Author: Becky P. Y. Loo
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-09-21
Examine the Prevalence and Geography of Road Collisions Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure. The book provides a brief summary of the evolution of road safety in the twentieth century, explores current road safety problems, and establishes road safety as a public health issue. The authors discuss risk and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and behavior, and the impact of urban development. They consider road engineering, signage, vehicle design, the education of road users, and the enforcement of traffic safety measures. They also factor in the overall impact of road traffic collisions on transportation systems, economic systems, health systems, and society as a whole. Combines theoretical methodology with empirical data Bridges research and practice in road safety Includes case studies from around the world Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions takes a look at spatial methods and their role in analyzing road traffic collisions to improve road safety. A great addition to transportation safety practice and research, this book serves as a reference for spatial analysis researchers and postgraduate students in traffic and transportation engineering, transport, and urban transport planning.
Author: Philippe Blanchard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-10-23
Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.
Author: Atsuyuki Okabe
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-07-02
In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Processes on a Network and Network Voronoi Diagrams, to Network K-function and Point Density Estimation Methods, and the Network Huff Model. The authors also discuss and illustrate the undertaking of the statistical tests described in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment as well as demonstrating the user-friendly free software package SANET. Spatial Analysis Along Networks: Presents a much-needed practical guide to statistical spatial analysis of events on and alongside a network, in a logical, user-friendly order. Introduces the preliminary methods involved, before detailing the advanced, computational methods, enabling the readers a complete understanding of the advanced topics. Dedicates a separate chapter to each of the major techniques involved. Demonstrates the practicalities of undertaking the tests described in the book, using a GIS. Is supported by a supplementary website, providing readers with a link to the free software package SANET, so they can execute the statistical methods described in the book. Students and researchers studying spatial statistics, spatial analysis, geography, GIS, OR, traffic accident analysis, criminology, retail marketing, facility management and ecology will benefit from this book.
Author: A Stewart Fotheringham
Release Date: 2008-12-22
Genre: Social Science
The widespread use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has significantly increased the demand for knowledge about spatial analytical techniques across a range of disciplines. As growing numbers of researchers realise they are dealing with spatial data, the demand for specialised statistical and mathematical methods designed to deal with spatial data is undergoing a rapid increase. Responding to this demand, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis is a comprehensive and authoritative discussion of issues and techniques in the field of Spatial Data Analysis. Its principal focus is on: • why the analysis of spatial data needs separate treatment • the main areas of spatial analysis • the key debates within spatial analysis • examples of the application of various spatial analytical techniques • problems in spatial analysis • areas for future research Aimed at an international audience of academics, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis will also prove essential to graduate level students and researchers in government agencies and the private sector.
Most developed countries nowadays face environmental, health and mobility problems as a consequence of widespread car use. Policies are now being reappraised in favour of more sustainable modes of transport. In particular, bicycle use holds the potential to provide a 'green' and healthy alternative to car commuting. There are however still important barriers that discourage people cycling... This thesis aims at identifying some of the main factors that influence cycle commuting and cycling accidents. Identifying such factors would in turn provide greater support to enable policy makers developing supportive environmental conditions for cycling. In the first part of this thesis, we examine which factors influence the spatial variation of bicycle use for commuting to work at the level of the municipalities in Belgium. Special attention is paid to bicycle-specific factors and spatial econometric methods are used to account for the presence of spatial effects in the data. The second part of this thesis examines which factors are associated with cycling accidents in Brussels. Spatial point pattern methods extended to networks are used to compare the 'locational tendencies' of cycling accidents officially registered by the police with those that are unregistered. An innovative case-control approach, based on a rigorous sampling design of controls and an exhaustive data collection of spatial factors, is also proposed to allow modelling the risk of cycling accident along the Brussels' road network. This thesis not only provides sound recommendations helping planners and policy makers to encourage bicycle use, but it also offers new research directions for pinpointing locations where accidents are more likely to occur.
