This textbook on the nature of space and time explains the new theory of Space Dynamics, which describes the dynamics of gravity as the evolution of conformal 3-dimensional geometry. Shape Dynamics is equivalent to Einstein's General Relativity in those situations in which the latter has been tested experimentally, but the theory is based on different first principles. It differs from General Relativity in certain extreme conditions. Shape Dynamics allows us to describe situations in which the spacetime picture is no longer adequate, such as in the presence of singularities, when the idealization of infinitesimal rods measuring scales and infinitesimal clocks measuring proper time fails. This tutorial book contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about Shape Dynamics, and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and a description of its present status. It includes an explanation of the origin of the theory, starting from problems posed first by Newton more than 300 years ago. The book will interest scientists from a large community including all foundational fields of physics, from quantum gravity to cosmology and quantum foundations, as well as researchers interested in foundations. The tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for students with some basic background in Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics and General Relativity.
Author: Feng Zhu
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Income distribution
We provide stylized facts on the evolving shape dynamics of the US personal income distribution from 1962 to 2000. Based on adaptive kernel density estimation, we propose an adaptive bootstrap test for multimodality. Our results indicate that multimodality has been a predominant feature of the US income distribution. Both the number and location of modes change over time, revealing rich distributional dynamics and strong heterogeneity. Decomposing the sample by age, education, gender and race, all groups exhibit multiple modes and follow distinct distributional patterns. For all groups and for the population as a whole, income distribution improved over the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, but deteriorated dramatically in the 1990s.
Author: Felix Finster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-02-08
One of the most challenging problems of contemporary theoretical physics is the mathematically rigorous construction of a theory which describes gravitation and the other fundamental physical interactions within a common framework. The physical ideas which grew from attempts to develop such a theory require highly advanced mathematical methods and radically new physical concepts. This book presents different approaches to a rigorous unified description of quantum fields and gravity. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions which took place in autumn 2010 at the fifth conference "Quantum field theory and gravity - Conceptual and mathematical advances in the search for a unified framework" in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in fundamental questions of mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview of a fascinating active research area.
Abstract: While fluid flows are known to promote dissolution of materials, such processes are poorly understood due to the coupled dynamics of the flow and the receding surface. We study this moving boundary problem through experiments in which hard candy bodies dissolve in laminar high-speed water flows. We find that different initial geometries are sculpted into a similar terminal form before ultimately vanishing, suggesting convergence to a stable shape–flow state. A model linking the flow and solute concentration shows how uniform boundary-layer thickness leads to uniform dissolution, allowing us to obtain an analytical expression for the terminal geometry. Newly derived scaling laws predict that the dissolution rate increases with the square root of the flow speed and that the body volume vanishes quadratically in time, both of which are confirmed by experimental measurements.
