Self and Others

Author: Jan Österberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400928794
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Philosophy

1. The Aim of This Essay Ethical Egoism, the doctrine that, roughly speaking, one should promote one's own good, has been a live issue since the very beginnings of moral philosophy. Historically, it is the most widely held normative theory, and, next to Utilitarianism, it is the most intensely debated one. What is at stake in this debate is a fundamental question of ethics: 'Is there any reason, except self-interest, for considering the interests of other people?' The ethical egoist answers No to this question, thus rejecting the received conception of morality. Is Ethical Egoism an acceptable position? There are many forms of Ethical Egoism, and each may be interpreted in several different ways. So the relevant question is rather, 'Is there an acceptable version of Ethical It is the main aim of this essay to answer this question. This Egoism?' means that I will be confronted with many other controversial questions, for example, 'What is a moral principle?', 'Is value objective or subjec tive?', 'What is the nature of the self?' For the acceptability of most ver sions of Ethical Egoism, it has been alleged, depends on what answers are given to questions such as these. (I will show that in some of these cases there is in fact no such dependence. ) It is, of course, impossible to ad equately discuss all these questions within the compass of my essay.

In the Scope of Logic Methodology and Philosophy of Science

Author: Peter Gärdenfors
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402009305
Release Date: 2002-12-31
Genre: Computers

This is the second of two volumes containing papers submitted by the invited speakers to the 11th international Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, held in Cracow in 1999, under the auspices of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. The invited speakers are the leading researchers and accordingly the book presents the current state of the intellectual discourse in the respective fields. The papers delivered at the congress were divided into 17 sections. Thus the structure of the volume corresponds to the very schedule of the congress. Volume two contains the closing lecture by John Maynard Smith and the invited papers in sections of Philosophy of the Biological Sciences, Philosophy of Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Linguistics, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Ethics of Science and Technology, History of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Philosophical Questions Raised by the History and Sociology of Science. It also contains invited papers in two special symposia: A Hundred Years of the Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Science Meets Philosophy of Science, as well as a special lecture delivered by Stanislaw Lem. We hope that the book could be of interest to philosophers, biologists, linguists, cognitive scientists, social scientists, sociologists, as well as historians and philosophers of science.

Logic and Scientific Methods

Author: Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401704878
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science

This is the first of two volumes comprising the papers submitted for publication by the invited participants to the Tenth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, held in Florence, August 1995. The Congress was held under the auspices of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. The invited lectures published in the two volumes demonstrate much of what goes on in the fields of the Congress and give the state of the art of current research. The two volumes cover the traditional subdisciplines of mathematical logic and philosophical logic, as well as their interfaces with computer science, linguistics and philosophy. Philosophy of science is broadly represented, too, including general issues of natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The papers in Volume One are concerned with logic, mathematical logic, the philosophy of logic and mathematics, and computer science.

Empathy and Moral Development

Author: Martin L. Hoffman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052101297X
Release Date: 2001-11-12
Genre: Psychology

The culmination of three decades of study and research in the area of child and developmental psychology.

Visualization Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics

Author: P. Mancosu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402033353
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Mathematics

In the 20th century philosophy of mathematics has to a great extent been dominated by views developed during the so-called foundational crisis in the beginning of that century. These views have primarily focused on questions pertaining to the logical structure of mathematics and questions regarding the justi?cation and consistency of mathematics. Paradigmatic in this - spect is Hilbert’s program which inherits from Frege and Russell the project to formalize all areas of ordinary mathematics and then adds the requi- ment of a proof, by epistemically privileged means (?nitistic reasoning), of the consistency of such formalized theories. While interest in modi?ed v- sions of the original foundational programs is still thriving, in the second part of the twentieth century several philosophers and historians of mat- matics have questioned whether such foundational programs could exhaust the realm of important philosophical problems to be raised about the nature of mathematics. Some have done so in open confrontation (and hostility) to the logically based analysis of mathematics which characterized the cl- sical foundational programs, while others (and many of the contributors to this book belong to this tradition) have only called for an extension of the range of questions and problems that should be raised in connection with an understanding of mathematics. The focus has turned thus to a consideration of what mathematicians are actually doing when they produce mathematics. Questions concerning concept-formation, understanding, heuristics, changes instyle of reasoning, the role of analogies and diagrams etc.

Quantifiers Logics Models and Computation

Author: Michal Krynicki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0792334485
Release Date: 1995-05-31
Genre: Philosophy

Quantifiers: Logics, Models and Computation is the first concentrated effort to give a systematic presentation of the main research results on the subject, since the modern concept was formulated in the late '50s and early '60s. The majority of the papers are in the nature of a handbook. All of them are self-contained, at various levels of difficulty. The Introduction surveys the main ideas and problems encountered in the logical investigation of quantifiers. The Prologue, written by Per Lindström, presents the early history of the concept of generalised quantifiers. The volume then continues with a series of papers surveying various research areas, particularly those that are of current interest. Together they provide introductions to the subject from the points of view of mathematics, linguistics, and theoretical computer science. The present volume has been prepared in parallel with Quantifiers: Logics, Models and Computation, Volume Two. Contributions, which contains a collection of research papers on the subject in areas that are too fresh to be summarised. The two volumes are complementary. For logicians, mathematicians, philosophers, linguists and computer scientists. Suitable as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate specialised courses in logic.

Discovering Reality

Author: Sandra Harding
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401001014
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Philosophy

This collection of essays, first published two decades ago, presents central feminist critiques and analyses of natural and social sciences and their philosophies. This work provides a splendid opportunity for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in philosophy and the social sciences to explore some of the most intriguing and controversial challenges to disciplinary projects and to public policy today.

Handbook of Happiness Research in Latin America

Author: Mariano Rojas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789401772037
Release Date: 2015-10-09
Genre: Social Science

This book presents original happiness research from and about a region that shows unexpectedly high levels of happiness. Even when Latin American countries cannot be classified as high-income countries their population do enjoy, on average, high happiness levels. The book draws attention to some important factors that contribute to the happiness of people, such as: relational values, human relations, solidarity networks, the role of the family, and the availability and gratifying using of leisure time. In a world where happiness is acquiring greater relevance as a final social and personal aim both the academic community and the social-actors and policy-makers community would benefit from Happiness Research in Latin America.

Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory

Author: James Dreier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781405150262
Release Date: 2009-02-04
Genre: Philosophy

Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory features pairs of newly commissioned essays by some of the leading theorists working in the field today. Brings together fresh debates on the most controversial issues in moral theory Questions include: Are moral requirements derived from reason? How demanding is morality? Are virtues the proper starting point for moral theorizing? Lively debate format sharply defines the issues, and paves the way for further discussion. Will serve as an accessible introduction to the major topics in contemporary moral theory, while also capturing the imagination of professional philosophers.

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015078762526
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Philosophy, Russian