Author: Guohua Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-01-06
This text focuses on contemporary injury research methods. It covers recent developments in theories, methods, concepts, and techniques in injury research and includes quantitative, qualitative, experimental and observational methods from multiple disciplines.
Author: David E. Boyce
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2015-02-27
Genre: Business & Economics
Forecasting Urban Travel presents in a non-mathematical way the evolution of methods, models and theories underpinning travel forecasts and policy analysis, from the early urban transportation studies of the 1950s to current applications throughout the
Every day thousands of people are killed and injured on our roads. Millions of people each year will spend long weeks in the hospital after severe crashes and many will never be able to live, work or play as they used to do. Current efforts to address road safety are minimal in comparison to this growing human suffering. This report presents a comprehensive overview of what is known about the magnitude, risk factors and impact of road traffic injuries, and about ways to prevent and lessen the impact of road crashes. Over 100 experts, from all continents and different sectors -- including transport, engineering, health, police, education and civil society -- have worked to produce the report. Charts and tables.
Author: Aura Reggiani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Business & Economics
One aspect of the new economy is a transition to a networked society, and the emergence of a highly interconnected, interdependent and complex system of networks to move people, goods and information. An example of this is the in creasing reliance of networked systems (e. g. , air transportation networks, electric power grid, maritime transport, etc. ) on telecommunications and information in frastructure. Many of the networks that evolved today have an added complexity in that they have both a spatial structure – i. e. , they are located in physical space but also an a spatial dimension brought on largely by their dependence on infor mation technology. They are also often just one component of a larger system of geographically integrated and overlapping networks operating at different spatial levels. An understanding of these complexities is imperative for the design of plans and policies that can be used to optimize the efficiency, performance and safety of transportation, telecommunications and other networked systems. In one sense, technological advances along with economic forces that encourage the clustering of activities in space to reduce transaction costs have led to more efficient network structures. At the same time the very properties that make these networks more ef ficient have also put them at a greater risk for becoming disconnected or signifi cantly disruptedwh en super connected nodes are removed either intentionally or through a targeted attack.
Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
Release Date: 2015-12-17
Genre: Health & Fitness
This report shows that the number of road traffic deaths - 1.25 million in 2013 - has remained fairly constant since 2007 despite the increase in global motorization and population and the predicted rise in deaths. This suggests that interventions to improve global road safety are preventing increases that otherwise would have occurred. The report highlights that the situation is worst in low-income countries where rates are more than double those in high-income countries and there are a disproportionate number of deaths relative to the (lower) level of motorization. The African Region and the Eastern Mediterranean Region continue to have the highest road traffic death rates while the lowest rates are in the European Region notably among its high-income countries many of which have been very successful at achieving and sustaining reductions in death rates despite increasing motorization. Changing road user behaviour is a critical component of the holistic Safe Systems approach advocated in this report. Adopting and enforcing good laws is an effective means of changing road user behaviour on key risk factors for road traffic injuries - speed drink-driving and the failure to use helmets seat-belts and child restraints properly or at all. The report highlights that over the last 3 years 17 countries have changed laws to bring their legislation on one or more of the five key risk factors into line with best practice. The report further highlights the important role of safe infrastructure and safe vehicles in reducing road traffic injuries. Road infrastructure is mainly constructed with the needs of motorists in mind although the report indicates that 49% of all road traffic deaths occur among pedestrians cyclists and motorcyclists. Real sustained successes at reducing global road traffic deaths will only happen when road design takes into consideration the needs of all road users. With the development of the Sustainable Development Goals road safety is receiving increased international attention and is included in 2 of the 17 Goals of this new global agenda. This is welcomed. The evidence on what works to save lives on the roads exists: the international community national governments and civil society now need to act on it.
