparalleled in size and quality, allows powerful analyses of criminal behavior, even among relatively small demographic subgroups. Kyvsgaard is thus able to make solid assessments of offending patterns for males and females, juveniles and middle-aged adults, and employed and unemployed individuals. Furthermore, she examines the empirical evidence of the effects of deterrence and incapacitation. Her findings suggest rehabilitation as an alternative worthy of further research.

Developmental and Life Course Studies in Delinquency and Crime

Author: Arjan Blokland
Publisher: Eleven International Pub
ISBN: IND:30000109977474
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Social Science

This book brings together some of the best empirical studies in Dutch Development and Life Course research. Developmental and life course criminology (DLC) is an exciting and rapidly growing research area within the larger field of criminology. DLC focuses on explaining the development of anti-social, delinquent and criminal behavior from childhood to adulthood. In doing so, DLC embraces insights from a wide range of academic disciplines including behavioral genetics, developmental psychology and psychiatry, criminology, and life course sociology. Much DLC research is based on Anglo-American data. The number of longitudinal studies and researchers on DLC topics in the Netherlands however, is substantial and increasing. Based on first-rate Dutch research this book covers major topics in DLC. These include the role of individual characteristics, family environment and peers in delinquent development, as well as whether life events and interventions can act as ‘turning points’, and reroute developmental trajectories. The book’s introductory chapter briefly introduces the key points of debate within DLC. Sections introductions further place the selected readings within the larger DLC frame. The book gives an overview of contemporary Dutch DLC research. It also provides a useful introduction to DLC for researchers and students in criminology, psychology, psychiatry and related disciplines, interested in the way criminal behavior progresses over time.

Crime Prevention

Author: Steven P. Lab
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1583605096
Release Date: 2000-01-01
Genre: Political Science


Author: Gennaro F. Vito
Publisher: Wadsworth Pub Co
ISBN: 0534148867
Release Date: 1994-01-01
Genre: Law

Focusing on pure criminology (not criminal justice systems topics), this book takes a broad approach to criminological theory, incorporating sociology, psychology, biology, and ecology. The text blends the theoretical and applied aspects of criminology, incorporating timely topics such as gang violence, substance abuse, serial murder, and satanic cults. Writing from a social sciences perspective, the authors explore why and how crime occurs, and how this knowledge can guide policy development. The authors show the interplay of theory, research, and public policy throughout the text.

Juvenile justice

Author: Barry Krisberg
Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc
ISBN: UOM:39015060392704
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Law

Juvenile Justice: Redeeming Our Children debunks myths about juvenile justice in order to achieve an ideal system that would protect vulnerable children and help build safer communities. Author Barry Krisberg assembles broad and up-to-date research, statistical data, and theories on the U.S. juvenile justice system to encourage effective responses to youth crime. This text gives a historical context to the ongoing quest for the juvenile justice ideal and examines how the current system of laws, policies, and practices came into place.