The emergence of urbanism in Iraq occurred under the distinctive climatic conditions of the Mesopotamian plain; rainy winters and extremely hot summers profoundly affected the formation and development of these early cities. Sunlight and Shade in the First Cities explores the relationship between society, culture and lived experience through the way in which sunlight was manipulated in the urban built environment. Light is approached as both a physical phenomenon, which affects comfort and the practical usability of space, and as a symbolic phenomenon rich in social and religious meaning. Through the reconstruction of ancient urban light environments, to the extent possible from the archaeological remains, the location, timing and meaning of activities within early Mesopotamian cities become accessible. Sunlight is shown to have influenced the formation and symbolism of urban architecture and shaped the sensory experience of urban life.From cities as part of the sunlit landscape, this work progresses to consider city forms as a whole and then to the examination of architectural types; residential, sacred and palatial. Architectural analysis is complemented by analysis of contemporary textual sources, along with iconographic and artefactual evidence. The cities under detailed examination are limited to those on the Mesopotamian plain, focusing on the Early Dynastic periods up to the end of the second millennium BC.This volume demonstrates the utility of light as a tool with which to analyse, not just ancient Mesopotamian settlements, but the built environment of any past society, especially where provision of, or protection from sunlight critically affects life. The active influence of sunlight is demonstrated within Mesopotamian cities at every scale of analysis.
Author: John Kevin Coyle
Release Date: 2009
This volume reproduces nineteen chapters and articles published between 1991 through 2008, on Manichaeism, and its contacts with Augustine of Hippo, its most famous convert and also best-known adversary. The contents are divided into four parts: perceptions of Mani within the Roman Empire, select aspects of Manichaean thought, women in Manichaeism, and Manichaeism and Augustine. Though these chapters and articles reproduce their originals, adjustments have been made to include cross-referencing, newer editions, and the like, all with the aim of rendering them more accessible to a new readership among those who follow the fortunes of Mani s religion in the Roman Empire and/or the Manichaean aspects of Augustine of Hippo.
The traditional grand narrative correlating the decline of Graeco-Roman religion with the rise of Christianity has been under pressure for three decades. This book argues that the alternative accounts now emerging significantly underestimate the role of three major cults, of Cybele and Attis, Isis and Serapis, and Mithras. Although their differences are plain, these cults present sufficient common features to justify their being taken typologically as a group. All were selective adaptations of much older cults of the Fertile Crescent. It was their relative sophistication, their combination of the imaginative power of unfamiliar myth with distinctive ritual performance and ethical seriousness, that enabled them both to focus and to articulate a sense of the autonomy of religion from the socio-political order, a sense they shared with Early Christianity. The notion of 'mystery' was central to their ability to navigate the Weberian shift from ritualist to ethical salvation.
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Religious beliefs and practices, which permeated all aspects of life in antiquity, traveled well-worn routes throughout the Mediterranean: itinerant charismatic practitioners peddled their skills as healers, purifiers, cursers, and initiators; and vessels decorated with illustrations of myths traveled with them. This collection of essays, drawn from the groundbreaking reference work Religion in the Ancient World, offers an expansive, comparative perspective on this complex spiritual world.
Author: Donal P. McCracken
Publisher: Continuum International Publishing Group
Release Date: 1997
Gardens of Empire is the first book which gives a detailed analysis of the foundation, extent, management and achievements of the 120 botanic gardens, herbaria and botanic stations - from Hong Kong to British Honduras, Malacca to the Gold Coast, Fiji to Malta, Jamaica to Sydney - which flourished in the Victorian British empire. There young British curators faced the hazards of malaria, blackwater fever, occasionally a hostile indigenous population, snakes and dangerous animals, personal penury, and jealous settlers who usually opposed any suggestion of diversification from monoculture or of preserving the natural bush for ecological reasons. This is the story of a lost world - where pith-helmeted botanists tamed jungles and supplied Kew with the flora of the empire.
