Services of General Economic Interest as a Constitutional Concept of EU Law

Author: Caroline Wehlander
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789462651173
Release Date: 2016-06-23
Genre: Law

This book offers a legal understanding regarding the core elements of SGEI (Services of General Interest), and of how the post-Lisbon constitutional framework on SGEI affects the application of the EU market rules by the EU Court of Justice, including procurement rules, to public services. It is built up of three parts, namely Part I: No Exit from EU Market Law for Public Services, Part II: SGEI as a Constitutional Voice for Public Services in EU Law, and Part III: The cost of loyalty, the relationship between EU procurement and state aid legislation on social services and the Treaty rules on SGEI, ending with a case study of Swedish systems of choice. Analyses are also provided on how the EU legislator engages in the Europeanisation of social services through EU procurement and state aid rules that have an ambiguous relationship to the Treaty framework on SGEI. Some explanation to this ambiguity is proposed by studying how the application of EU state aid rules could hinder the development of Swedish systems of choice liberalizing publicly-funded elderly care and school education. Included are propositions on crucial but yet unsettled legal questions, in particular what the legal meaning and relevance of the notion of economic activity in EU market law are and which core elements characterize SGEI. This book is therefore mainly aimed at legal academics and practitioners but may also be of interest to political scientists. Caroline Wehlander studied at Umeå University and holds the title of Doctor of Laws. She lives and works in Sweden.

State Aid and the European Economic Constitution

Author: Francesco de Cecco
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781782250500
Release Date: 2012-12-14
Genre: Law

Recent years have seen the rise of EU State aid law as a crucial component of the European economic constitution. To date, however, the literature has neglected the contribution of this area of EU law to the internal market. This book seeks to fill this gap in our understanding of the economic constitution by exploring the significance of State aid law in addressing questions that go to the core of the internal market project. It does so by examining the case law relating to three different activities that Member States engage in: market participation, market regulation, and funding for Services of General Economic Interest. Each of these areas offers insights into fundamental questions surrounding the economic constitution, such as the separation between the State and the market, the scope for Member States to engage in regulatory competition, and the tension between market and nonmarket concerns.

Public Services in EU Law

Author: Wolf Sauter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107066120
Release Date: 2014-11-27
Genre: Business & Economics

Comprehensive analysis showing that utilities and welfare services are important building blocks for the EU social market economy.

Services of General Economic Interest as a Constitutional Concept of EU Law

Author: Caroline Wehlander
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789462651173
Release Date: 2016-06-23
Genre: Law

This book offers a legal understanding regarding the core elements of SGEI (Services of General Interest), and of how the post-Lisbon constitutional framework on SGEI affects the application of the EU market rules by the EU Court of Justice, including procurement rules, to public services. It is built up of three parts, namely Part I: No Exit from EU Market Law for Public Services, Part II: SGEI as a Constitutional Voice for Public Services in EU Law, and Part III: The cost of loyalty, the relationship between EU procurement and state aid legislation on social services and the Treaty rules on SGEI, ending with a case study of Swedish systems of choice. Analyses are also provided on how the EU legislator engages in the Europeanisation of social services through EU procurement and state aid rules that have an ambiguous relationship to the Treaty framework on SGEI. Some explanation to this ambiguity is proposed by studying how the application of EU state aid rules could hinder the development of Swedish systems of choice liberalizing publicly-funded elderly care and school education. Included are propositions on crucial but yet unsettled legal questions, in particular what the legal meaning and relevance of the notion of economic activity in EU market law are and which core elements characterize SGEI. This book is therefore mainly aimed at legal academics and practitioners but may also be of interest to political scientists. Caroline Wehlander studied at Umeå University and holds the title of Doctor of Laws. She lives and works in Sweden.

Financing Services of General Economic Interest

Author: Erika Szyszczak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789067049061
Release Date: 2014-07-08
Genre: Law

This book examines the legacy of the 2003 ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Altmark. This case changed the direction of how Services of General and Economic Interest (SGEI) should be funded in the EU against a background of liberalisation, and the need for efficiency and global competitiveness. The book examines the European Commission’s response to the Altmark ruling in the measures known as the ‘Altmark-Monti-Kroes Package’ and charts the review of this package from 2009 culminating in a new package of measures, known as the ‘Almunia Package’. The seemingly technocratic idea of a review of the ‘Altmark-Monti-Kroes Package’ could not have anticipated the demanding and changed economic and constitutional context of the EU in 2009. It is in this light that the authors in this book explore in great detail the different components of the new ‘Almunia Package’ of measures introduced in 2011-2012, offering a critical review and highlighting where the future direction of the regulation of SGEI may lead as the EU struggles in an economic climate of austerity to balance a new constitutional dimension of a ‘highly competitive social market economy’ with a modernisation agenda for the single market.

