Author: Becky P. Y. Loo
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-09-21
Examine the Prevalence and Geography of Road CollisionsSpatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the bo
Author: A Stewart Fotheringham
Release Date: 2008-12-22
Genre: Social Science
The widespread use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has significantly increased the demand for knowledge about spatial analytical techniques across a range of disciplines. As growing numbers of researchers realise they are dealing with spatial data, the demand for specialised statistical and mathematical methods designed to deal with spatial data is undergoing a rapid increase. Responding to this demand, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis is a comprehensive and authoritative discussion of issues and techniques in the field of Spatial Data Analysis. Its principal focus is on: • why the analysis of spatial data needs separate treatment • the main areas of spatial analysis • the key debates within spatial analysis • examples of the application of various spatial analytical techniques • problems in spatial analysis • areas for future research Aimed at an international audience of academics, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis will also prove essential to graduate level students and researchers in government agencies and the private sector.
Most developed countries nowadays face environmental, health and mobility problems as a consequence of widespread car use. Policies are now being reappraised in favour of more sustainable modes of transport. In particular, bicycle use holds the potential to provide a 'green' and healthy alternative to car commuting. There are however still important barriers that discourage people cycling... This thesis aims at identifying some of the main factors that influence cycle commuting and cycling accidents. Identifying such factors would in turn provide greater support to enable policy makers developing supportive environmental conditions for cycling. In the first part of this thesis, we examine which factors influence the spatial variation of bicycle use for commuting to work at the level of the municipalities in Belgium. Special attention is paid to bicycle-specific factors and spatial econometric methods are used to account for the presence of spatial effects in the data. The second part of this thesis examines which factors are associated with cycling accidents in Brussels. Spatial point pattern methods extended to networks are used to compare the 'locational tendencies' of cycling accidents officially registered by the police with those that are unregistered. An innovative case-control approach, based on a rigorous sampling design of controls and an exhaustive data collection of spatial factors, is also proposed to allow modelling the risk of cycling accident along the Brussels' road network. This thesis not only provides sound recommendations helping planners and policy makers to encourage bicycle use, but it also offers new research directions for pinpointing locations where accidents are more likely to occur.
Author: Guohua Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-01-06
Injury is recognized as a major public health issue worldwide. In most countries, injury is the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults age 1 to 39 years. Each year in the United States, injury claims about 170,000 lives and results in over 30 million emergency room visits and 2.5 million hospitalizations. Injury is medically defined as organ/tissue damages inflicted upon oneself or by an external agent either accidentally or deliberately. Injury encompasses the undesirable consequences of a wide array of events, such as motor vehicle crashes, poisoning, burns, falls, and drowning, medical error, adverse effects of drugs, suicide and homicide. The past two decades have witnessed a remarkable growth in injury research, both in scope and in depth. To address the tremendous health burden of injury morbidity and mortality at the global level, the World Health Organization in 2000 created the Department of Injury and Violence Prevention, which has produced several influential reports on violence, traffic injury, and childhood injury. The biennial World Conference on Injury Control and Safety Promotion attracts a large international audience and has been successfully convened nine times in different countries. In the United States, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control became an independent program of the federal Centers for Disease Prevention and Control in 1997. Since then, each state health department has created an office in charge of injury prevention activities and over a dozen universities have established injury control research centers. This volume will fill an important gap in the scientific literature by providing a comprehensive and up-to-date reference resource to researchers, practitioners, and students working on different aspects of the injury problem and in different practice settings and academic fields.
Author: Shenjun Yao
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
Release Date: 2017-01-26
This dissertation, "Advances in Spatial Analysis of Traffic Crashes: the Identification of Hazardous Road Locations" by Shenjun, Yao, 姚申君, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The identification of hazardous road locations is important to the improvement of road safety. However, there is still no consensus on the best method of identifying hazardous road locations. While traditional methods, such as the hot spot methodology, focus on the physical distances separating road crashes only, the hot zone methodology takes network contiguity into consideration and treats contiguous road segments as hazardous road locations. Compared with the hot spot method, hot zone methodology is a relatively new direction and there still remain a number of methodological issues in applying the method to the identification of hazardous road locations. Hence, this study aims to provide a GIS-based study on the identification of crash hot zones as hazardous road locations with both link-attribute and event-based approaches. It first explores the general procedures of the two approaches in identifying traffic crash hot zones, and then investigates the characteristics of the two approaches by conducting a range of sensitivity analysis on defining threshold value and crash intensity with both simulated and empirical data. The results suggest that it is better to use a dissolved road network instead of a raw-link-node road network. The segmentation length and the interval of reference points have great impacts on the identification of hot zones, and they are better defined as 100 meters considering the stabilities of the performance. While employing a numerical definition to identify hot zones is a simple and effort-saving approach, using the Monte Carlo method can avoid selection bias in choosing an appropriate number as the threshold value. If the two approaches are compared, it is observed that the link-attribute approach is more likely to cause false negative problem and the event-based approach is prone to false positive problem around road junctions. No matter which method is used, the link-attribute approach requires less computer time in identifying crash hot zones. When a range of environmental variables have to be taken into consideration, the link-attribute approach is superior to the event-based approach in that it is easier for the link-attribute approach to incorporate environmental variables with statistical models. By investigating the hot zone methodology, this research is expected to enrich the theoretical knowledge of the identification of hazardous road locations and to practically provide policy-makers with more information on identifying road hazards. Further research efforts have to be dedicated to the ranking of hot zones and the investigation of false positive and false negative problems. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5043444 Subjects: Traffic accidents - Statistical methods
Author: Atsuyuki Okabe
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-07-02
In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Processes on a Network and Network Voronoi Diagrams, to Network K-function and Point Density Estimation Methods, and the Network Huff Model. The authors also discuss and illustrate the undertaking of the statistical tests described in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment as well as demonstrating the user-friendly free software package SANET. Spatial Analysis Along Networks: Presents a much-needed practical guide to statistical spatial analysis of events on and alongside a network, in a logical, user-friendly order. Introduces the preliminary methods involved, before detailing the advanced, computational methods, enabling the readers a complete understanding of the advanced topics. Dedicates a separate chapter to each of the major techniques involved. Demonstrates the practicalities of undertaking the tests described in the book, using a GIS. Is supported by a supplementary website, providing readers with a link to the free software package SANET, so they can execute the statistical methods described in the book. Students and researchers studying spatial statistics, spatial analysis, geography, GIS, OR, traffic accident analysis, criminology, retail marketing, facility management and ecology will benefit from this book.