Author: Gale Group
Release Date: 2001-01-11
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
This fifth edition of the Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology (EOP) continues the tradition established by its predecessors in providing the most comprehensive coverage of the fields of occultism and parapsychology. The first edition, published in 1978, brought together the texts of two of the standard reference works in the field, Lewis Spence’s Encyclopedia of Occultism (1920) and Nandor Fodor’s Encyclopedia of Psychic Science (1934). Later, editor Leslie Shepard took on the task of updating their observations and supplementing the volume with new entries. The production of this massively ambitious work was sparked by a heightened interest in psychic phenomena, the occult, witchcraft, and related topics in the 1970s. This interest, which led directly to the New Age movement of the 1980s, provided a continued wealth of material for parapsychologists to examine. It also led to a reaction by a group of debunkers to form the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal. This group believed that they were spokesmen for the scientific establishment. Defining the Terms The term “occult” remains suspect in many circles. The word derives from Latin and simply means “to shut off from view or exposure.” However, it eventually came to refer to realities specifically hidden from common sight; the occult realm is invisible to the physical eye but can be seen by an inner “spiritual” vision and/or grasped by psychic intuition. The occult is the opposite of “apocalypse,” which means “to uncover.” The last book of the Christian Bible is alternatively called The Apocalypse or The Revelation. To many religious people, the term occult denotes that which is opposite of what God has revealed; hence, the realm of Satan and his legions of demons. Some substance for this observation has been provided by religious leaders who combine an exploration of the occult with open opposition to the more traditional religions and religious institutions. As used in EOP, however, occultism stands for (1) the broad area of human experience (now called extrasensory perception, or ESP) that goes beyond the five senses; (2) the philosophical conclusions drawn from consideration of such experiences; and (3) the social structures created by people who have had extrasensory experiences, who attempt to produce and cultivate them, and who believe in their vital significance for human life. Therefore, occultism (or its currently preferred term “paranormal”) entails a wide spectrum of experiences—from clairvoyance and telepathy to visions and dreams, from ghost sightings to the pronouncements of mediums and channelers. The paranormal encompasses the phenomenon known as psychokinesis (commonly referred to as “mind over matter”)—whether in the dramatic form of levitation or teleportation, or in the more commonly experienced phenomenon of spiritual healing. It also covers experiences related to death, such as out-of-body travel and deathbed visions. The occult also includes a host of techniques and practices originally designed and created to contact the extrasensory realm. Most frequently associated with the term occult are the techniques of magic and divination (including astrology, the tarot, and palmistry). In addition, various forms of meditation, yoga, and psychic development should be included, as well as some practices more commonly associated with religion, such as speaking in tongues, prayer, and mysticism. Introduction viii Introduction Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. By extension, the occult or paranormal can also legitimately incorporate a legion of mysterious phenomena not obviously extrasensory in nature: anomalous natural occurrences not easily understood or explained by contemporary science. Such phenomena as the Loch Ness monster, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), and Bigfoot, may eventually be attributed to the realm of ordinary sense perception, but their very elusiveness has led them to be associated with the occult. The Evolution of Occultism The present-day view of the occult is highly influenced by the history of the paranormal in the West during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Through the seventeenth century, most people believed in the active operation of occult (then termed “supernatural”) entities and forces. This belief brought comfort to some; but, for others, it became a source of fear, leading to suffering, and even death, for many. It allowed some people to rule by their reported ability to manipulate supernatural powers, and made it possible for the Inquisition to persecute thousands as witches and Satanists. It also enabled unscrupulous religious leaders to deceive people with sham relics and miracles. By the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, however, there began a serious critique of the more questionable supernatural phenomena, beginning with relics and extending to the actions of the witchfinders. As Protestantism secularized (denied sacred value to) the world, and the acceptance of scientific observation and organization of natural phenomena spread, a general spirit of skepticism was created. In the eighteenth