Sliding Friction

Author: Bo Persson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662036464
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Science

Sliding friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. The ability to produce durable low-friction surfaces and lubricant fluids has become an important factor in the miniaturization of moving components in many technological devices, e.g., magnetic storage, recording systems, miniature motors and many aerospace components. This book will be useful to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers who want to understand sliding friction. The book (or parts of it) could also form the basis for a modern undergraduate or graduate course on tribology.

Physics of Sliding Friction

Author: Bo Persson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401587051
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

The study of sliding friction is one of the oldest problems in physics, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Low-friction surfaces are in increasingly high demand for high-tech components such as computer storage systems, miniature motors, and aerospace devices. It has been estimated that about 5% of the gross national product in the developed countries is "wasted" on friction and the related wear. In spite of this, remarkable little is understood about the fundamental, microscopic processes responsible for friction and wear. The topic of interfacial sliding has experienced a major burst of in terest and activity since 1987, much of which has developed quite independently and spontaneously. This volume contains contributions from leading scientists on fundamental aspects of sliding friction. Some problems considered are: What is the origin of stick-and-slip motion? What is the origin of the rapid processes taking place within a lub at low sliding velocities? On a metallic surface, is the rication layer electronic or phononic friction the dominating energy dissipation pro cess? What is the role (if any) of self-organized criticality in sliding friction? How thick is the water layer during sliding on ice and snow? These and other questions raised in this book are of course only part ly answered: the topic of sliding friction is still in an early state of development.

Effect of Sliding Friction MOdes on Exoelectron Emission Parameters

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:227670324
Release Date: 1972
Genre:

Thermally stimulated electron emission of 40Kh10G10 steel samples subjected to sliding friction at different sliding velocities Nu was studied in a vacuum using a secondary electron multiplier. Also measured were the magnitude of induced wear, intermediate contact electrical resistance, the coefficient of friction, and the emf occurring under friction. As Nu increases from 0.75 to 4.5 m/sec, two maxima appear on the thermally stimulated electron emission curves in the regions 170 and 270 degrees C.A more intense thermally stimulated electron emission is observed after sliding with V equals 4.5 m/sec, and this also produces greater wear.

Friction Microprobe Investigation of Particle Layer Effects on Sliding Friction

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:727242249
Release Date: 1993
Genre:

Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

Laser Beam Shaping of Elements of Sliding Friction Supports

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:227691738
Release Date: 1972
Genre:

The article presents results involving the application of lasers for the production of sliding friction supports used in instrument building. Typical support designs are shown. Regression equations are presented for elements of typical sliding friction supports considering the primary factors influencing their design dimensions. The use of lasers can allow the production of an aperture or depression directly in a load bearing plate similar in shape and size to stone bearings in a single generating pulse, and also allows the formation of ends with various design characteristics on axes, while simultaneously hardening the material in the treatment zone.

A Hinged pad Test Structure for Sliding Friction Measurement in Micromachining

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:68435215
Release Date: 1998
Genre:

The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

Friction Wear Lubrication

Author: Kenneth C Ludema
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439821895
Release Date: 1996-06-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The result of Kenneth C Ludema's 35 years of teaching and research, Friction, Wear, Lubrication: A Textbook in Tribology presents a broad view of the many aspects of tribology. All major aspects of this discipline are included, from mechanical to materials to chemical to mechanics. Ludema's key research areas - marginally lubricated wear and friction - will be of special interest to readers who would like to find reliable and useful data on friction and wear rates. Written primarily as a text/reference, this informative volume describes how to solve design problems in friction and wear. By applying close and informed observation of presently operating tribological systems, along with careful design of simulative tests, readers can develop their own conclusions of tribological results. This book is intended to bring everyone solving problems in friction and wear to the same understanding of what is (and what is not) involved in this exciting field. Seniors and graduate students, as well as practicing engineers employed in a wide range of industries will find this book to be an essential and practical resource.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Multibody Systems with Imperfect Joints

Author: Paulo Flores
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540743618
Release Date: 2008-01-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book presents suitable methodologies for the dynamic analysis of multibody mechanical systems with joints. It contains studies and case studies of real and imperfect joints. The book is intended for researchers, engineers, and graduate students in applied and computational mechanics.

