Author: Rosalind C. Morris
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2017-07-26
"Fetishism (supposing that it existed)": a preface to the translation of Charles de Brosses's Transgression / Rosalind C. Morris -- Introduction: fetishism, figurism, and myths of enlightenment / Daniel H. Leonard -- A note on the translation / Daniel H. Leonard -- On the worship of fetish gods; or, a parallel of the ancient religion of Egypt with the present religion of Nigritia / Charles de Brosses ; translated by Daniel H. Leonard -- After De Brosses: fetishism, translation, comparativism, critique / Rosalind C. Morris -- A fetiche is a fetiche: no knowledge without difference of the word: rereading De Brosses -- Excursus: recontextualizing De Brosses, with Pietz in and out of Africa -- Re Kant and the good fetishists among us -- Hegel: back to the heart of darkness -- Fetishism against itself; or, Marx's two fetishisms -- The great fetish; or, the fetishism of the one -- Freud and the return to the dark continent: the other fetish -- Conjuncture: Freud and Marx, via Lacan -- Anthropology's fetishism: the custodianship of reality -- Fetishism reanimated: surrealism, ethnography, and the war against decay -- Deconstruction's fetish: undecidable, or the mark of Hegel -- Rehistoricizing generalized fetishism: the era of objects -- Anthropological redux: the reality of fetishism -- The fetish is dead, long live fetishism
The philosophical unity so visible in Europe at the time of the Reformation and still perceptible during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries began to disintegrate in the early years of the nineteenth century. The accession of new languages to the status of scientific languages, the rise of nationalistically minded generations of philosophers, the progressive multiplication of the professors of philosophy, many of whom became philosophical writers, created a new historical situation. Descartes wrote his 'Meditations' in Latin, so they were read at once in the whole of civilized Europe; one hundred year later, Condillac could not read Locke in the original, and when Kant published his masterwork in German, it remained for many years a sort of mystery philosophy chiefly known from summaries, interpretations, and even criticisms. It is therefore almost unavoidable to take into account the nationalities of the philsophers in the nineteenth century and, up to a point at least, to order their doctrines accordingly. --from the Preface
This book gives a unique historical and interpretive analysis of a widely pervasive mode of thought that it describes as the legacy of positivism. Viewing Auguste Comte as a pivotal figure, it charts the historical origins of his positivism and follows its later development through John Stuart Mill and Émile Littré. It shows how epistemological shifts in positivism influenced parallel developments in the human and legal sciences, and thereby treats legal positivism and positivism as it is understood in the human sciences within a common framework.
Author: Associate Professor of Philosophy Dean Moyar
Release Date: 2010-04-05
The nineteenth century is a period of stunning philosophical originality, characterised by radical engagement with the emerging human sciences. Often overshadowed by twentieth century philosophy which sought to reject some of its central tenets, the philosophers of the nineteenth century have re-emerged as profoundly important figures. The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy is an outstanding survey and assessment of the century as a whole. Divided into seven parts and including thirty chapters written by leading international scholars, the Companion examines and assesses the central topics, themes, and philosophers of the nineteenth century, presenting the first comprehensive picture of the period in a single volume: German Idealism philosophy as political action, including young Hegelians, Marx and Tocqueville philosophy and subjectivity, including Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche scientific naturalism, including Darwinism, philosophy of race, experimental psychology and Neo-Kantianism utilitarianism and British Idealism American Idealism and Pragmatism new directions in Mind and Logic, including Brentano, Frege and Husserl. The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy is essential reading for students of philosophy, and for anyone interested in this period in related disciplines such as politics, history, literature and religion.