Author: Aura Reggiani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Business & Economics
One aspect of the new economy is a transition to a networked society, and the emergence of a highly interconnected, interdependent and complex system of networks to move people, goods and information. An example of this is the in creasing reliance of networked systems (e. g. , air transportation networks, electric power grid, maritime transport, etc. ) on telecommunications and information in frastructure. Many of the networks that evolved today have an added complexity in that they have both a spatial structure – i. e. , they are located in physical space but also an a spatial dimension brought on largely by their dependence on infor mation technology. They are also often just one component of a larger system of geographically integrated and overlapping networks operating at different spatial levels. An understanding of these complexities is imperative for the design of plans and policies that can be used to optimize the efficiency, performance and safety of transportation, telecommunications and other networked systems. In one sense, technological advances along with economic forces that encourage the clustering of activities in space to reduce transaction costs have led to more efficient network structures. At the same time the very properties that make these networks more ef ficient have also put them at a greater risk for becoming disconnected or signifi cantly disruptedwh en super connected nodes are removed either intentionally or through a targeted attack.
Author: Tim Strauss
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Geographic information systems
A statistical measure called the K function was used to analyze the clustering behavior of crashes. Several methodological issues, related to the application of this spatial statistical technique in the context of motor vehicle crashes on a road network, were identified and addressed. These methods facilitated the identification of crash clusters at appropriate scales of analysis for each crash type. This clustering information is useful for improving transportation safety through focused countermeasures directly linked to crash causes and the spatial extent of identified problem locations, as well as through the identification of less location-based crash types better suited to non-spatial countermeasures. The results of the K function analysis point to the usefulness of the procedure in identifying the degree and scale at which crashes cluster, or do not cluster, relative to each other.
Author: William H. K. Lam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-09-01
Genre: Business & Economics
th It is our great privilege and honor to present the proceedings of the 18 International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory (ISTTT), held at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in Hong Kong, China on 16-18 July 2009. th The 18 ISTTT is jointly organized by the Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The ISTTT series is the main gathering for the world’s transportation and traffic theorists, and those who are interested in contributing to or gaining a deep understanding of traffic and transportation phenomena in order to better plan, design and manage the transportation system. Although it embraces a wide range of topics, from traffic flow theories and demand modeling to road safety and logistics and supply chain modeling, the ISTTT is hallmarked by its intellectual innovation, research and development excellence in the treatment of real-world transportation and traffic problems. The ISTTT prides itself in the extremely high quality of its proceedings. Previous ISTTT conferences were held in Warren, Michigan (1959), London (1963), New York (1965), Karlsruhe (1968), Berkeley, California (1971), Sydney (1974), Kyoto (1977), Toronto (1981), Delft (1984), Cambridge, Massachusetts (1987), Yokohama (1990), Berkeley, California (1993), Lyon (1996), Jerusalem (1999), Adelaide (2002), College Park, Maryland (2005), and London (2007). th th This 18 ISTTT celebrates the 50 Anniversary of this premier conference series.
Issues in Insurance and Risk Management / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Risk Management in a concise format. The editors have built Issues in Insurance and Risk Management: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Risk Management in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Insurance and Risk Management: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
The proceedings from this June 2001 conference in Beirut include 94 papers on artificial intelligence, databases and data engineering, distributed computing, software engineering, and web engineering. Specific attention is given to issues like: genetic programming, machine learning, problem solving, pattern recognition, and neural nets; multimedia databases, database structures, and database processing; analysis, techniques, and synthesis of distributed systems; software metrics, testing, management, programming languages, and reliability; and management and design of web applications. Author index only. c. Book News Inc.
Covers empirical approaches to outlier detection in intelligent transportation systems data, modeling of traffic crash-flow relationships for intersections, profiling of high-frequency accident locations by use of association rules, analysis of rollovers and injuries with sport utility vehicles, and automated accident detection at intersections via digital audio signal processing.