Tribology of Plastic Materials

Author: Y. Yamaguchi
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080875807
Release Date: 1990-06-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book presents a thorough overview on workable theories and reliable experimental data on the use of plastic materials for sliding parts. Divided into four parts. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with current theories of friction and wear, and include discussion of various hypotheses based upon experimental studies. Chapter 3 details experiments designed to improve tribological performance via polymer blending and composite production, whilst Chapter 4 explains how the data obtained from these experiemnts can be applied to sliding machine parts. The work will prove useful in the design of plastic materials and components and will also provide a stepping-stone toward future innovations in this field.

Scale Effects in Sliding Friction

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:727288797
Release Date: 1991
Genre:

Solid friction is considered by some to be a fundamental property of two contacting materials, while others consider it to be a property of the larger tribosystem in which the materials are contained. A set of sliding friction experiments were designed to investigate the hypothesis that the unlubricated sliding friction between two materials is indeed a tribosystems-related property and that the relative influence of the materials properties or those of the machine on friction varies from one situation to another. Three tribometers were used: a friction microprobe (FMP), a typical laboratory-scale reciprocating pin-on-flat device, and a heavy-duty commercial wear tester. The slider material was stainless steel (AISI 440C) and the flat specimen material was an ordered alloy of Ni3Al (IC-50). Sphere-on-flat geometry was used at ambient conditions and at normal forces ranging from 0.01 N to 100 N and average sliding velocities of 0.01 to 100.0 mm/s. The nominal, steady-state sliding friction coefficient tended to decrease with increases in normal force for each of the three tribometers, and the steady state value of sliding friction tended to increase as the mass of the machine increased. The variation of the friction force during sliding was also a characteristic of the test system. These studies provide further support to the idea that the friction of both laboratory-scale and engineering tribosystems should be treated as a parameter which may take on a range of characteristic values and not conceived as having a single, unique value for each material pair.

Friction Science and Technology

Author: Peter J. Blau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420054104
Release Date: 2008-10-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

"Should have broad appeal in many kinds of industry, ranging from automotive to computers—basically any organization concerned with products having moving parts!" —David A. Rigney, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA In-Depth Coverage of Frictional Concepts Friction affects so many aspects of daily life that most take it for granted. Arguably, mankind’s attempt to control friction dates back to the invention of the wheel. Friction Science and Technology: From Concepts to Applications, Second Edition presents a broad, multidisciplinary overview of the constantly moving field of friction, spanning the history of friction studies to the evolution of measurement instruments. It reviews the gamut of friction test methods, ranging from simple inclined plans to sophisticated laboratory tribometers. The book starts with introductory concepts about friction and progressively delves into the more subtle fundamentals of surface contact, use of various lubricants, and specific applications such as brakes, piston rings, and machine components. Includes American Society of Testing and Management (ASTM) Standards This volume covers multiple facets of friction, with numerous interesting and unusual examples of friction-related technologies not found in other tribology books. These include: Friction in winter sports Friction of touch and human skin Friction of footware and biomaterials Friction drilling of metals Friction of tires and road surfaces Describing the tools of the trade for friction research, this edition enables engineers to purchase or build their own devices. It also discusses frictional behavior of a wide range of materials, coatings, and surface treatments, both traditional and advanced, such as thermally oxidized titanium alloys, nanocomposites, ultra-low friction films, laser-dimpled ceramics, and carbon composites. Even after centuries of study, friction continues to conceal its subtle origins, especially in practical engineering situations in which surfaces are exposed to complex and changing environments. Authored by a field specialist with more than 30 years of experience, this one-stop resource discusses all aspects of friction, from its humble beginnings to its broad application for modern engineers.