State Aid and the Energy Sector

Author: Leigh Hancher
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781509913695
Release Date: 2018-02-22
Genre: Law

This important new work offers a comprehensive and compelling account of State aid law and policy and its application to the energy sector. Clearly structured and offering meticulous detail and robust analysis, it is required reading for all practitioners in the field. The volume explores general questions from the definition of State aid to its application in Member States by national courts. It also examines questions of procedure, questions of compatibility, and State aid and the EEA. It is an invaluable tool for lawyers, policymakers and tax professionals specialising in State aid law and energy law, written by a team of leading practitioners and academics in the field.

Developments in Services of General Interest

Author: Erika Szyszczak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9067047341
Release Date: 2011-05-18
Genre: Law

This is the third book in the series Legal Issues of Services of General Interest. The book focuses upon a set of research questions on the recent developments in the emergence of services of general interest (SGIs) as a distinct EU concept. This includes, inter alia, the emergence of universal service obligations and the way they are regulated in the EU in primary and secondary law, the range of soft law communications adopted by the Commission to create a distinctive EU concept of SGIs, the residual role of hard law in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the special problems created by Social Services of General Economic Interest and the interaction of procurement and state aid law with SGIs. A new perspective is offered in this book: some of the issues faced by the EU in accommodating SGIs into a regulatory framework are found also in the policy of the WTO and in least developed countries (LDCs).

Solidarity in EU Law

Author: Andrea Biondi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781783477784
Release Date: 2018
Genre:

The European Union has evolved from a purely economic organisation to a multi-faceted entity with political, social and human rights dimensions. This has created an environment in which the concept of solidarity is gaining a more substantial role in shaping the EU legal order. This book provides both a retrospective assessment and an outlook on the future possibilities of solidarity’s practical and theoretical meaning and legal enforcement in the ever-changing Union.

Services of General Interest Beyond the Single Market

Author: Markus Krajewski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789462650633
Release Date: 2015-06-23
Genre: Law

This is the first book ever to assess comprehensively the impact of EU international agreements on services of general interest. Services of general interest remain high on the political and legal agenda of the European Union. However, the debates about the impact of EU law on services of general interest usually focus on internal market law such as the free movement of services, competition law, state aid rules and the law of public procurement. The external and international dimensions of the European legal framework for services of general interest are often overlooked. This book addresses the impact of international trade and investment agreements on public services and the role these services play in EU external relations. It shows that the inherent tension between establishing and securing undistorted competition on markets and the logic of public services exists in international economic law in a similar way as in EU internal law. Given the contentiousness of international trade and investment agreements as well as the EU’s external policies, the issues discussed in this volume are timely and relevant and contribute to the ongoing debate about the future of services of general interest in the EU with fresh ideas and perspectives. Markus Krajewski is Professor of Public and International Law at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.

A Critical Account of Article 106 2 TFEU

Author: Jarleth Burke
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781509912735
Release Date: 2018-03-22
Genre: Law

A Critical Account of Article 106(2) TFEU: Government Failure in Public Service Provision offers a sceptical perspective on how EU law applies to public services. Article 106(2) provides that other Treaty rules may be disapplied in order to sustain a Service of General Economic Interest (SGEI). The rhetorical presentation of Article 106(2) is as a strict exception. As a result, Article 106(2) is often presented as a threat to Europe's public service tradition. This book challenges those shibboleths by using the concept of government failure. It is concerned with instances of government intervention that are unnecessary, generate avoidable inefficiencies, or that can be bettered so as to realise general interest goals more efficaciously. As an element of the government failure critique, a market feasibility test incorporating the concept of market failure is used to expose laxity in the review of general interests under Article 106(2). Complementing that, the process of disapplying other Treaty rules under Article 106(2) is shown to have evolved from being strict to being highly indulgent of SGEI providers, with a relatively recent but only partial correction post Altmark. Overall, the strict exception label for Article 106(2) does not hold. Moreover, it is contingent and presents no legitimate general interest related threat to the organisation and delivery of public services. A comprehensive re-orientation of Article 106(2) on issues of proof is required, as is greater reliance on market counterfactuals, and much more careful separation of objectives and means in SGEI operation and design. Through these measures, the toleration of government failure can be stemmed and Article 106(2)'s contingency reduced.

Higher Education Institutions in the EU Between Competition and Public Service

Author: Andrea Gideon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789462651685
Release Date: 2017-02-14
Genre: Law

This book investigates the impact of EU law and policy on the Member States’ higher education institution (HEI) sectors with a particular emphasis on the exposure of research in universities to EU competition law. It illustrates how the gradual application of EU economic law to HEIs which were predominantly identified as being within the public sector creates tensions between the economic and the social spheres in the EU. Given the reluctance of the Member States to openly develop an EU level HEI policy, these tensions appear as unintended consequences of the traditional application of the EU Treaty provisions in areas such as Union Citizenship, the free movement provisions and competition policy to the HEI sector. These developments may endanger the traditional non-economic mission of European HEIs. In this respect, the effects of Union Citizenship and free movement law on HEIs have received some attention but the impact of EU competition law constitutes a largely unexplored area of research and this book redresses that imbalance. The aim of the research is to show that intended and unintended consequences of the EU economic constitution(s) are enhanced by a parallel tendency of Member States to commercialise formerly public sectors such as the HEI sector. The book investigates the potential tensions through doctrinal analysis and a qualitative study focussing on the exposure of HEI research to EU competition law as an under-researched example of exposure to economic constraints. It concludes that such exposure may compromise the wider aims that research intensive universities pursue in the public interest. Andrea Gideon is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Law & Business (National University of Singapore) for which she has suspended her position as Lecturer in Law at the University of Liverpool. In her current project she is investigating the application of competition law to public services in ASEAN. Her previous research concerned tensions between the economic and the social in the EU with a focus on EU competition law in which research area she earned her PhD at the University of Leeds in 2014.

