This textbook on the nature of space and time explains the new theory of Space Dynamics, which describes the dynamics of gravity as the evolution of conformal 3-dimensional geometry. Shape Dynamics is equivalent to Einstein's General Relativity in those situations in which the latter has been tested experimentally, but the theory is based on different first principles. It differs from General Relativity in certain extreme conditions. Shape Dynamics allows us to describe situations in which the spacetime picture is no longer adequate, such as in the presence of singularities, when the idealization of infinitesimal rods measuring scales and infinitesimal clocks measuring proper time fails. This tutorial book contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about Shape Dynamics, and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and a description of its present status. It includes an explanation of the origin of the theory, starting from problems posed first by Newton more than 300 years ago. The book will interest scientists from a large community including all foundational fields of physics, from quantum gravity to cosmology and quantum foundations, as well as researchers interested in foundations. The tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for students with some basic background in Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics and General Relativity.
Author: Feng Zhu
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Income distribution
We provide stylized facts on the evolving shape dynamics of the US personal income distribution from 1962 to 2000. Based on adaptive kernel density estimation, we propose an adaptive bootstrap test for multimodality. Our results indicate that multimodality has been a predominant feature of the US income distribution. Both the number and location of modes change over time, revealing rich distributional dynamics and strong heterogeneity. Decomposing the sample by age, education, gender and race, all groups exhibit multiple modes and follow distinct distributional patterns. For all groups and for the population as a whole, income distribution improved over the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, but deteriorated dramatically in the 1990s.
Photoshop is the world's most widely used photo-editing and graphics program. But with all its fantastic new features and options, the CS4 version can bewilder even the most seasoned professional. That's where Photoshop CS4: The Missing Manual comes in: packed with tips, tricks, and lots of practical advice, this visually rich four-color guidebook teaches you everything you need to know to edit photos and create beautiful documents in Photoshop. Whether you're an absolute beginner or a power user ready to try some advanced techniques, author and graphics pro Lesa Snider King offers crystal-clear, jargon-free instructions to help you take advantage of these powerful tools -- not only how they work, but when you should use them. You'll quickly get up to speed on new CS4 features such as: Photoshop's completely revamped workspace Smoother image display and quick zoom, including the new pixel grid view New Masks and Adjustments panels The Vibrance adjustment layer Hand-painting adjustments and using graduated filters in Camera Raw Enhanced Adobe Bridge And much more. You'll also find out which features work well, and which aren't worth your time. Written with the clarity, humor, and objective scrutiny that are hallmarks of the Missing Manual series, Photoshop CS4: The Missing Manual is the friendly, thorough resource you need. Why settle for anything less? "Lesa did a great job on the book, and in my mind, it is the new Photoshop Bible."-- Scott Kelby, Photoshop Insider
Author: Laurie Ulrich Fuller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-07-10
Get the book you need to succeed in any Photoshop endeavor -- Photoshop CS3 Bible. In this totally updated edition to the international bestseller, the authors show you how to master every aspect of Photoshop -- from image-editing basics to new techniques for working with camera raw images. You'll learn how to retouch, color correct, manipulate, and combine images using Photoshop. You'll discover how to create cutting-edge special effects for digital or film-based images, and use them on the Web or in print. And you'll find out how to use the File Browser, histogram palette, Lens Blur, Match Color, the color replacement tool, customizable keyboard shortcuts, and more. The authors' easy and approachable writing style demystifies even the most complex Photoshop tasks. Order today and master Photoshop CS3. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
This book is an introduction to several active research topics in Foliation Theory and its connections with other areas. It contains expository lectures showing the diversity of ideas and methods converging in the study of foliations. The lectures by Aziz El Kacimi Alaoui provide an introduction to Foliation Theory with emphasis on examples and transverse structures. Steven Hurder's lectures apply ideas from smooth dynamical systems to develop useful concepts in the study of foliations: limit sets and cycles for leaves, leafwise geodesic flow, transverse exponents, Pesin Theory and hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic types of foliations. The lectures by Masayuki Asaoka compute the leafwise cohomology of foliations given by actions of Lie groups, and apply it to describe deformation of those actions. In his lectures, Ken Richardson studies the properties of transverse Dirac operators for Riemannian foliations and compact Lie group actions, and explains a recently proved index formula. Besides students and researchers of Foliation Theory, this book will be interesting for mathematicians interested in the applications to foliations of subjects like Topology of Manifolds, Differential Geometry, Dynamics, Cohomology or Global Analysis.