Author: Ted LoCascio
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-10-01
Unlike the early days of Photoshop, for several years now most Photoshop books have been aimed at photographers; there is a big hole on the bookstore shelf that needs to be filled by a Photoshop book that is geared specifically towards graphic design professionals and production artists. This core audience should not have to wade through useless chapters of content geared towards other users of the application, namely professional photographers, web designers, and video editors. Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production sets graphic designers and production artists in the right direction when implementing the latest version of Photoshop into their everyday workflow. It demonstrates how to use Photoshop for all aspects of print, from simpler tasks such as basic color correction and masking, to more advanced tasks such as color management, utilizing layer comps, and troubleshooting and automating RGB-to-CMYK color conversion. Entirely four-color throughout, Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production fulfills the promise of the Mastering series, to provide real-world skills to professionals and students. Like all Mastering books, this one includes: A "by pros for pros" approach: The author is an active professional working in graphic arts, layout, and design, writing for professionals who want to improve their skills or learn new skills. Real-world examples: Running throughout the text are examples of how the various skills are applied in scenarios faced by real practitioners. Skill-based teaching and hands-on exercises. Companion files for tutorials and projects are provided on the accompanying CD-ROM. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Author: Michael Silberstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018-01-04
Theoretical physics and foundations of physics have not made much progress in the last few decades. Whether we are talking about unifying general relativity and quantum field theory (quantum gravity), explaining so-called dark energy and dark matter (cosmology), or the interpretation and implications of quantum mechanics and relativity, there is no consensus in sight. In addition, both enterprises are deeply puzzled about various facets of time including above all, time as experienced. The authors argue that, across the board, this impasse is the result of the "dynamical universe paradigm," the idea that reality is fundamentally made up of physical entities that evolve in time from some initial state according to dynamical laws. Thus, in the dynamical universe, the initial conditions plus the dynamical laws explain everything else going exclusively forward in time. In cosmology, for example, the initial conditions reside in the Big Bang and the dynamical law is supplied by general relativity. Accordingly, the present state of the universe is explained exclusively by its past. This book offers a completely new paradigm (called Relational Blockworld), whereby the past, present and future co-determine each other via "adynamical global constraints," such as the least action principle. Accordingly, the future is just as important for explaining the present as is the past. Most of the book is devoted to showing how Relational Blockworld resolves many of the current conundrums of both theoretical physics and foundations of physics, including the mystery of time as experienced and how that experience relates to the block universe.
Author: Peter Bauer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2017-12-01
The fast and easy way to grasp Photoshop CC essentials Photoshop is the gold standard when it comes to photo and image editing tools. But unless you've ever taken a class or gotten help from a Photoshop guru, you may find yourself a bit confused on where to start and how to get things done. Photoshop CC For Dummies, 2nd Edition is the book for those of us who don't know a layer from a level and just want to learn how to make photos look better. This update to Photoshop CC For Dummies, the first since the product launched, packs an even more powerful punch to help you manage and enhance your images. In Photoshop CC For Dummies, 2nd Edition you'll find clear explanations of the menus, panels, tools, options, and shortcuts you'll use the most. Plus, you'll discover invaluable tips for fixing common photo flaws, improving color quality, adjusting brightness, removing unwanted background elements, and more. Whether you want to improve how your family photos look or need to add a new skillset to your resume, this friendly guide gives you all the steps to navigating the software and getting top-notch results. Get a handle on the most common tools Improve focus and color in photos Add text and illustrations to create stunning graphics Find insider tips and tricks the pros use The sky's the limit for stunning photos and innovative images when you have Photoshop CC For Dummies, 2nd Edition in your design toolbox!
The first volume of the Handbook deals with the amazing world of biomembranes and lipid bilayers. Part A describes all aspects related to the morphology of these membranes, beginning with the complex architecture of biomembranes, continues with a description of the bizarre morphology of lipid bilayers and concludes with technological applications of these membranes. The first two chapters deal with biomembranes, providing an introduction to the membranes of eucaryotes and a description of the evolution of membranes. The following chapters are concerned with different aspects of lipids including the physical properties of model membranes composed of lipid-protein mixtures, lateral phase separation of lipids and proteins and measurement of lipid-protein bilayer diffusion. Other chapters deal with the flexibility of fluid bilayers, the closure of bilayers into vesicles which attain a large variety of different shapes, and applications of lipid vesicles and liposomes. Part B covers membrane adhesion, membrane fusion and the interaction of biomembranes with polymer networks such as the cytoskeleton. The first two chapters of this part discuss the generic interactions of membranes from the conceptual point of view. The following two chapters summarize the experimental work on two different bilayer systems. The next chapter deals with the process of contact formation, focal bounding and macroscopic contacts between cells. The cytoskeleton within eucaryotic cells consists of a network of relatively stiff filaments of which three different types of filaments have been identified. As explained in the next chapter much has been recently learned about the interaction of these filaments with the cell membrane. The final two chapters deal with membrane fusion.
