Society Against the State

Author: Pierre Clastres
Publisher:
ISBN: 0942299019
Release Date: 1989-09-01
Genre: Philosophy

"The thesis is radical," writes Marshall Sahlins of this landmark text in anthropology and political science. "We conventionally define the state as the regulation of violence; it may be the origin of it. Clastres's thesis is that economic expropriation and political coercion are inconsistent with the character of tribal society - which is to say, with the greater part of human history."Can there be a society that is not divided into oppressors and oppressed, or that refuses coercive state apparatuses? In this beautifully written book, Pierre Clastres offers examples of South American Indian groups that, although without hierarchical leadership, were both affluent and complex. In so doing he refutes the usual negative definition of tribal society and poses its order as a radical critique of our own Western state of power.Born in 1934, Pierre Clastres was educated at the Sorbonne; throughout the 1960s he lived with Indian groups in Paraguay and Venezuela. From 1971 until his death in 1979 he was Director of Studies at the fifth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris and held the Chair of Religion and Societies of the South American Indians there.Robert Hurley is the translator of the History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault and cotranslator of Anti-Oedipus by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.

Hillbilly Elegie

Author: J. D. Vance
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
ISBN: 9783843715775
Release Date: 2017-04-07
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Armut und Chaos, Resignation und Gewalt, Drogen und Alkohol: In diesem Teufelskreis befinden sich viele weiße Arbeiterfamilien in den USA – entfremdet von der politischen Führung, abgehängt vom Rest der Gesellschaft und damit anfällig für die einfachen Lösungen von Populisten. Früher konnten sich die „Hillbillys“, die weißen Fabrikarbeiter etwa aus Ohio oder Kentucky, erhoffen, kraft ihrer Arbeit zu bescheidenem Wohlstand zu kommen. Doch spätestens gegen Ende des 20sten Jahrhunderts zog der Niedergang der alten Industrien auch die Arbeiterfamilien in eine Abwärtsspirale, aus der die meisten bis heute keinen Ausweg finden. J. D. Vance ist es anhand der Geschichte seiner Familie wie keinem anderen gelungen, diese ausweglose Situation und die Krise einer ganzen Gesellschaft eindrücklich zu schildern. Sein Buch bewegte Millionen von Lesern in den USA und erklärt nicht zuletzt den Wahltriumph eines Donald Trump.

Archeology of Violence

Author: Pierre Clastres
Publisher: Semiotext
ISBN: NWU:35556041258104
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Social Science

Clastres's final, posthumous book on the affirmative role of violence in "primitive societies."

In the Shadows of the State

Author: Alpa Shah
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822392934
Release Date: 2010-07-12
Genre: History

In the Shadows of the State suggests that well-meaning indigenous rights and development claims and interventions may misrepresent and hurt the very people they intend to help. It is a powerful critique based on extensive ethnographic research in Jharkhand, a state in eastern India officially created in 2000. While the realization of an independent Jharkhand was the culmination of many years of local, regional, and transnational activism for the rights of the region’s culturally autonomous indigenous people, Alpa Shah argues that the activism unintentionally further marginalized the region’s poorest people. Drawing on a decade of ethnographic research in Jharkhand, she follows the everyday lives of some of the poorest villagers as they chase away protected wild elephants, try to cut down the forests they allegedly live in harmony with, maintain a healthy skepticism about the revival of the indigenous governance system, and seek to avoid the initial spread of an armed revolution of Maoist guerrillas who claim to represent them. Juxtaposing these experiences with the accounts of the village elites and the rhetoric of the urban indigenous-rights activists, Shah reveals a class dimension to the indigenous-rights movement, one easily lost in the cultural-based identity politics that the movement produces. In the Shadows of the State brings together ethnographic and theoretical analyses to show that the local use of global discourses of indigeneity often reinforces a class system that harms the poorest people.