century, this skeptical spirit created the first significant movement to challenge the role of the supernatural in human society— Deism. Deism affirmed the existence of God the Creator, but suggested that God had merely established a system of natural law, leaving the world to govern itself by that law. By implication, God was divorced from the world, and supernatural events did not occur; rather the “supernatural” was merely the misobserved “natural.” Furthermore, neither angels nor spirits communicated with humans; and, in turn, prayer did not reach God. Religious spokespersons responded, of course, and popularized a new definition of “miracle”—the breaking by God of his own natural laws to intervene in the lives of his creatures. Deist thought was largely confined to a small number of intellectual circles, among them some very powerful and influential people, including most of the founding fathers of the United States—Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington. In the nineteenth century, the skeptical view of the supernatural became the cornerstone of the Freethought movement. This minority movement impacted every level of intellectual and theological thinking at that time. Theologians regularly began their courses with “proofs” of the existence of God; preachers debated village atheists; evangelists strengthened their efforts to reach the godless masses. In the midst of the debate between traditional religionists and Freethinkers, a few people (known as Spiritualists) proposed a different viewpoint in which the distinction between this life and the life beyond became a somewhat artificial intellectual construct; everything was part of one larger natural world. To demonstrate and prove scientifically the existence of this larger universe, Spiritualists turned to mediums—people with special access to those realms once called the supernatural. Entering a trance-like state, these mediums would bring forth messages containing information that seemingly could not have been acquired by normal means. The mediums’ manifestations of a wide variety of extraordinary phenomena seemingly pointed to the existence of unusual forces operating in the physical world, forces unknown or undocumented by the emerging scientific community at the time. Almost concurrently with the emergence and spread of Spiritualism, a few intellectuals, having close ties to traditional religion, yet imbued with the new scientific methodology, concluded that scientific observation could be used to investigate reports of “supernatural” phenomena, especially reports of ghosts and hauntings. This sparked the formation in 1862 of the Ghost Club in England. During the next two decades, the growth of Spiritualism provided a fertile field for investigation, and in 1882 a new generation of investigators founded the Society for Psychical Research in London to study actual phenomena occurring during Spiritualist seances as well as other incidents of “psychic” phenomena. ix Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Introduction The period from 1882 to the beginning of World War II could be described as a stormy marriage between Spiritualism and psychical research by some, while others might call it a scandalous, illegitimate affair. Spiritualism, and the movements it spawned, most notably Theosophy, uncovered the phenomena, which psychical researchers observed, analyzed, and reported on. With an increasingly sophisticated eye, psychical researchers researched, catalogued, experimented with, and debated the existence of psychical phenomena. These researchers understood that psychic events, if verified, had far-reaching implications for the understanding of the world and how it operated. Over the years psychical researchers amassed a mountain of data and reached a number of conclusions, both positive and negative. On one hand, researchers positively documented a host of basic psychic occurrences (telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition) and compiled a body of evidence that seemed to support human-spirit contact. At the same time, especially though research on physical mediumship, investigators repeatedly discovered that situations involving visible phenomena (materializations, apports, movement of objects) were often fraudulent. The high incidence of deceit and trickery, even by mediums previously investigated and pronounced genuine, created a major dilemma. It challenged the credibility of Spiritualism and, while not suggesting that every medium or member was a fraud, insinuated that the movement protected con artists and defended their work, even in the face of unquestioned evidence of guilt. It also implied that psychical researchers who produced any positive evidence were either naive, sloppy methodologically, or conspirators with the mediums. Both Spence’s Encyclopedia of Occultism and Fodor’s Encyclopedia of Psychic Science were published during a time when the interest in physical phenomena was peaking. Spence wrote from a Spiritualist perspective, and was very hopeful that scientists would find the means of proving the validity of physical phenomena. He fully accepted the existence of materializations, teleportations, and apports. Fodor’s work, written just a decade and a half later, acknowledged