Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed. The book is intended for advanced beginners in accelerator research, and for experts interested in the mechanisms of direct space charge interaction and their modeling.
Author: Vladimir D. Shiltsev
Release Date: 2015-11-20
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the operating principles and technology of electron lenses in supercolliders. Electron lenses are a novel instrument for high energy particle accelerators, particularly for the energy-frontier superconducting hadron colliders, including the Tevatron, RHIC, LHC and future very large hadron colliders. After reviewing the issues surrounding beam dynamics in supercolliders, the book offers an introduction to the electron lens method and its application. Further chapters describe the technology behind the electron lenses which have recently been proposed, built and employed for compensation of beam-beam effects and for collimation of high-energy high-intensity beams, for compensation of space-charge effects and several other applications in accelerators. The book will be an invaluable resource for those involved in the design, construction and operation of the next generation of hadron colliders.
Author: Alexander Wu Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2013
Edited by internationally recognized authorities in the field, this expanded and updated new edition of the bestselling Handbook, containing more than 100 new articles, is aimed at the design and operation of modern particle accelerators. It is intended as a vade mecum for professional engineers and physicists engaged in these subjects. With a collection of more than 2000 equations, 300 illustrations and 500 graphs and tables, here one will find, in addition to the common formulae of previous compilations, hard-to-find, specialized formulae, recipes and material data pooled from the lifetime experience of many of the world''s most able practitioners of the art and science of accelerators.The eight chapters include both theoretical and practical matters as well as an extensive glossary of accelerator types. Chapters on beam dynamics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions deal with linear and nonlinear single particle and collective effects including spin motion, beam-environment, beam-beam, beam-electron, beam-ion and intrabeam interactions. The impedance concept and related calculations are dealt with at length as are the instabilities associated with the various interactions mentioned. A chapter on operational considerations includes discussions on the assessment and correction of orbit and optics errors, real-time feedbacks, generation of short photon pulses, bunch compression, tuning of normal and superconducting linacs, energy recovery linacs, free electron lasers, cooling, space-charge compensation, brightness of light sources, collider luminosity optimization and collision schemes. Chapters on mechanical and electrical considerations present material data and important aspects of component design including heat transfer and refrigeration. Hardware systems for particle sources, feedback systems, confinement and acceleration (both normal conducting and superconducting) receive detailed treatment in a subsystems chapter, beam measurement techniques and apparatus being treated therein as well. The closing chapter gives data and methods for radiation protection computations as well as much data on radiation damage to various materials and devices.A detailed name and subject index is provided together with reliable references to the literature where the most detailed information available on all subjects treated can be found.
This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense beams – a number of additional beam instabilities are introduced and reviewed in this new edition. Part IX is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. The appendices at the end of the book gather useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are given. This textbook is suitable for an intensive two-semester course starting at the senior undergraduate level.
Author: Ken Takayama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-10-05
A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.
This authoritative text offers a unified, programmed summary of the principles underlying all charged particle accelerators — it also doubles as a reference collection of equations and material essential to accelerator development and beam applications. The only text that covers linear induction accelerators, the work contains straightforward expositions of basic principles rather than detailed theories of specialized areas. 1986 edition.
