Speech Acts

Author: John R. Searle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052109626X
Release Date: 1969-01-02
Genre: Philosophy

Part I.A Theory of Speech Acts: 1. Methods and scope 2. Expressions, meaning and speech acts 3. The structure of illocutionary acts 4. Reference as a speech act 5. Predication Part II. Some Applications of the Theory: 6. Three fallacies in contemporary philosophy 7. Problems of reference 8. Deriving 'ought' from 'is' Index.

Speech Acts in the History of English

Author: Andreas H. Jucker
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027254206
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Did earlier speakers of English use the same speech acts that we use today? Did they use them in the same way? How did they signal speech act values and how did they negotiate them in case of uncertainty? These are some of the questions that are addressed in this volume in innovative case studies that cover a wide range of speech acts from Old English to Present-day English. All the studies offer careful discussions of methodological and theoretical issues as well as detailed descriptions of specific speech acts. The first part of the volume is devoted to directives and commissives, i.e. speech acts such as requests, commands and promises. The second part is devoted to expressives and assertives and deals with speech acts such as greetings, compliments and apologies. The third part, finally, contains technical reports that deal primarily with the problem of extracting speech acts from historical corpora.

Speech Acts Speakers and Hearers

Author: Henk Haverkate
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027225375
Release Date: 1984-01-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This study is an inquiry into the pragmatics of speaker and hearer reference. It falls into a theory-based and a description-based part. The former covers three topics: (a) the categories of speaker and hearer as opposed to the category of nonparticipants in the speech act; (b) the interactional roles of speaker and hearer as defined by the illocutionary point of the speech act and the preconditions underlying its successful performance; (c) the decomposition of the speech act as a model for describing strategies in verbal interaction. The object of the descriptive part of this study is to survey the different realizations of the categories of speaker and hearer reference and the strategic effects speakers intend to bring about by employing them. For this purpose, a language-specific analysis is applied to the system of speaker and hearer reference in Peninsular Spanish. For the sake of homogeneity, Peninsular Spanish is also chosen as the object language for the discussion of the general language phenomena which are treated in the theoretical discussion.

From Utterances to Speech Acts

Author: Mikhail Kissine
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107328341
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Most of the time our utterances are automatically interpreted as speech acts: as assertions, conjectures and testimonies; as orders, requests and pleas; as threats, offers and promises. Surprisingly, the cognitive correlates of this essential component of human communication have received little attention. This book fills the gap by providing a model of the psychological processes involved in interpreting and understanding speech acts. The theory is framed in naturalistic terms and is supported by data on language development and on autism spectrum disorders. Mikhail Kissine does not presuppose any specific background and addresses a crucial pragmatic phenomenon from an interdisciplinary perspective. This is a valuable resource for academic researchers and graduate and undergraduate students in pragmatics, semantics, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics and philosophy of language.

Meaning and Speech Acts Volume 1 Principles of Language Use

Author: Daniel Vanderveken
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521374154
Release Date: 1990-09-28
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

The primary units of meaning in the use and comprehension of language are speech acts of the type called illocutionary acts. In Foundations of Illocutionary Logic John Searle and Daniel Vanderveken presented the first formalised logic of a general theory of speech acts. In Meaning and Speech Acts Daniel Vanderveken further develops the logic of speech acts and the logic of propositions to construct a general semantic theory of natural languages. Volume I, Principles of Language Use explains the general principles that connect meaning, reason, thought and speech acts in the semantic structure of language. It presupposes no detailed knowledge of logical formalism, and will be accessible to a large readership of students and scholars from philosophy, lingustics, cognitive psychology and computer science. Volume II, Formal Semantics of Success and Satisfaction uses the resources of philosophical and mathematical logics to develop a formalisation of the laws of the semantic theory advanced in Volume I. It will be of interest to theoretical linguists and those involved in mathematical logic and artificial intelligence.