the element of fraud in Spiritualism, while at the same time, retained the prominent psychical researcher’s confidence in the larger body of data gathered by his colleagues. Since Fodor and Spence Even as Fodor was writing, however, a revolution was starting within the ranks of psychical research. J. B. Rhine, a young biologist, suggested an entirely new direction for research. Psychical research, Rhine noted, had relied mainly upon the studied observation of phenomena in the field, and operated by eliminating possible mundane explanations for what was occurring. Investigators visited ghostly haunts, sites of poltergeist occurrences, and Spiritualist seances and then developed detailed reports of what they had seen and heard. After a halfcentury, this approach eventually eliminated a good deal of fraudulent phenomena. However, psychical researchers had been unsuccessful in convincing their scholarly colleagues not only of the truth of their findings but of the validity of their efforts. Even though psychical research had attracted some of the most eminent scientists of the era to its ranks, it remained “on-thefringe.” To Rhine, the only way to validate future findings was to bring research into the laboratory. Only such experimental data would then be convincing to the modern, scientifically trained mind. Superseding the older psychical research approach, Rhine’s new methods and early experimental successes provided inspiration for the study of parapsychology. It also furnished a means to build a positive expanding foundation for the field; while, at the same time, it distanced itself from the Spiritualist community and the overwhelming evidence of its widespread fraud. Parapsychology called for a reorganization of research around the primary commitment of building a firm body of experimental data on basic psychic experiences. A few psychical researchers continued the more intriguing work of investigating evidence of survival of bodily death, and for at least a generation, parapsychologists and traditional psychical researchers engaged in intramural warfare. A sort of reconciliation occurred only after parapsychology had proven itself, and psychical research’s strong identification with the Spiritualist community had diminished. Today, laboratory research dominates the scientific study of the paranormal. Psychics, mediums, and channels are still investigated; but they are now invited into the laboratory for x Introduction Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. close observation—a dramatic change from the days when Spence and Fodor were writing about the paranormal. During the several generations since Spence and Fodor, the place of both Spiritualism and Theosophy in the larger psychical community has also radically changed. Both groups had wholeheartedly accepted the nineteenth-century scientific perspective as their starting point. In the meantime, science has moved on—quantum mechanics superseded Newton physics, and depth psychology, sociology, and cybernetics emerged on the scene—but the two groups failed to change with it. Consequently, Spiritualism and Theosophy have been pushed aside by a host of competing groups who can work more freely in the post-Newtonian environment. In addition, largely as a result of the New Age movement of the 1980s, metaphysical and occult religions enjoy an acceptability in the West not seen since the scientific revolution. This acceptability is evident in the amount of favorable press given to psychic and occult phenomena. The New Age and Beyond The hidden underlying reality described as the invisible spiritual structure of the universe is known as esotericism. This structure is enlivened by the cosmic energy or power that energizes the world at a more abstract level than the various forms of energy defined in classical physics. The esotericist characterizes the reality beyond that depicted by physicists in their observations of the world; these descriptions are termed “meta-physics.” Esotericism, in contrast to Bible-based religions and philosophies, is considered a “third force” in Western thought. The esotericists’ approach to life is generated from human experience, in which, people spontaneously encounter psychic and mystic moments, seek magical means of forecasting the future, and act upon intuitive insights that seem to defy rational thought. Beginning with the rise of Christianity in the West, esoteric traditions were routinely persecuted, with many of its representative communities destroyed and their members imprisoned and/or killed. Their ways were viewed as being evil and outside the conventions of society. In the last two centuries, society has continued to perpetuate an intolerance toward those drawn to an esoteric perspective. After its suppression, Esotericism made a strong comeback, and steadily grew in size and prestige during the last centuries of the second millennium C.E. In the post-Protestant era, Rosicrucianism was the first important international esoteric movement. It was followed by Speculative Freemasonry in the eighteenth century and Theosophy in the nineteenth. Out of Freemasonry came a tradition of initiatory magic represented in the neo-Templar orders of continental Europe, as well as a rebirth of ritual/ceremonial magic in the