The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Kenneth Kunen
ISBN: 1904987141
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Mathematics

Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.

Set Theory An Introduction To Independence Proofs

Author: K. Kunen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080570587
Release Date: 2014-06-28
Genre: Mathematics

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing. The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and easy consistency proofs, including relativization, absoluteness, reflection theorems, properties of well-founded sets, and induction and recursion on well-founded relations. The publication examines constructible sets, forcing, and iterated forcing. Topics include Easton forcing, general iterated forcing, Cohen model, forcing with partial functions of larger cardinality, forcing with finite partial functions, and general extensions. The manuscript is a dependable source of information for mathematicians and researchers interested in set theory.

Handbook of Mathematical Logic

Author: J. Barwise
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080933645
Release Date: 1982-03-01
Genre: Mathematics

The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.

Foundations of Set Theory

Author: A.A. Fraenkel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080887058
Release Date: 1973-12-01
Genre: Computers

Foundations of Set Theory discusses the reconstruction undergone by set theory in the hands of Brouwer, Russell, and Zermelo. Only in the axiomatic foundations, however, have there been such extensive, almost revolutionary, developments. This book tries to avoid a detailed discussion of those topics which would have required heavy technical machinery, while describing the major results obtained in their treatment if these results could be stated in relatively non-technical terms. This book comprises five chapters and begins with a discussion of the antinomies that led to the reconstruction of set theory as it was known before. It then moves to the axiomatic foundations of set theory, including a discussion of the basic notions of equality and extensionality and axioms of comprehension and infinity. The next chapters discuss type-theoretical approaches, including the ideal calculus, the theory of types, and Quine's mathematical logic and new foundations; intuitionistic conceptions of mathematics and its constructive character; and metamathematical and semantical approaches, such as the Hilbert program. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, logicians, and statisticians.

Harvey Friedman s Research on the Foundations of Mathematics

Author: L.A. Harrington
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080960405
Release Date: 1985-11-01
Genre: Mathematics

This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers.

Theory of Relations

Author: R. Fraïssé
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080960418
Release Date: 2011-08-18
Genre: Mathematics

The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning. The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criterion of Pouzet-Vaught for saturated relations). The notion of bound of a relation (due to the author) leads to important calculus of thresholds by Frasnay, Hodges, Lachlan and Shelah. The redaction systematically goes back to set-theoretic axioms and precise definitions (such as Tarski's definition for finite sets), so that for each statement it is mentioned either that ZF axioms suffice, or what other axioms are needed (choice, continuum, dependent choice, ultrafilter axiom, etc.).

Foundational Studies

Author: Andrzej Mostowski
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444851031
Release Date: 1979
Genre: Electronic books

An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory

Author: Peter B. Andrews
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402007639
Release Date: 2002-07-31
Genre: Computers

In case you are considering to adopt this book for courses with over 50 students, please contact [email protected] for more information. This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory. Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises. Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

A Formalization of Set Theory Without Variables

Author: Alfred Tarski
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821810415
Release Date: 1987
Genre: Mathematics

Completed in 1983, this work culminates nearly half a century of the late Alfred Tarski's foundational studies in logic, mathematics, and the philosophy of science. Written in collaboration with Steven Givant, the book appeals to a very broad audience, and requires only a familiarity with first-order logic. It is of great interest to logicians and mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but also to philosophers interested in logic, semantics, algebraic logic, or the methodology of the deductive sciences, and to computer scientists interested in developing very simple computer languages rich enough for mathematical and scientific applications. The authors show that set theory and number theory can be developed within the framework of a new, different, and simple equational formalism, closely related to the formalism of the theory of relation algebras. There are no variables, quantifiers, or sentential connectives. Predicates are constructed from two atomic binary predicates (which denote the relations of identity and set-theoretic membership) by repeated applications of four operators that are analogues of the well-known operations of relative product, conversion, Boolean addition, and complementation. All mathematical statements are expressed as equations between predicates. There are ten logical axiom schemata and just one rule of inference: the one of replacing equals by equals, familiar from high school algebra. Though such a simple formalism may appear limited in its powers of expression and proof, this book proves quite the opposite. The authors show that it provides a framework for the formalization of practically all known systems of set theory, and hence for the development of all classical mathematics. The book contains numerous applications of the main results to diverse areas of foundational research: propositional logic; semantics; first-order logics with finitely many variables; definability and axiomatizability questions in set theory, Peano arithmetic, and real number theory; representation and decision problems in the theory of relation algebras; and decision problems in equational logic.

Set Theory

Author: Kenneth Kunen
ISBN: 1848900503
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Mathematics

This book is designed for readers who know elementary mathematical logic and axiomatic set theory, and who want to learn more about set theory. The primary focus of the book is on the independence proofs. Most famous among these is the independence of the Continuum Hypothesis (CH); that is, there are models of the axioms of set theory (ZFC) in which CH is true, and other models in which CH is false. More generally, cardinal exponentiation on the regular cardinals can consistently be anything not contradicting the classical theorems of Cantor and Konig. The basic methods for the independence proofs are the notion of constructibility, introduced by Godel, and the method of forcing, introduced by Cohen. This book describes these methods in detail, verifi es the basic independence results for cardinal exponentiation, and also applies these methods to prove the independence of various mathematical questions in measure theory and general topology. Before the chapters on forcing, there is a fairly long chapter on "infi nitary combinatorics." This consists of just mathematical theorems (not independence results), but it stresses the areas of mathematics where set-theoretic topics (such as cardinal arithmetic) are relevant. There is, in fact, an interplay between infi nitary combinatorics and independence proofs. Infi nitary combinatorics suggests many set-theoretic questions that turn out to be independent of ZFC, but it also provides the basic tools used in forcing arguments. In particular, Martin's Axiom, which is one of the topics under infi nitary combinatorics, introduces many of the basic ingredients of forcing.

The Theory of Models

Author: J.W. Addison
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483275345
Release Date: 2014-05-27
Genre: Mathematics

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics: The Theory of Models covers the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Theory of Models, held at the University of California, Berkeley on June 25 to July 11, 1963. The book focuses on works devoted to the foundations of mathematics, generally known as "the theory of models." The selection first discusses the method of alternating chains, semantic construction of Lewis's systems S4 and S5, and continuous model theory. Concerns include ordered model theory, 2-valued model theory, semantics, sequents, axiomatization, formulas, axiomatic approach to hierarchies, alternating chains, and difference hierarchies. The text also ponders on Boolean notions extended to higher dimensions, elementary theories with models without automorphisms, and applications of the notions of forcing and generic sets. The manuscript takes a look at a hypothesis concerning the extension of finite relations and its verification for certain special cases, theories of functors and models, model-theoretic methods in the study of elementary logic, and extensions of relational structures. The text also reviews relatively categorical and normal theories, algebraic theories, categories, and functors, denumerable models of theories with extra predicates, and non-standard models for fragments of number theory. The selection is highly recommended for mathematicians and researchers interested in the theory of models.

Set theory

Author: Kazimierz Kuratowski
ISBN: UOM:39015068289779
Release Date: 1967
Genre: Descriptive set theory

Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821848135
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Genre: Mathematics

Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.