This textbook on the nature of space and time explains the new theory of Space Dynamics, which describes the dynamics of gravity as the evolution of conformal 3-dimensional geometry. Shape Dynamics is equivalent to Einstein's General Relativity in those situations in which the latter has been tested experimentally, but the theory is based on different first principles. It differs from General Relativity in certain extreme conditions. Shape Dynamics allows us to describe situations in which the spacetime picture is no longer adequate, such as in the presence of singularities, when the idealization of infinitesimal rods measuring scales and infinitesimal clocks measuring proper time fails. This tutorial book contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about Shape Dynamics, and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and a description of its present status. It includes an explanation of the origin of the theory, starting from problems posed first by Newton more than 300 years ago. The book will interest scientists from a large community including all foundational fields of physics, from quantum gravity to cosmology and quantum foundations, as well as researchers interested in foundations. The tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for students with some basic background in Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics and General Relativity.
Author: Feng Zhu
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Income distribution
We provide stylized facts on the evolving shape dynamics of the US personal income distribution from 1962 to 2000. Based on adaptive kernel density estimation, we propose an adaptive bootstrap test for multimodality. Our results indicate that multimodality has been a predominant feature of the US income distribution. Both the number and location of modes change over time, revealing rich distributional dynamics and strong heterogeneity. Decomposing the sample by age, education, gender and race, all groups exhibit multiple modes and follow distinct distributional patterns. For all groups and for the population as a whole, income distribution improved over the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, but deteriorated dramatically in the 1990s.
Author: Laurie Ulrich Fuller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-07-10
Get the book you need to succeed in any Photoshop endeavor -- Photoshop CS3 Bible. In this totally updated edition to the international bestseller, the authors show you how to master every aspect of Photoshop -- from image-editing basics to new techniques for working with camera raw images. You'll learn how to retouch, color correct, manipulate, and combine images using Photoshop. You'll discover how to create cutting-edge special effects for digital or film-based images, and use them on the Web or in print. And you'll find out how to use the File Browser, histogram palette, Lens Blur, Match Color, the color replacement tool, customizable keyboard shortcuts, and more. The authors' easy and approachable writing style demystifies even the most complex Photoshop tasks. Order today and master Photoshop CS3. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Abstract: While fluid flows are known to promote dissolution of materials, such processes are poorly understood due to the coupled dynamics of the flow and the receding surface. We study this moving boundary problem through experiments in which hard candy bodies dissolve in laminar high-speed water flows. We find that different initial geometries are sculpted into a similar terminal form before ultimately vanishing, suggesting convergence to a stable shape–flow state. A model linking the flow and solute concentration shows how uniform boundary-layer thickness leads to uniform dissolution, allowing us to obtain an analytical expression for the terminal geometry. Newly derived scaling laws predict that the dissolution rate increases with the square root of the flow speed and that the body volume vanishes quadratically in time, both of which are confirmed by experimental measurements.
This book is an introduction to several active research topics in Foliation Theory and its connections with other areas. It contains expository lectures showing the diversity of ideas and methods converging in the study of foliations. The lectures by Aziz El Kacimi Alaoui provide an introduction to Foliation Theory with emphasis on examples and transverse structures. Steven Hurder's lectures apply ideas from smooth dynamical systems to develop useful concepts in the study of foliations: limit sets and cycles for leaves, leafwise geodesic flow, transverse exponents, Pesin Theory and hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic types of foliations. The lectures by Masayuki Asaoka compute the leafwise cohomology of foliations given by actions of Lie groups, and apply it to describe deformation of those actions. In his lectures, Ken Richardson studies the properties of transverse Dirac operators for Riemannian foliations and compact Lie group actions, and explains a recently proved index formula. Besides students and researchers of Foliation Theory, this book will be interesting for mathematicians interested in the applications to foliations of subjects like Topology of Manifolds, Differential Geometry, Dynamics, Cohomology or Global Analysis.
