This book is designed for readers who know elementary mathematical logic and axiomatic set theory, and who want to learn more about set theory. The primary focus of the book is on the independence proofs. Most famous among these is the independence of the Continuum Hypothesis (CH); that is, there are models of the axioms of set theory (ZFC) in which CH is true, and other models in which CH is false. More generally, cardinal exponentiation on the regular cardinals can consistently be anything not contradicting the classical theorems of Cantor and Konig. The basic methods for the independence proofs are the notion of constructibility, introduced by Godel, and the method of forcing, introduced by Cohen. This book describes these methods in detail, verifi es the basic independence results for cardinal exponentiation, and also applies these methods to prove the independence of various mathematical questions in measure theory and general topology. Before the chapters on forcing, there is a fairly long chapter on "infi nitary combinatorics." This consists of just mathematical theorems (not independence results), but it stresses the areas of mathematics where set-theoretic topics (such as cardinal arithmetic) are relevant. There is, in fact, an interplay between infi nitary combinatorics and independence proofs. Infi nitary combinatorics suggests many set-theoretic questions that turn out to be independent of ZFC, but it also provides the basic tools used in forcing arguments. In particular, Martin's Axiom, which is one of the topics under infi nitary combinatorics, introduces many of the basic ingredients of forcing.
Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.
The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.
The chapters of this volume all have their own level of presentation. The topics have been chosen based on the active research interest associated with them. Since the interest in some topics is older than that in others, some presentations contain fundamental definitions and basic results while others relate very little of the elementary theory behind them and aim directly toward an exposition of advanced results. Presentations of the latter sort are in some cases restricted to a short survey of recent results (due to the complexity of the methods and proofs themselves). Hence the variation in level of presentation from chapter to chapter only reflects the conceptual situation itself. One example of this is the collective efforts to develop an acceptable theory of computation on the real numbers. The last two decades has seen at least two new definitions of effective operations on the real numbers.
This volume contains articles covering a broad spectrum of proof theory, with an emphasis on its mathematical aspects. The articles should not only be interesting to specialists of proof theory, but should also be accessible to a diverse audience, including logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists and philosophers. Many of the central topics of proof theory have been included in a self-contained expository of articles, covered in great detail and depth. The chapters are arranged so that the two introductory articles come first; these are then followed by articles from core classical areas of proof theory; the handbook concludes with articles that deal with topics closely related to computer science.
Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.
1988 marked the first centenary of Recursion Theory, since Dedekind's 1888 paper on the nature of number. Now available in paperback, this book is both a comprehensive reference for the subject and a textbook starting from first principles. Among the subjects covered are: various equivalent approaches to effective computability and their relations with computers and programming languages; a discussion of Church's thesis; a modern solution to Post's problem; global properties of Turing degrees; and a complete algebraic characterization of many-one degrees. Included are a number of applications to logic (in particular Gödel's theorems) and to computer science, for which Recursion Theory provides the theoretical foundation.
This book is an attempt to give a systematic presentation of both logic and type theory from a categorical perspective, using the unifying concept of fibred category. Its intended audience consists of logicians, type theorists, category theorists and (theoretical) computer scientists.
Author: Robin Hirsch
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date: 2002
In part 2, games are introduced, and used to axiomatise various classes of algebras. Part 3 discusses approximations to representability, using bases, relation algebra reducts, and relativised representations. Part 4 presents some constructions of relation algebras, including Monk algebras and the 'rainbow construction', and uses them to show that various classes of representable algebras are non-finitely axiomatisable or even non-elementary. Part 5 shows that the representability problem for finite relation algebras is undecidable, and then in contrast proves some finite base property results. Part 6 contains a condensed summary of the book, and a list of problems. There are more than 400 exercises. P The book is generally self-contained on relation algebras and on games, and introductory text is scattered throughout. Some familiarity with elementary aspects of first-order logic and set theory is assumed, though many of the definitions are given.-
Author: Alexander Kechris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Descriptive set theory has been one of the main areas of research in set theory for almost a century. This text presents a largely balanced approach to the subject, which combines many elements of the different traditions. It includes a wide variety of examples, more than 400 exercises, and applications, in order to illustrate the general concepts and results of the theory.
This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers.
Author: William S. Hatcher
Release Date: 2014-05-09
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and the other, in a "natural deduction" style, for presenting detailed formal proofs. A somewhat novel feature of this framework is a full semantic and syntactic treatment of variable-binding term operators as primitive symbols of logic. Subsequent chapters focus on the origin of modern foundational studies; Gottlob Frege's formal system intended to serve as a foundation for mathematics and its paradoxes; the theory of types; and the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. David Hilbert's program and Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorems are also examined, along with the foundational systems of W. V. Quine and the relevance of categorical algebra for foundations. This monograph will be of interest to students, teachers, practitioners, and researchers in mathematics.