English-speaking world. Western Esotericism’s shared belief that magic was real, has led Roman Catholicism to oppose this movement, defining it as evil and using such labels as sorcery, witchcraft, and black magic. However, beginning with Protestantism (in its Reformed Presbyterian version) and the secular Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, the situation changed. Protestants and modern secularists opposed Esotericism because it perpetuated an archaic, superstitious, unreal world. Secularists also accused esotericists of perpetuating a prescientific worldview. Under the combined forces of Protestantism and the Enlightenment, Esotericism almost disappeared during the eighteenth century, though it still retained a vital presence in many urban areas. During its comeback, Esotericism utilized insights and methodologies derived from new, emerging sciences. Two formally trained scientists, Franz Anton Mesmer and Emanuel Swedenborg, are recognized as the fathers of modern Esotericism. They opened a dialogue with the contemporary scientific community—a feat that distinguishes modern Esotericism from its prescientific ancestors. As the modern world developed, the esoteric tradition spread throughout all of the world’s cultures. A major dialogue began with Eastern traditions in the 1960s as the West welcomed large numbers of immigrants from Japan, Korea, China, and Southeast Asia into its communities. At the same time, African religions, many having found a home in the Caribbean, were also integrating themselves into Western life. All of these religions will be scrutinized and carefully observed in the coming decades by the more traditional Western religious communities. xi Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Introduction The Current Need for a New Edition of EOP In the more than half a century since Spence and Fodor published their volumes, not only has the occult/metaphysical/psychic world changed—a change clearly symbolized by the New Age movement—but the general opinion surrounding Spiritualism, Theosophy, and psychic phenomena has been radically altered by the science of parapsychology. The acceptance of the Parapsychological Association into the American Academy for the Advancement of Science indicated a new tolerance for (if not agreement with) psychical research by the scientific community, as parapsychologists have become methodologically more conservative and less accepting of much of the data from earlier decades. During the 1970s there was an “occult explosion” in the media, while the 1980s saw the emergence of the New Age movement. Looking back from a vantage point in the new millennium, it can now be seen, that there has been a growing curiosity in psychical phenomena and metaphysical thought. Beginning in the late 1960s, this attraction steadily rose over the next three decades. Fads can certainly be identified—from exorcism to channeling, from crystals to angels—but what remains constant is that the entire field has become established in mainstream society in a way that no one but a psychic could have predicted in the 1950s. The changing appraisal of occultism and the new directions the field has taken necessitates a thorough re-editing and updating of the Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. In particular, entries that came directly from Spence and Fodor definitely needed revision in light of current research and opinion. However, care has been taken to retain the historic context in these entries. Editing has also removed much archaic language. Spence, in particular, writing from a British perspective, had numerous off-the-cuff references to events and people, now known only to a few dedicated students of the history of psychical research. As much as possible, additional material has been added to the text to identify such passing references to these now obscure people and events. In addition, a list of sources for further reading has been added to the majority of entries. Special care was also taken to include recent publications, as well as to list complete citations of those books mentioned in passing in the body of an entry, especially those sources that have been quoted in the text. Some of the items cited are still quite rare, but others having been reprinted in recent decades by University, Causeway, and Arno Presses, are now more generally available. Finally, more than 450 new entries, mostly events and personalities, have been added. The editor has also attempted to update every organization, publication, and society listed. Entries cover new occult groups and movements, highlight recent work in parapsychology, and continue to reference events not only in England and North America, but across continental Europe and around the world. Where source material has been missing in past editions, the latest sources have been added to assist the reader in locating more information on certain topics. It is important to note that a conscious effort has been made to continue the policy so carefully established by Les Shepard in providing reliable and authoritative information, and to treat both the occult and parapsychology in a manner that avoids sensationalism, name-calling, and unnecessary labeling. In that process, it is an unfortunate task to