The Marcel Grossmann Meetings seek to further the development of the foundations and applications of Einstein's general relativity by promoting theoretical understanding in the relevant fields of physics, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics and to direct future technological, observational, and experimental efforts. The meetings discuss recent developments in classical and quantum aspects of gravity, and in cosmology and relativistic astrophysics, with major emphasis on mathematical foundations and physical predictions, having the main objective of gathering scientists from diverse backgrounds for deepening our understanding of spacetime structure and reviewing the current state of the art in the theory, observations and experiments pertinent to relativistic gravitation. The range of topics is broad, going from the more abstract classical theory, quantum gravity, branes and strings, to more concrete relativistic astrophysics observations and modeling. The three volumes of the proceedings of MG13 give a broad view of all aspects of gravitational physics and astrophysics, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments. The scientific program of the meeting included 33 morning plenary talks during 6 days, and 75 parallel sessions over 4 afternoons. Volume A contains plenary and review talks ranging from the mathematical foundations of classical and quantum gravitational theories including recent developments in string/brane theories, to precision tests of general relativity including progress towards the detection of gravitational waves, and from supernova cosmology to relativistic astrophysics including such topics as gamma ray bursts, black hole physics both in our galaxy and in active galactic nuclei in other galaxies, and neutron star and pulsar astrophysics. Volumes B and C include parallel sessions which touch on dark matter, neutrinos, X-ray sources, astrophysical black holes, neutron stars, binary systems, radiative transfer, accretion disks, quasors, gamma ray bursts, supernovas, alternative gravitational theories, perturbations of collapsed objects, analog models, black hole thermodynamics, numerical relativity, gravitational lensing, large scale structure, observational cosmology, early universe models and cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation, global structure, singularities, chaos, Einstein–Maxwell systems, wormholes, exact solutions of Einstein's equations, gravitational waves, gravitational wave detectors and data analysis, precision gravitational measurements, quantum gravity and loop quantum gravity, quantum cosmology, strings and branes, self-gravitating systems, gamma ray astronomy, and cosmic rays and the history of general relativity. Contents:On the Cosmological Singularity (Vladimir A Belinski)GRB Afterglow Discovery with Bepposax: Its Story 15 Years Later (Filippo Frontera)Rotation, Convection, and Core Collapse (W David Arnett)Spacetime Singularities: Recent Developments (Claes Uggla)Hidden Symmetries: From BKL to Kac–Moody (Philipp Fleig & Hermann Nicolai)Recent Results in Mathematical GR (Sergiu Klainerman)Higher Dimensional Black Holes (Harvey S Reall)Causal Dynamical Triangulations and the Search for a Theory of Quantum Gravity (Jan Ambjorn, Andrzej Görlich, Jerzy Jurkiewicz & Renate Loll)On Quantum Gravity, Asymptotic Safety, and Paramagnetic Dominance (Andreas Nink & Martin Reuter)Perturbative Quantum Gravity as a Double Copy of Gauge Theory and Implications for UV Properties (Zvi Bern)Type Ia Supernova Cosmology: Past and Future (Ariel Goobar)The Energetic Universe: A Nobel Surprise (Robert P Kirshner)Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interactions in Neutron Stars (Jorge Rueda & Remo Ruffini)Gravitational-Wave Physics and Astronomy Using Ground-Based Interferometers (David H Reitze & David H Shoemaker)Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission (Bing Zhang)Black Holes, Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts (Remo Ruffini)Precisions Tests of Theories of Gravity Using Pulsars (Michael Kramer)The Planck Mission: Recent Results, Cosmological and Fundamental Physics Perspectives (Nazzareno Mandolesi, Carlo Burigana, Alessandro Gruppuso & Paolo Natoli)Observation of a New Boson at a Mass of 125 GeV with the CMS Experiment at the LHC (Chiara Mariotti)Unavoidable CMB Spectral Features and Blackbody Photosphere of Our Universe (Rashid Sunyaev & Rishi Khatri)Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the ATLAS Detector (Domizia Orestano) Readership: Graduate students in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, and scientists interested in general relativity, gravitation, astrophysics, quantum gravity, particle physics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Keywords:General Relativity;Gravitation;Astrophysics;Quantum Gravity;Particle Physics;Cosmology;Theoretical Physics
Author: Ted LoCascio
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-10-01
Unlike the early days of Photoshop, for several years now most Photoshop books have been aimed at photographers; there is a big hole on the bookstore shelf that needs to be filled by a Photoshop book that is geared specifically towards graphic design professionals and production artists. This core audience should not have to wade through useless chapters of content geared towards other users of the application, namely professional photographers, web designers, and video editors. Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production sets graphic designers and production artists in the right direction when implementing the latest version of Photoshop into their everyday workflow. It demonstrates how to use Photoshop for all aspects of print, from simpler tasks such as basic color correction and masking, to more advanced tasks such as color management, utilizing layer comps, and troubleshooting and automating RGB-to-CMYK color conversion. Entirely four-color throughout, Mastering Photoshop for Print Design and Production fulfills the promise of the Mastering series, to provide real-world skills to professionals and students. Like all Mastering books, this one includes: A "by pros for pros" approach: The author is an active professional working in graphic arts, layout, and design, writing for professionals who want to improve their skills or learn new skills. Real-world examples: Running throughout the text are examples of how the various skills are applied in scenarios faced by real practitioners. Skill-based teaching and hands-on exercises. Companion files for tutorials and projects are provided on the accompanying CD-ROM. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Author: Felix Finster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-02-08
One of the most challenging problems of contemporary theoretical physics is the mathematically rigorous construction of a theory which describes gravitation and the other fundamental physical interactions within a common framework. The physical ideas which grew from attempts to develop such a theory require highly advanced mathematical methods and radically new physical concepts. This book presents different approaches to a rigorous unified description of quantum fields and gravity. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions which took place in autumn 2010 at the fifth conference "Quantum field theory and gravity - Conceptual and mathematical advances in the search for a unified framework" in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in fundamental questions of mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview of a fascinating active research area.
Featuring a foreword by the astronaut Ulf Merbold, this book is devoted to interfaces between two fluids, that is, between a liquid and a gas or between two liquids. It is the first review on the subject, providing an up-to-date overview.
A theoretical physicist and author of the controversial best-seller The Trouble with Physics describes his new approach for thinking about the reality of time and explains his theory about the laws of physics not being timeless but rather capable of evolving.
Author: Wolfgang Alt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2003-08-25
Polymer and cell dynamics play an important role in processes like tumor growth, metastasis, embryogenesis, immune reactions and regeneration. Based on an international workshop on numerical simulations of polymer and cell dynamics in Bad Honnef (Germany) in 2000, this volume provides an overview of the relevant mathematical and numerical methods, their applications and limits. Polymer and Cell Dynamics will be of interest to scientists and advanced undergraduates.