Characterization of Metamorphism through Mineral Equilibria

Author: John M. Ferry
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9781501508172
Release Date: 2018-12-17
Genre: Science

Volume 10 of Reviews in Mineralogy reviews the use of a powerful probe into metamorphic process: mineral assemblages and the composition of minerals. Put very simply, this volume attempts to answer the question: "What can we learn about metamorphism through the study of minerals in metamorphic rocks?" It is not an encyclopedic summary of metamorphic mineral assemblages; instead it attempts to present basic research strategies and examples of their application. Moreover, in order to limit and unify the subject matter, it concentrates on the chemical aspects of metamorphism and regrettably ignores other important kinds of studies of metamorphic rocks and minerals conducted by structural geologists, structural petrologists, and geophysicists.

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Author: Pan Ming Huang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439803059
Release Date: 2011-11-17
Genre: Science

An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Solution Chemistry

Author: P. Somasundaran
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080465072
Release Date: 2006-11-13
Genre: Science

Surfactants have been used for many industrial processes such as flotation, enhanced oil recovery, soil remediation and cleansing. Flotation technology itself has been used in industry since the end of the 19th century, and even today it is an important method for mineral processing and its application range is expanding to other areas. This technology has been used in the treatment of wastewater, industrial waste materials, separation and recycling of municipal waste, and some unit processes of chemical engineering. The efficiency of all these operations depends primarily on the interactions among surfactants, solids and media. In this book, the fundamentals of solution chemistry of mineral/surfactant systems are discussed, as well as the important calculations involved. The influence of relevant physico-chemical conditions are also presented in detail. * Introduces the fundamentals of solution chemistry of mineral/surfactant systems and important calculations involved * Discusses the influence of relevant physico-chemical conditions * Presents the relationship between the molecular structure of the flotation regents of solution chemistry and its characteristics

Manganese Ores of Supergene Zone Geochemistry of Formation

Author: I.M. Varentsov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401721745
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Science

The major part of the world's high grade industrial manganese ore is being mined in supergene deposits. This book represents the first attempt to bring together not only academic but also commercial data on all aspects of the geochemistry of formation of supergene manganese ores. It is a distinctive account of the geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, experimental modelling studies, mechanisms of formation processes and geochemical evolution through geological time of manganese ores for all types of supergene deposits. Special emphasis is placed on the general geochemical model of supergene manganese ore formation, which can be applied in geochemical exploration. Despite the fact that supergene manganese ores have been used by mankind since the early centuries, it is only during the last decade that a comprehensive understanding of the nature of geochemical processes of formation of these deposits has become available and their potential as an economic resource has been recognized against other genetical types of manganese accumulations. Audience: This substantial and comprehensive volume is of interest to economic geologists, mining engineers, geochemists, mineralogists and other specialized geoscientists.

Geochemistry

Author: Harry Y. McSween
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231509039
Release Date: 2003-11-19
Genre: Science

Written expressly for undergraduate and graduate geologists, this book focuses on how geochemical principles can be used to solve practical problems. The attention to problem-solving reflects the authors'belief that showing how theory is useful in solving real-life problems is vital for learning. The book gives students a thorough grasp of the basic principles of the subject, balancing the traditional equilibrium perspective and the kinetic viewpoint. The first half of the book considers processes in which temperature and pressure are nearly constant. After introductions to the laws of thermodynamics, to fundamental equations for flow and diffusion, and to solution chemistry, these principles are used to investigate diagenesis, weathering, and natural waters. The second half of the book applies thermodynamics and kinetics to systems undergoing changes in temperature and pressure during magmatism and metamorphism. This revised edition incorporates new geochemical discoveries as examples of processes and pathways, with new chapters on mineral structure and bonding and on organic matter and biomarkers. Each chapter has worked problems, and the authors assume that the student has had a year of college-level chemistry and a year of calculus. Praise for the first edition "A truly modern geochemistry book.... Very well written and quite enjoyable to read.... An excellent basic text for graduate level instruction in geochemistry." —Journal of Geological Education "An up-to-date, broadly conceived introduction to geochemistry.... Given the recent flowering of geochemistry as an interdisciplinary science, and given the extent to which it now draws upon the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics to understand earth and planetary processes, this timely and rigorous [book] is welcome indeed." —Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Sediments Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks

Author: F.T. Mackenzie
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080525229
Release Date: 2005-11-22
Genre: Science

This volume covers the formation and biogeochemistry of a variety of important sediment types from their initial formation through their conversion (diagenesis) to sedimentary rocks. The volume deals with the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic properties of sediments and sedimentary rocks and their use in interpreting the environment of formation and subsequent events in the history of sediments, and the nature of the ocean-atmosphere system through geological time. Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry, (10 Volume Set, ISBN 0-08-043751-6, published in 2003). Comprehensive and authoritative scope and focus Reviews from renowned scientists across a range of subjects, providing both overviews and new data, supplemented by extensive bibliographies Extensive illustrations and examples from the field

Biogeochemistry of Ancient and Modern Environments

Author: P. A. Trudinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662265826
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science

This volume contains a selection of papers presented to the Fourth Internation~l Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB), and a conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Aust ralia on August 26-31 and September 3-4, 1979, respectively. The ISEB were established to provide "a forum for uninhibited exchange of information and ideas among the biological, chemical, atmospheric and geolorical scientists working in the common area of biogeochemistry, encompassing soil and other earth sciences as well as the hydrosphere and atmosphere", By linking the fourth ISEB with the Leachin~ Conference the scope of discussions was extended to encompass the application of biogeochemical processes to the mining industry. This wide-ranging philosophy is reflected in the breadth and diversity of the subjects covered in this book. The published papers are expanded versions of those presented at the meetings. They have all been scrutinized by at least one referee in addition to the editors. About 20% of the contributions to the meetings are not included, either because authors did not wish to publish or because the papers were not accepted by the editors.

Origin and Mineralogy of Clays

Author: Bruce Velde
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662126486
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Science

Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, the first of two volumes, lays the groundwork for a thorough study of clays in the environment. The second volume will deal with environmental interaction. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the book covers the whole spectrum of clays. The chapters on surface environments are of great relevance in regard to environmental problems in soils, rivers and lake-ocean situations, showing the greatest interaction between living species and the chemicals in their habitat. The book is of interest to scientists and students working on environmental issues.

Sand and Sandstone

Author: F. J. Pettijohn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461599746
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

This book is the outgrowth of a week-long conference on sandstone organized by the authors, first held at Banff, Alberta, in 1964 under the auspices of the Alberta Association of Petroleum Geologists and the University of Alberta, and again, in 1965, at Bloomington, Indiana, under the sponsorship of the Indiana Geological Survey and the Department of Geology, Indiana University. A 2- page syllabus was prepared for the second conference and published by the Indiana Geological Survey. Continuing interest in and demand for the syllabus prompted us to update and expand its contents. The result is this book. We hope this work will be useful as a text or supplementary text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in sedimentation, sedimentary petrology, or general petrology and perhaps will be helpful to the teachers of such courses. Though we have focussed on sandstones we have necessarily included much of interest to students of all sediments. We hope also that it will be a useful reference work for the professional geologist, especially those concerned with petroleum, ground-water, and economic geology either in industry or government. Because the subject is so closely tied to surface processes it may also be of interest to geo morphologists and engineers who deal with beaches and rivers where sand is in transit.

Gold

Author: Boyle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461319696
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

GOLD: History and Genesis of Deposits is the product of an effort by the Society of Economic Geologists to publish materials that will expand knowl edge concerning timely, specific topics important to the study of economic geology and to economic geologists. A volume on gold was selected for a general review-type publication because of the importance of the gold mining industry in the 1980s. The officers and council of the Society of Economic Geologists authorized the preparation of this book on gold in 1981, and Dr. Robert W. Boyle was selected as its author. Dr. Boyle has extensive experience in the study of gold deposits. He has an international reputation and a broad interest and understanding of the gold mining industry, the origin of gold deposits, and the history of gold as a metal and ore from prehistoric times to recent. Dr. Boyle uses important publications on gold deposits as source materials to document the various pathways of geological thought over time to introduce the reader to modern concepts. The book contains a wealth of information concerning gold.