A theoretical physicist and author of the controversial best-seller The Trouble with Physics describes his new approach for thinking about the reality of time and explains his theory about the laws of physics not being timeless but rather capable of evolving.
Featuring a foreword by the astronaut Ulf Merbold, this book is devoted to interfaces between two fluids, that is, between a liquid and a gas or between two liquids. It is the first review on the subject, providing an up-to-date overview.
Author: Ted LoCascio
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-10-01
Unlike the early days of Photoshop, for several years now most Photoshop books have been aimed at photographers; there is a big hole on the bookstore shelf that needs to be filled by a Photoshop book that is geared specifically towards graphic design professionals and production artists. This core audience should not have to wade through useless chapters of content geared towards other users of the application, namely professional photographers, web designers, and video editors. Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production sets graphic designers and production artists in the right direction when implementing the latest version of Photoshop into their everyday workflow. It demonstrates how to use Photoshop for all aspects of print, from simpler tasks such as basic color correction and masking, to more advanced tasks such as color management, utilizing layer comps, and troubleshooting and automating RGB-to-CMYK color conversion. Entirely four-color throughout, Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production fulfills the promise of the Mastering series, to provide real-world skills to professionals and students. Like all Mastering books, this one includes: A "by pros for pros" approach: The author is an active professional working in graphic arts, layout, and design, writing for professionals who want to improve their skills or learn new skills. Real-world examples: Running throughout the text are examples of how the various skills are applied in scenarios faced by real practitioners. Skill-based teaching and hands-on exercises. Companion files for tutorials and projects are provided on the accompanying CD-ROM. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Author: Felix Finster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-02-08
One of the most challenging problems of contemporary theoretical physics is the mathematically rigorous construction of a theory which describes gravitation and the other fundamental physical interactions within a common framework. The physical ideas which grew from attempts to develop such a theory require highly advanced mathematical methods and radically new physical concepts. This book presents different approaches to a rigorous unified description of quantum fields and gravity. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions which took place in autumn 2010 at the fifth conference "Quantum field theory and gravity - Conceptual and mathematical advances in the search for a unified framework" in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in fundamental questions of mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview of a fascinating active research area.
Author: Wolfgang Alt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2003-08-25
Polymer and cell dynamics play an important role in processes like tumor growth, metastasis, embryogenesis, immune reactions and regeneration. Based on an international workshop on numerical simulations of polymer and cell dynamics in Bad Honnef (Germany) in 2000, this volume provides an overview of the relevant mathematical and numerical methods, their applications and limits. Polymer and Cell Dynamics will be of interest to scientists and advanced undergraduates.
This book develops a general approach that can be systematically refined to investigate the statics and dynamics of deformable solid bodies. These methods are then employed to small bodies in the Solar System. With several space missions underway and more being planned, interest in our immediate neighbourhood is growing. In this spirit, this book investigates various phenomena encountered in planetary science, including disruptions during planetary fly-bys, equilibrium shapes and stability of small rubble bodies, and spin-driven shape changes. The flexible procedure proposed here will help readers gain valuable insights into the mechanics of solar system bodies, while at the same time complementing numerical investigations. The technique itself is built upon the virial method successfully employed by Chandrasekhar (1969) to study the equilibrium shapes of spinning fluid objects. However, here Chandrasekhar’s approach is modified in order to study more complex dynamical situations and include objects of different rheologies, e.g., granular aggregates, or “rubble piles”. The book is largely self-contained, though some basic familiarity with continuum mechanics will be beneficial.
This powerful suite of tools features 130 brushes, 52 shapes, 20 styles, and 20 brushstrokes that allow artists and scrapbookers to digitally paint backgrounds and other design elements with a variety of decorative initials and alphabets.
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2012-10-12
Discover the tips, tricks and techniques that really work for concept artists, matte painters and animators. Compiled by the team at 3dtotal.com, Digital Painting Techniques, Volume 1 offers digital inspiration with hands-on insight and techniques from professional digital artists. More than just a gallery book - within Digital Painting Techniques each artist has written a breakdown overview, with supporting imagery of how they made their piece of work. Beginner and intermediate digital artists will be inspired by the gallery style collection of the finest examples of digital painting from world renowned digital artists. Start your mentorship into the world of digital painting today with some of the greatest digital artists in the world and delve into professional digital painting techiques, such as speed painting, custom brush creation and matte painting. Develop your digital painting skills beyond the variety of free online digital painting tutorials and apply the most up to date techniques to your digital canvas with Digital Painting Techniques for Animators.