Author: Wolfgang Alt
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Polymer and cell dynamics play an important role in processes like tumor growth, metastasis, embryogenesis, immune reactions and regeneration. Based on an international workshop on numerical simulations of polymer and cell dynamics in Bad Honnef (Germany) in 2000, this volume provides an overview of the relevant mathematical and numerical methods, their applications and limits. Polymer and Cell Dynamics will be of interest to scientists and advanced undergraduates.
This powerful suite of tools features 130 brushes, 52 shapes, 20 styles, and 20 brushstrokes that allow artists and scrapbookers to digitally paint backgrounds and other design elements with a variety of decorative initials and alphabets.
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2012-10-12
Discover the tips, tricks and techniques that really work for concept artists, matte painters and animators. Compiled by the team at 3dtotal.com, Digital Painting Techniques, Volume 1 offers digital inspiration with hands-on insight and techniques from professional digital artists. More than just a gallery book - within Digital Painting Techniques each artist has written a breakdown overview, with supporting imagery of how they made their piece of work. Beginner and intermediate digital artists will be inspired by the gallery style collection of the finest examples of digital painting from world renowned digital artists. Start your mentorship into the world of digital painting today with some of the greatest digital artists in the world and delve into professional digital painting techiques, such as speed painting, custom brush creation and matte painting. Develop your digital painting skills beyond the variety of free online digital painting tutorials and apply the most up to date techniques to your digital canvas with Digital Painting Techniques for Animators.
Author: T. Kambe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2001-01-31
This volume contains the papers presented at the IUTAM Symposium on Geometry and Statistics of Turbulence, held in November 1999, at the Shonan International Village Center, Hayama (Kanagawa-ken), Japan. The Symposium was proposed in 1996, aiming at organizing concen trated discussions on current understanding of fluid turbulence with empha sis on the statistics and the underlying geometric structures. The decision of the General Assembly of International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM) to accept the proposal was greeted with enthusiasm. Turbulence is often characterized as having the properties of mixing, inter mittency, non-Gaussian statistics, and so on. Interest is growing recently in how these properties are related to formation and evolution of struc tures. Note that the intermittency is meant for passive scalars as well as for turbulence velocity or rate of dissipation. There were eighty-eight participants in the Symposium. They came from thirteen countries, and fifty-seven papers were presented. The presenta tions comprised a wide variety of fundamental subjects of mathematics, statistical analyses, physical models as well as engineering applications. Among the subjects discussed are (a) Degree of self-similarity in cascade, (b) Fine-scale structures and degree of Markovian property in turbulence, (c) Dynamics of vorticity and rates of strain, (d) Statistics associated with vortex structures, (e) Topology, structures and statistics of passive scalar advection, (f) Partial differential equations governing PDFs of velocity in crements, (g) Thermal turbulences, (h) Channel and pipe flow turbulences, and others.
The fastest, easiest, most comprehensive way to learn Adobe® Photoshop® CC (2014 release) Classroom in a Book®, the best-selling series of hands-on software training workbooks, offers what no other book or training program does–an official training series from Adobe Systems Incorporated, developed with the support of Adobe product experts. Adobe Photoshop CC Classroom in a Book contains 14 lessons that cover the basics, providing countless tips and techniques to help you become more productive with the program. You can follow the book from start to finish or choose only those lessons that interest you. In addition to learning the key elements of the Photoshop interface, this completely revised CC (2014 release) edition covers new features, including Generator, 3D printing, linked Smart Objects, Blur Gallery, smarter Smart Guides, Perspective Warp, and more. Purchasing this book gives you access to the downloadable lesson files you need to work through the projects in the book, and to electronic book updates covering new features that Adobe releases for Creative Cloud customers. For access, goto www.peachpit.com/redeem and redeem the unique code provided inside this book. “The Classroom in a Book series is by far the best training material on the market. Everything you need to master the software is included: clear explanations of each lesson, step-by-step instructions, and the project files for the students.” Barbara Binder, Adobe Certified Instructor Rocky Mountain Training