The Prehistory of Iberia

Author: María Cruz Berrocal
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780415885928
Release Date: 2013
Genre: History

The origin and early development of social stratification is essentially an archaeological problem. The impressive advance of archaeological research has revealed that, first and foremost, the pre-eminence of stratified or class society in today's world is the result of a long social struggle. This volume advances the archaeological study of social organisation in Prehistory, and more specifically the rise of social complexity in European Prehistory. Within the wider context of world Prehistory, in the last 30 years the subject of early social stratification and state formation has been a key subject on interest in Iberian Prehistory. This book illustrates the differing forms of resistances, the interplay between change and continuity, the multiple paths to and from social complexity, and the 'failures' of states to form in Prehistory. It also engages with broader questions, such as: when did social stratification appear in western European Prehistory? What factors contributed to its emergence and consolidation? What are the relationships between the notions of social complexity, social inequality, social stratification and statehood? And what are the archaeological indicators for the empirical analysis of these issues? Focusing on Iberia, but with a permanent connection to the wider geographical framework, this book presents, for the first time, a chronologically comprehensive, up-to-date approach to the issue of state formation in prehistoric Europe.

Reproducing the State

Author: Jacqueline Stevens
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 069101714X
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Political Science

People are said to acquire their affiliations of ethnicity, race, and sex at birth. Hence, these affiliations have long been understood to be natural, independent of the ability of political societies to define who we are. Reproducing the State vigorously challenges the conventional view, as well as post-structuralist scholarship that minimizes state power. Jacqueline Stevens examines birth-based theories of membership and group affiliations in political societies ranging from the Athenian polis, to tribes of Australia, to the French republic, to the contemporary United States. The book details how political societies determine the kinship rules that are used to reproduce political societies. Stevens analyzes the ways that ancestral and territorial birth rules for membership in political societies pattern other intergenerational affiliations. She shows how the notion of ethnicity depends on the implicit or explicit invocation of a past, present, or future political society. She also shows how geography is used to represent political regions, including continents, as the seemingly natural underpinning for racial taxonomies perpetuated through miscegenation laws and birth certificates. And Stevens argues that sex differences are also constituted through membership practices of political societies. In its chronological and disciplinary range, Reproducing the State will reward the interest of scholars in many fields, including anthropology, history, political science, sociology, women's studies, race studies, and ethnic studies.

Stitches on Time

Author: Saurabh Dube
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822385486
Release Date: 2004-03-04
Genre: History

Destined to become a key work of subaltern studies and a crucial intervention in postcolonial scholarship, Stitches on Time probes the relationships between empire and modernity, nation and history, the colonial and the postcolonial, and power and difference. Saurabh Dube combines history and anthropology to provide critical understandings of the theory and practice of historical ethnography and contemporary historiography. Drawing on extensive archival research and innovative fieldwork as well as political economy and social theory—including considerations of gender—he unpacks the implications of specific Indian pasts from the middle of the nineteenth century through the end of the twentieth century. Dube provides incisive accounts of the interactions between North American evangelical missionaries and Christian converts of central India, and between colonial legal systems and Indian popular laws. He reflects on the difficulties of history writing by considering the production and reception of recent Hindu nationalist histories. Assessing the work of the South Asian Subaltern Studies Collective, he offers substantial critical readings of major writings by Ranajit Guha, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Partha Chatterjee, and others. Dube develops the concept and practice of a “history without warranty” as a means of rigorously rethinking categories such as modernity, colonialism, the West, the postcolonial, and the nation.