Speech Act Theory and Pragmatics

Author: John Searle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400989641
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

In the study of language, as in any other systematic study, there is no neutral terminology. Every technical term is an expression of the assumptions and theoretical presuppositions of its users; and in this introduction, we want to clarify some of the issues that have surrounded the assumptions behind the use of the two terms "speech acts" and "pragmatics". The notion of a speech act is fairly well understood. The theory of speech acts starts with the assumption that the minimal unit of human communica tion is not a sentence or other expression, but rather the performance of certain kinds of acts, such as making statements, asking questions, giving orders, describing, explaining, apologizing, thanking, congratulating, etc. Characteristically, a speaker performs one or more of these acts by uttering a sentence or sentences; but the act itself is not to be confused with a sentence or other expression uttered in its performance. Such types of acts as those exemplified above are called, following Austin, illocutionary acts, and they are standardly contrasted in the literature with certain other types of acts such as perlocutionary acts and propositional acts. Perlocutionary acts have to do with those effects which our utterances have on hearers which go beyond the hearer's understanding of the utterance. Such acts as convincing, persuading, annoying, amusing, and frightening are all cases of perlocutionary acts.

Essays in Speech Act Theory

Author: Daniel Vanderveken
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027250944
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Any study of communication must take into account the nature and role of speech acts in a broad context. This book addresses questions such as: - What do we mean?- How do we say it? and- How is it understood?in the broad context of universal, socio-cultural and psychological issues that bear on human communication. It presents an overview of current issues in speech act theory that are at the center of human and social sciences dealing with language, thought and action, building on John Searle s famous article How Performatives Work (included in this book). The contributions by linguists, psychologists, computer scientists, and philosophers thus address issues of communication that are crucial in conversation analysis, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology and philosophy, and a general understanding of how we communicate.The book is suitable for courses with an extensive bibliography for further reading and an Index.

The Difference between Direct and Indirect Speech Acts When Are Speech Acts Successful

Author: Sebastian P.
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 9783668316652
Release Date: 2016-10-10
Genre: Literary Collections

Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, Technical University of Braunschweig, course: Approaches to Meaning, language: English, abstract: This term paper will deal with speech act theory, especially with the success of speech acts depending on certain conditions. Due to the usage of direct and indirect speech acts in everyday conversations it will be analysed which conditions have to be fulfilled to have a successful speech act. The following theories will be used to answer the research question whether the same conditions have to be fulfilled for direct and indirect speech acts to be successful: 1) Theory of Felicity Conditions by John Searle 2) Cooperative Principle by Paul Herbert Grice 3) Inference Theory by Gordon and Lakoff The hypothesis is that indirect speech acts are different than direct speech acts due to the demanded hearer uptake and the possible ambiguity. After giving definitions of important linguistic terms and theories, the success of utterances and conversations in general will be described by the help of the Cooperative Principle by Grice. Then different examples of Direct and Indirect Speech Acts will be analysed that will show the difference between the two forms. Some of the used examples are made up and some are dialogues taken from the TV-series “The Big Bang Theory” as well as “The Walking Dead”. To explain how one can interpret the implicature in an utterance, the inference theory by Gordon and Lakoff will be taken into account. In the end it is made clear that the success of Indirect Speech Acts depends on the context in which the utterance is made and also on other external conditions which the speaker cannot control himself as the speaker often requests a hearer uptake. Different texts by Austin, Thomas, Levinson, Renkema, Cruse and Yule will be studied to get an answer to the research question. Special focus will be put on the Indirect Speech Acts as they can be ambiguous and ask for a hearer uptake to be successful.

Foundations of Speech Act Theory

Author: S.L. Tsohatzidis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134866984
Release Date: 2002-09-11
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Foundations of Speech Act Theory investigates the importance of speech act theory to the problem of meaning in linguistics and philosophy. The papers in this volume, written by respected philosophers and linguists, significantly advance standards of debate in this area. Beginning with a detailed introduction to the individual contributors, this collection demonstrates the relevance of speech acts to semantic theory. It includes essays unified by the assumption that current pragmatic theories are not well equipped to analyse speech acts satisfactorily, and concludes with five studies which assess the relevance of speech act theory to the understanding of philosophical problems outside the area of philosophy of language.