Author: S Y Lee
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Release Date: 2011-11-16
Research and development of high energy accelerators began in 1911. Since then, milestones achieved are: (1) development of high gradient dc and rf accelerators,(2) achievement of high field magnets with excellent field quality,(3) discovery of transverse and longitudinal beam focusing principles,(4) invention of high power rf sources,(5) improvement of ultra-high vacuum technology,(6) attainment of high brightness (polarized/unpolarized) electron/ionsources,(7) advancement of beam dynamics and beam manipulation schemes, such as beam injection, accumulation, slow and fast extraction, beam damping and beam cooling, instability feedback, laser-beam interaction and harvesting instability for high brilliance coherent photon source. The impacts of the accelerator development are evidenced by the many ground-breaking discoveries in particle and nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, biology, biomedical physics, nuclear medicine, medical therapy, and industrial processing. This book is intended to be used as a graduate or senior undergraduate textbook in accelerator physics and science. It can be used as preparatory course material in graduate accelerator physics thesis research. The text covers historical accelerator development, transverse betatron motion, synchrotron motion, an introduction to linear accelerators, and synchrotron radiation phenomena in low emittance electron storage rings, introduction to special topics such as the free electron laser and the beam-beam interaction. Attention is paid to derivation of the action-angle variables of the phase space, because the transformation is important for understanding advanced topics such as the collective instability and nonlinear beam dynamics. Each section is followed by exercises, which are designed to reinforce concepts and to solve realistic accelerator design problems. Contents:Introduction:Historical DevelopmentsLayout and Components of AcceleratorsAccelerator ApplicationsTransverse Motion:Hamiltonian for Particle Motion in AcceleratorsLinear Betatron MotionEffect of Linear Magnet ImperfectionsOff-Momentum OrbitChromatic AberrationLinear CouplingNonlinear ResonancesCollective Instability and Landau DampingSynchro-Betatron HamiltonianSynchrotron Motion:Longitudinal Equation of MotionAdiabatic Synchrotron MotionRF Phase and Voltage ModulationsNonadiabatic and Nonlinear Synchrotron MotionBeam Manipulation in Synchrotron Phase SpaceFundamentals of RF SystemsLongitudinal Collective InstabilitiesIntroduction to Linear AcceleratorsPhysics of Electron Storage Rings:Fields of a Moving Charged ParticleRadiation Damping and ExcitationEmittance in Electron Storage RingsSpecial Topics in Beam Physics:Free Electron Laser (FEL)Beam-Beam InteractionClassical Mechanics and Analysis:Hamiltonian DynamicsStochastic Beam DynamicsModel Independent AnalysisNumerical Methods and Physical Constants:Fourier TransformCauchy Theorem and the Dispersion RelationUseful Handy FormulasMaxwell's EquationsPhysical Properties and Constants Readership: Accelerator, high-energy, nuclear, plasma and applied physicists.
Author: Michiko G. Minty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
From the reviews: "This book is a very welcome and valuable addition to the accelerator literature. As noted by the authors, there is relatively little material in the book specifically for low-energy machines, but industrial users may still find it useful to read." Cern Courier
This book presents the developments in accelerator physics and technology implemented at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator for almost twenty years prior to the completion of the Large Hadron Collider. The book covers the history of collider operation and upgrades, novel arrangements of beam optics and methods of orbit control, antiproton production and cooling, beam instabilities and feedback systems, halo collimation, and advanced beam instrumentation. The topics discussed show the complexity and breadth of the issues associated with modern hadron accelerators, while providing a systematic approach needed in the design and construction of next generation colliders. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in high energy physics and can serve as an introduction for students studying the beam physics of colliders.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 1998-04-01
Part of the Physics in a New Era series of assessments of the various branches of the field, Elementary-Particle Physics reviews progress in the field over the past 10 years and recommends actions needed to address the key questions that remain unanswered. It explains in simple terms the present picture of how matter is constructed. As physicists have probed ever deeper into the structure of matter, they have begun to explore one of the most fundamental questions that one can ask about the universe: What gives matter its mass? A new international accelerator to be built at the European laboratory CERN will begin to explore some of the mechanisms proposed to give matter its heft. The committee recommends full U.S. participation in this project as well as various other experiments and studies to be carried out now and in the longer term.
Author: Alex Chao
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2008
Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work.Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology. Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy.There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fascinating field.The poster (also available in 1118 x 406 mm size) which illustrates the history and development of particle accelerators from 1919 to the future can be purchased separately
Author: Martin Reiser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2008-06-25
This indispensable work offers a broad synoptic description of beams, applicable to a wide range of other devices, such as low-energy focusing and transport systems and high-power microwave sources. The monograph develops the material from the basic principles in a systematic way and discusses the underlying physics and validity of theoretical relationships, design formulas and scaling laws. Assumptions and approximations are clearly indicated throughout. This new, revised and updated edition has 10% additional content, and features, among others, a new chapter on beam physics research from 1993 to 2007, significant enhancement of chapter 6 on emittance variation, updated references and color image plates.