have to cite a number of cases of fraudulent activity; but in each case, the evidence for such references has also been included. Format of Entries The entries in this edition are organized in a letter-by-letter sort. For biographical entries, birth and death dates are given where known. Many of the people covered in this volume were unfortunately not subject to the standard data-gathering sources of their time. Individuals often came out of obscurity, briefly participated in a controversial event(s), and then retreated back into obscurity; therefore, such basic information is often elusive. Every effort has been made to locate that basic data, and numerous new references have been added and others corrected in this edition. Where dates are highly debatable, the abbreviation “ca.” followed by a century or year indicates the period during which the person flourished. A question mark in lieu of a death date indicates that the individual was born before 1900 and a death date is xii Introduction Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. not known. When Internet research has been used, the source has been cited. Most importantly, the editor has attempted to track down the home pages of all of the living people and contemporary movements included in this edition. Unfortunately, Internet addresses become obsolete at a rapid rate; so the user may find listed Internet addresses to be non-operative. In such cases, using a search engine to locate person or topic in question may lead to newer Internet postings. Cross-references are indicated by bold type within the text or by “See” and “See also” references following an entry. Indexes This edition of EOP contains two new features, which now replace the former Topical Index. First, the Internet Resources section gives websites, broken down into subject groups, for organizations, societies, print products, and personalities. The second addition is the General Bibliography, which collects academic resources into one alphabetic listing. The standard General Index provides readers with access to significant people, movements, cultures, and phenomena within the world of occultism and parapsychology in one alphabetical arrangement. Acknowledgments I want thank those who have assisted me in the work of this edition. My colleagues Jerome Clark, Marcello Truzzi, Chas Clifton, Tim Ryan, and Macha NightMare have revised entries that are especially relevant to their areas of research and expertise. I also wish to acknowledge Marco Frenschkowski who surveyed the fourth edition and made numerous helpful suggestions for its improvement. Jolen Marya Gedridge, with whom I have now worked on numerous projects with the Gale Group, has been my capable and knowledgeable in-house editor. She not only led the updating of many of the older entries and has kept me on track in meeting my work milestones. I am most grateful for her contribution on both fronts. Finally, with this edition especially, I have called upon numerous people—far too many to name—for bits of specialized information, for all that contributed data, I thank you. User Comments Are Welcome Users who can offer any additional information, corrections, or suggestions for new entries in future editions are encouraged to contact the editor. Please address Dr. Melton either c/o Gale Group, 27500 Drake Rd., Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535, or at his office: Dr. J. Gordon Melton Institute for the Study of American Religion Box 90709 Santa Barbara, CA 93190–0709
Author: Sarah Iles Johnston
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Release Date: 2004
Presents the beliefs, cults, gods, and ritual practices that developed in Mediterranean region countries such as Egypt, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Greece, and Rome from the the third millenium B.C. up to the fourth century A.D.
Author: James Westfall Thompson
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
Release Date: 2013-04-16
James Westfall Thompson was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France. Thompson's work on ancient libraries gives an in depth look in to how the Libraries of the ancient East, ancient Greece and ancient Rome were established and managed. It also contains technical information such as the format of books, library architecture, cataloguing and classification, administration, book production, and bookselling.
Conference proceedings presenting the first opportunity for leading figures in the burgeoning area of archaeological research in the Kurdish Autonomous Region of Iraq to gather and present all the key new projects which are revolutionising our understanding of the region.
Author: Franklin Perkins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2004-02-19
Why was Leibniz so fascinated by Chinese philosophy and culture? What specific forms did his interest take? How did his interest compare with the relative indifference of his philosophical contemporaries and near-contemporaries such as Spinoza and Locke? In this highly original book, Franklin Perkins examines Leibniz's voluminous writings on the subject and suggests that his interest was founded in his own philosophy: the nature of his metaphysical and theological views required him to take Chinese thought seriously.