Speech Acts in Literature

Author: Joseph Hillis Miller
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804742160
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Literary Criticism

This book demonstrates the presence of literature within speech act theory and the utility of speech act theory in reading literary works. Though the founding text of speech act theory, J. L. Austin's How to Do Things with Words, repeatedly expels literature from the domain of felicitous speech acts, literature is an indispensable presence within Austin's book. It contains many literary references but also uses as essential tools literary devices of its own: imaginary stories that serve as examples and imaginary dialogues that forestall potential objections. How to Do Things with Words is not the triumphant establishment of a fully elaborated theory of speech acts, but the story of a failure to do that, the story of what Austin calls a "bogging down." After an introductory chapter that explores Austin's book in detail, the two following chapters show how Jacques Derrida and Paul de Man in different ways challenge Austin's speech act theory generally and his expulsion of literature specifically. Derrida shows that literature cannot be expelled from speech acts—rather that what he calls "iterability" means that any speech act may be literature. De Man asserts that speech act theory involves a radical dissociation between the cognitive and positing dimensions of language, what Austin calls language's "constative" and "performative" aspects. Both Derrida and de Man elaborate new speech act theories that form the basis of new notions of responsible and effective politico-ethical decision and action. The fourth chapter explores the role of strong emotion in effective speech acts through a discussion of passages in Derrida, Wittgenstein, and Austin. The final chapter demonstrates, through close readings of three passages in Proust, the way speech act theory can be employed in an illuminating way in the accurate reading of literary works.

Using Language

Author: John T. Kearns
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0873958098
Release Date: 1984-01-01
Genre: Philosophy

In a pioneer study of how language is actually used, Dr. Kearns combines the rigor of formal logic with a detailed analysis of natural language patterns. Through this double focus, he develops artificial languages that are syntactically more similar to the spoken word than first-order language itself. Numerous diagrams illustrate the evolution of these artificial languages, which represent a significant contribution to both the fields of linguistics and logic. The book begins by delineating a theory of the structures of intentional acts and then applies this to the special case of linguistic acts. Given an understanding of the meanings of component expressions, we can use our knowledge of linguistic structure to determine the meaning of a complex expression. An innovative discussion of semantics is subdivided into theories of three “semantic dimensions”: representational meaning, inferential meaning, and truth conditions. Drawing upon these analyses the speech act theory of this book purposes that the meaning of a sentence (sentential act) is to be explained wholly in terms of the meanings of component expressions (acts) and the structure of the sentence.

Speech acts

Author: Peter Cole
Publisher: Academic Pr
ISBN: 0127854231
Release Date: 1975-06
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Vol. 1 comprises papers presented at the 1971 Summer Linguistics Conference, University of California, Santa Cruz.

New Work on Speech Acts

Author: Daniel Fogal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191059025
Release Date: 2018-07-12
Genre: Philosophy

Speech-act theory is the interdisciplinary study of the wide range of things we do with words. Originally stemming from the influential work of twentieth-century philosophers, including J. L. Austin and Paul Grice, recent years have seen a resurgence of work on the topic. On one hand, a new generation of linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists have made impressive progress toward reverse-engineering the psychological underpinnings that allow us to do so much with language. Meanwhile, speech-act theory has been used to enrich our understanding of pressing social issues that include freedom of speech, racial slurs, and the duplicity of political discourse. This volume presents fourteen new essays by many of the philosophers and linguists who have led this resurgence. The topics span a methodological range that includes formal semantics and pragmatics, foundational issues about the nature of linguistic representation, and work on a variety of forms of indirect and/or uncooperative speech that occupies the intersection of the philosophy of language, ethics, and political philosophy. Several of the contributions demonstrate the benefits of integrating the methodologies and perspectives of these literatures. The essays are framed by a comprehensive introductory survey of the contemporary literature written by the editors.