Social Services of General Interest in the EU

Author: Ulla Neergaard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789067048767
Release Date: 2012-10-30
Genre: Law

The EU has limited legislative competence in the field of social law. However, the Member States are increasingly modernizing social services and social (welfare) protection, attempting to make social services more efficient by increasingly looking to the market for the provision of such services. This policy move brings social services into the radar of EU law. The EU response to this sensitive issue has resulted in a piecemeal and fragmented approach towards the treatment of a new policy area of Social Services of General Interest (SSGI) in EU law and policy. This book is a first contribution towards charting how SSGI have emerged as a special category of SGI in the EU, the reaction of the Member States and stake-holders and how policy is being made through new governance processes, carve-outs and safe havens in legislation and soft law, especially in the light of the new values of the EU introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon 2009. It takes an inter-disciplinary approach and will be of interest to lawyers, economists and political scientists who are interested in EU policy-making as well as practioners, EU and national policy-makers. Ulla Neergaard is Professor of EU law at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Erika Szyszczak is a Jean Monnet Professor of European Law ad personam, Professor of European Competition and Labour Law at the University of Leicester, Barrister, Littleton Chambers, UK. Johan W. van de Gronden is Professor of European Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Markus Krajewski is Professor of Public and International law at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

European State Aid Law and Policy

Author: Conor Quigley
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781847317988
Release Date: 2009-05-13
Genre: Law

This new edition of Conor Quigley's book (originally 'EC State Aid Law and Policy'), offers the most comprehensive and detailed examination of this fast developing field of Community law. The book is designed to provide practitioners and Commission officials with a definitive statement of the law and practice across the many sectors where issues of State aid come into play. At the same time, placing State aid law and policy in its commercial and industrial context, the book fully explores the concept of State aid and its function as a tool of Community law and economic development. All of this is achieved by means of the most thorough available examination of the jurisprudence of the European Courts and the decisions of the Commission in declaring certain aid compatible with the common market. The Commission's supervisory powers as well as the means of enforcing State aid law in the courts are also fully explained. From reviews of the earlier work: 'The chapters summarize and synthesize a large and complex body of case-law readably, clearly, interestingly, thoroughly and concisely...practical and comprehensive in approach...The book is well produced and very good value. The book satisfactorily passed the key test: it told us what we needed to know in certain current State aid cases more clearly than in other books consulted.' Asger Petersen, J Temple Lang, Common Market Law Review 'The practitioner will find the chapters dealing with particular types of state aid extremely helpful. The book has an excellent index that makes any legal textbook much more user friendly, particularly to someone who is not an expert in the field. Speaking from personal experience I can say that the book is invaluable; in recent months it has spent as much time on my desk as on my bookshelves. I am sure others will find it equally useful' Christopher Vajda QC, International Company & Commercial Law Review

The EU Social Market Economy and the Law

Author: Delia Ferri
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351068505
Release Date: 2018-07-20
Genre: Law

Investigating the extent to which the European Union can be defined as a "highly competitive social market economy", this edited collection illustrates and tests the constitutional reverberations of Art. 3(3) of the Treaty on the European Union, and discusses its actual and potential transformative effect. In the aftermath of Brexit, and in the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, the book is particularly timely and topical, offering new and deeper insights on the complex and constantly evolving social dimension of the EU, ultimately reflecting on how the objective of (re)constituting the EU as a "highly competitive social market economy" might best be achieved.

New Challenges to Constitutional Adjudication in Europe

Author: Zoltán Szente
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351674744
Release Date: 2018-03-09
Genre: Law

In the past few years, constitutional courts have been presented with new challenges. The world financial crisis, the new wave of terrorism, mass migration and other country-specific problems have had wide-ranging effects on the old and embedded constitutional standards and judicial constructions. This book examines how, if at all, these unprecedented social, economic and political problems have affected constitutional review in Europe. As the courts’ response must conform with EU law and in some cases international law, analysis extends to the related jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. The collection adopts a common analytical structure to examine how the relevant challenges have been addressed in ten country specific case studies. Alongside these, constitutional experts frame the research within the theoretical understanding of the constitutional difficulties of the day in Europe. Finally, a comparative chapter examines the effects of multilevel constitutionalism and identifies general European trends. This book will be essential reading for academics and researchers working in the areas of constitutional law, comparative law and jurisprudence.