Author: John Tresch
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2012-02-06
In the years immediately following Napoleon’s defeat, French thinkers in all fields set their minds to the problem of how to recover from the long upheavals that had been set into motion by the French Revolution. Many challenged the Enlightenment’s emphasis on mechanics and questioned the rising power of machines, seeking a return to the organic unity of an earlier age and triggering the artistic and philosophical movement of romanticism. Previous scholars have viewed romanticism and industrialization in opposition, but in this groundbreaking volume John Tresch reveals how thoroughly entwined science and the arts were in early nineteenth-century France and how they worked together to unite a fractured society. Focusing on a set of celebrated technologies, including steam engines, electromagnetic and geophysical instruments, early photography, and mass-scale printing, Tresch looks at how new conceptions of energy, instrumentality, and association fueled such diverse developments as fantastic literature, popular astronomy, grand opera, positivism, utopian socialism, and the Revolution of 1848. He shows that those who attempted to fuse organicism and mechanism in various ways, including Alexander von Humboldt and Auguste Comte, charted a road not taken that resonates today. Essential reading for historians of science, intellectual and cultural historians of Europe, and literary and art historians, The Romantic Machine is poised to profoundly alter our understanding of the scientific and cultural landscape of the early nineteenth century.
Author: Michele Battini
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2016-04-05
Michele Battini targets the critical moment in which anti-Jewish stereotypes morphed into a sophisticated, modern social anti-Semitism. Carefully analyzing obscure texts, Battini recovers the potent, anti-Jewish anticapitalist propaganda that cemented the idea of a Jewish conspiracy in the European mind, despite ample evidence to challenge it. The Jewish conspiracy myth proved to be a significant political event in Europe, powered by anti-Semitic language and imagery that turned reality on its head. Battini’s investigation is crucial to understanding the atrocities that characterized the Jewish experience in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and continue to threaten the welfare of Jews today. Beginning in the eighteenth century, counter-Enlightenment intellectuals and intransigent Catholic writers singled out Jews for conspiring to exploit self-sustaining markets and the liberal state. With the old enemies of Christianity now assimilating into society, these opinion makers warned, Jews could draw on their vast financial resources to plot in secret against the state. Toussenel and Proudhon spread these ideas among socialist and labor movements in the nineteenth century, and their conspiracy theories only intensified during the Long Depression of the 1870s. Anti-Jewish anticapitalism then migrated to Western Europe: in the Habsburg Empire with the Christian Social Party; in Germany with the Anti-Semitic Leagues; and in France with the nationalist movements. It also landed in Italy, where Revolutionary Syndicalists made anti-Jewish anticapitalism the basis of an alliance with the nationalists, laying the foundation for Mussolini’s ideology. Battini’s unique timeline sheds light on the origins of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion as well, the infamous document that “leaked” Jewish plans to take over of the world. Anti-Jewish anticapitalist propaganda informed the creation of that pamphlet, and its inversion of reality nurtured a perverse relationship to historical and judicial truth still with us today.
This combination of historiography and theory offers the growing Anglophone readership interested in the ideas of Gilbert Simondon a thorough and unprecedented survey of the French philosopher’s entire oeuvre. The publication, which breaks new ground in its thoroughness and breadth of analysis, systematically traces the interconnections between Simondon’s philosophy of science and technology on the one hand, and his political philosophy on the other. The author sets Simondon’s ideas in the context of the epistemology of the late 1950s and the 1960s in France, the milieu that shaped a generation of key French thinkers such as Deleuze, Foucault and Derrida. This volume explores Simondon’s sources, which were as eclectic as they were influential: from the philosophy of Bergson to the cybernetics of Wiener, from the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty to the epistemology of Canguilhem, and from Bachelard’s philosophy of science to the positivist sociology and anthropology of luminaries such as Durkheim and Leroi-Gourhan. It also tackles aspects of Simondon’s philosophy that relate to Heidegger and Elull in their concern with the ontological relationship between technology and society and discusses key scholars of Simondon such as Barthélémy, Combes, Stiegler, and Virno, as well as the work of contemporary protagonists in the philosophical debate on the relevance of technique. The author’s intimate knowledge of Simondon’s language allows him to resolve many of th e semantic errors and misinterpretations that have plagued reactions to Simondon’s many philosophical neologisms, often drawn from his scientific studies.