Author: Simon P. Washington
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2010-12-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering
The complexity, diversity, and random nature of transportation problems necessitates a broad analytical toolbox. Describing tools commonly used in the field, Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis, Second Edition provides an understanding of a broad range of analytical tools required to solve transportation problems. It includes a wide breadth of examples and case studies covering applications in various aspects of transportation planning, engineering, safety, and economics. After a solid refresher on statistical fundamentals, the book focuses on continuous dependent variable models and count and discrete dependent variable models. Along with an entirely new section on other statistical methods, this edition offers a wealth of new material. New to the Second Edition A subsection on Tobit and censored regressions An explicit treatment of frequency domain time series analysis, including Fourier and wavelets analysis methods New chapter that presents logistic regression commonly used to model binary outcomes New chapter on ordered probability models New chapters on random-parameter models and Bayesian statistical modeling New examples and data sets Each chapter clearly presents fundamental concepts and principles and includes numerous references for those seeking additional technical details and applications. To reinforce a practical understanding of the modeling techniques, the data sets used in the text are offered on the book’s CRC Press web page. PowerPoint and Word presentations for each chapter are also available for download.
Author: Keith M. Wolhuter
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1994-12-08
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Explore the Art and Science of Geometric Design The Geometric Design of Roads Handbook covers the design of the visible elements of the road—its horizontal and vertical alignments, the cross-section, intersections, and interchanges. Good practice allows the smooth and safe flow of traffic as well as easy maintenance. Geometric design is covered in depth. The book also addresses the underpinning disciplines of statistics, traffic flow theory, economic and utility analysis, systems analysis, hydraulics and drainage, capacity analysis, coordinate calculation, environmental issues, and public transport. Background Material for the Practicing Designer A key principle is recognizing what the driver wishes to do rather than what the vehicle can do. The book takes a human factors approach to design, drawing on the concept of the "self-explaining road." It also emphasizes the need for consistency of design and shows how this can be quantified, and sets out the issues of the design domain context, the extended design domain concept, and the design exception. The book is not simply an engineering manual, but properly explores context-sensitive design. Discover and Develop Real-World Solutions Changes in geometric design over the last few years have been dramatic and far-reaching and this is the first book to draw these together into a practical guide which presents a proper and overriding philosophy of design for road and highway designers, and students. This text: Covers the basics of geometric design Explores key aspects of multimodal design Addresses drainage and environmental issues Reviews practical standards, procedures, and guidelines Provides additional references for further reading A practical guide for graduate students taking geometric design, traffic operations/capacity analysis, and public transport, the Geometric Design of Roads Handbook introduces a novel approach that addresses the human aspect in the design process and incorporates relevant concepts that can help readers create and implement safe and efficient designs.
Geographic information systems represent an exciting and rapidly expanding technology via which spatial data may be captured, stored, retrieved, displayed, manipulated and analysed. Applications of this technology include detailed inventories of land use parcels. Spatial patterns of disease, geodemographics, environmental management and macroscale inventories of global resources. The impetus for this book is the relative lack of research into the integration of spatial analysis and GIS, and the potential benefits in developing such an integration. From a GIS perspective, there is an increasing demand for systems that do something other than display and organize data. From a spatial analytical perspective, there are advantages to linking statistical methods and mathematical models to the database and display capabilities of a GIS. Although the GIS may not be absolutely necessary for spatial analysis, it can facilitate such an analysis and moreover provide insights that might otherwise have been missed. The contributions to the book tell us where we are and where we ought to be going. It suggests that the integration of spatial analysis and GIS will stimulate interest in quantitative spatial science, particularly exploratory and visual types of analysis and represents a unique statement of the state-of-the-art issues in integration and interface.
Bringing together the world’s leading experts in Urban Analysis, this remarkable and critically acclaimed volume applies the theories and models of Atsuyuko Okabe, Japan’s preeminent spatial analyst, to case studies in urban planning, transport, administration, and public health in the context of the highly advanced Japanese planning system. It includes information that has never appeared in English, covering the development of techniques in GIS, spatial modeling, and methodologies of spatial analysis as they are applied to urban environments. Each of the contributors has worked directly with or studied under Professor Okabe