Gesellschaft in der Zerstreuung

Author: Sandro Liniger
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161549333
Release Date: 2017-06-02
Genre: Social Science

English summary: Despite established social, political and cultural differences, and despite the tricky mountainous setting, over 50 early modern era alpine valley communities managed to cooperate reliably with one another without either central instance or state. Notwithstanding these adverse conditions - such as steep mountains, remote valleys and settlements strewn far apart - they were able to successfully organise their common social and political interests. They even developed a dynamic unity and order completely without superior central power. This at first seemingly paradoxical finding is taken by Sandro Liniger as an opportunity to analyse just how such a dispersed society functions: Which specific logic characterises such an alternative form of organising common social and political life? Which instabilities and resistances are peculiar to it? And which conflicts characterise it? German description: Trotz bestehender sozialer, politischer und kultureller Differenzen und trotz der schwierigen Bedingungen im Gebirge unterhalten im fruhneuzeitlichen Graubunden uber 50 alpine Talgemeinden zuverlassig ein Miteinander ohne Zentralinstanz und ohne Staat. Ihnen gelingt es, auch angesichts widriger Umstande, ein gemeinsames Soziales und Politisches erfolgreich zu organisieren. Sie bilden sogar eine dynamische Einheit und Ordnung aus, und dies ganz ohne ubergeordnete Zentralmacht. Diesen auf den ersten Blick paradoxal anmutenden Befund nimmt Sandro Liniger zum Anlass, um nach der Funktionsweise einer Gesellschaft in der Zerstreuung zu fragen: Welche spezifische Logik zeichnet eine solche alternative Form der Organisation des sozialen und politischen Zusammenlebens aus? Und welche Instabilitaten und Resistenzen sind ihr zu eigen? Welche Konflikte charakterisieren sie?

Gewalt

Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 9783104016160
Release Date: 2011-10-24
Genre: History

Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt

Routledge Handbook of Environmental Anthropology

Author: Helen Kopnina
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781317667964
Release Date: 2016-08-12
Genre: Business & Economics

Environmental Anthropology studies historic and present human-environment interactions. This volume illustrates the ways in which today's environmental anthropologists are constructing new paradigms for understanding the multiplicity of players, pressures, and ecologies in every environment, and the value of cultural knowledge of landscapes. This Handbook provides a comprehensive survey of contemporary topics in environmental anthropology and thorough discussions on the current state and prospective future of the field in seven key sections. As the contributions to this Handbook demonstrate, the subfield of environmental anthropology is responding to cultural adaptations and responses to environmental changes in multiple and complex ways. As a discipline concerned primarily with human-environment interaction, environmental anthropologists recognize that we are now working within a pressure cooker of rapid environmental damage that is forcing behavioural and often cultural changes around the world. As we see in the breadth of topics presented in this volume, these environmental challenges have inspired renewed foci on traditional topics such as food procurement, ethnobiology, and spiritual ecology; and a broad new range of subjects, such as resilience, nonhuman rights, architectural anthropology, industrialism, and education. This volume enables scholars and students quick access to both established and trending environmental anthropological explorations into theory, methodology and practice.

Myths of the Archaic State

Author: Norman Yoffee
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521521564
Release Date: 2005-01-13
Genre: Literary Criticism

Classical archaeology promotes the view that a state's evolution reflects general, universal forces. Norman Yoffee challenges the model in this book by presenting more complex and multi-linear models for the evolution of civilizations. Yoffee questions the definition of the prehistoric state, particularly that which heralds "the chiefdom" as the forerunner of the ancient state and explores case studies on the role of women in ancient societies.

State Space World

Author: Henri Lefebvre
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816653164
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Political Science

Making the political aspect of Lefebvre's work available in English for the first time, this book contains essays on philosophy, political theory, state formation, spatial planning, and globalization, as well as provocative reflections on the possibilities and limits of grassroots democracy under advanced capitalism.

Anthropology Now and Next

Author: Thomas Hylland Eriksen
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781782384502
Release Date: 2014-10-30
Genre: Social Science

The scholarship of Ulf Hannerz is characterized by its extraordinary breadth and visionary nature. He has contributed to the understanding of urban life and transnational networks, and the role of media, paradoxes of identity and new forms of community, suggesting to see culture in terms of flows rather than as bounded entities. Contributions honor Hannerz' legacy by addressing theoretical, epistemological, ethical and methodological challenges facing anthropological inquiry on topics from cultural diversity policies in Europe to transnational networks in Yemen, and from pottery and literature to multinational corporations.