"Large-scale enterprise, cloud, and virtualized computing systems have introduced serious performance challenges. Now, internationally renowned performance expert Brendan Gregg has brought together proven methodologies, tools, and metrics for analyzing and tuning even the most complex environments. Systems Performance: Enterprise and the Cloud focuses on Linux® and Unix® performance, while illuminating performance issues that are relevant to all operating systems. You'll gain deep insight into how systems work and perform, and learn methodologies for analyzing and improving system and application performance. Gregg presents examples from bare-metal systems and virtualized cloud tenants running Linux-based Ubuntu®, Fedora®, CentOS, and the illumos-based Joyent® SmartOSTM and OmniTI OmniOS®. He systematically covers modern systems performance, including the "traditional" analysis of CPUs, memory, disks, and networks, and new areas including cloud computing and dynamic tracing. This book also helps you identify and fix the "unknown unknowns" of complex performance: bottlenecks that emerge from elements and interactions you were not aware of. The text concludes with a detailed case study, showing how a real cloud customer issue was analyzed from start to finish."--Back cover.
The Complete Guide to Optimizing Systems Performance Written by the winner of the 2013 LISA Award for Outstanding Achievement in System Administration Large-scale enterprise, cloud, and virtualized computing systems have introduced serious performance challenges. Now, internationally renowned performance expert Brendan Gregg has brought together proven methodologies, tools, and metrics for analyzing and tuning even the most complex environments. Systems Performance: Enterprise and the Cloud focuses on Linux® and Unix® performance, while illuminating performance issues that are relevant to all operating systems. You’ll gain deep insight into how systems work and perform, and learn methodologies for analyzing and improving system and application performance. Gregg presents examples from bare-metal systems and virtualized cloud tenants running Linux-based Ubuntu®, Fedora®, CentOS, and the illumos-based Joyent® SmartOS™ and OmniTI OmniOS®. He systematically covers modern systems performance, including the “traditional” analysis of CPUs, memory, disks, and networks, and new areas including cloud computing and dynamic tracing. This book also helps you identify and fix the “unknown unknowns” of complex performance: bottlenecks that emerge from elements and interactions you were not aware of. The text concludes with a detailed case study, showing how a real cloud customer issue was analyzed from start to finish. Coverage includes • Modern performance analysis and tuning: terminology, concepts, models, methods, and techniques • Dynamic tracing techniques and tools, including examples of DTrace, SystemTap, and perf • Kernel internals: uncovering what the OS is doing • Using system observability tools, interfaces, and frameworks • Understanding and monitoring application performance • Optimizing CPUs: processors, cores, hardware threads, caches, interconnects, and kernel scheduling • Memory optimization: virtual memory, paging, swapping, memory architectures, busses, address spaces, and allocators • File system I/O, including caching • Storage devices/controllers, disk I/O workloads, RAID, and kernel I/O • Network-related performance issues: protocols, sockets, interfaces, and physical connections • Performance implications of OS and hardware-based virtualization, and new issues encountered with cloud computing • Benchmarking: getting accurate results and avoiding common mistakes This guide is indispensable for anyone who operates enterprise or cloud environments: system, network, database, and web admins; developers; and other professionals. For students and others new to optimization, it also provides exercises reflecting Gregg’s extensive instructional experience.
Author: Brendan Gregg
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional
Release Date: 2011-03-18
The Oracle Solaris DTrace feature revolutionizes the way you debug operating systems and applications. Using DTrace, you can dynamically instrument software and quickly answer virtually any question about its behavior. Now, for the first time, there's a comprehensive, authoritative guide to making the most of DTrace in any supported UNIX environment--from Oracle Solaris to OpenSolaris, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD. Written by key contributors to the DTrace community, DTrace teaches by example, presenting scores of commands and easy-to-adapt, downloadable D scripts. These concise examples generate answers to real and useful questions, and serve as a starting point for building more complex scripts. Using them, you can start making practical use of DTrace immediately, whether you're an administrator, developer, analyst, architect, or support professional. The authors fully explain the goals, techniques, and output associated with each script or command. Drawing on their extensive experience, they provide strategy suggestions, checklists, and functional diagrams, as well as a chapter of advanced tips and tricks. You'll learn how to Write effective scripts using DTrace's D language Use DTrace to thoroughly understand system performance Expose functional areas of the operating system, including I/O, filesystems, and protocols Use DTrace in the application and database development process Identify and fix security problems with DTrace Analyze the operating system kernel Integrate DTrace into source code Extend DTrace with other tools This book will help you make the most of DTrace to solve problems more quickly and efficiently, and build systems that work faster and more reliably.
Author: Henry H. Liu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-09-20
Praise from the Reviewers: "The practicality of the subject in a real-world situation distinguishes this book from others available on the market." —Professor Behrouz Far, University of Calgary "This book could replace the computer organization texts now in use that every CS and CpE student must take. . . . It is much needed, well written, and thoughtful." —Professor Larry Bernstein, Stevens Institute of Technology A distinctive, educational text onsoftware performance and scalability This is the first book to take a quantitative approach to the subject of software performance and scalability. It brings together three unique perspectives to demonstrate how your products can be optimized and tuned for the best possible performance and scalability: The Basics—introduces the computer hardware and software architectures that predetermine the performance and scalability of a software product as well as the principles of measuring the performance and scalability of a software product Queuing Theory—helps you learn the performance laws and queuing models for interpreting the underlying physics behind software performance and scalability, supplemented with ready-to-apply techniques for improving the performance and scalability of a software system API Profiling—shows you how to design more efficient algorithms and achieve optimized performance and scalability, aided by adopting an API profiling framework (perfBasic) built on the concept of a performance map for drilling down performance root causes at the API level Software Performance and Scalability gives you a specialized skill set that will enable you to design and build performance into your products with immediate, measurable improvements. Complemented with real-world case studies, it is an indispensable resource for software developers, quality and performance assurance engineers, architects, and managers. It is anideal text for university courses related to computer and software performance evaluation and can also be used to supplement a course in computer organization or in queuing theory for upper-division and graduate computer science students.
Author: Neil J. Gunther
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-07-30
To solve performance problems in modern computing infrastructures, often comprising thousands of servers running hundreds of applications, spanning multiple tiers, you need tools that go beyond mere reporting. You need tools that enable performance analysis of application workflow across the entire enterprise. That's what PDQ (Pretty Damn Quick) provides. PDQ is an open-source performance analyzer based on the paradigm of queues. Queues are ubiquitous in every computing environment as buffers, and since any application architecture can be represented as a circuit of queueing delays, PDQ is a natural fit for analyzing system performance. Building on the success of the first edition, this considerably expanded second edition now comprises four parts. Part I contains the foundational concepts, as well as a new first chapter that explains the central role of queues in successful performance analysis. Part II provides the basics of queueing theory in a highly intelligible style for the non-mathematician; little more than high-school algebra being required. Part III presents many practical examples of how PDQ can be applied. The PDQ manual has been relegated to an appendix in Part IV, along with solutions to the exercises contained in each chapter. Throughout, the Perl code listings have been newly formatted to improve readability. The PDQ code and updates to the PDQ manual are available from the author's web site at www.perfdynamics.com
Author: Igor Ljubuncic
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
Release Date: 2015-09-01
Problem-Solving in High Performance Computing: A Situational Awareness Approach with Linux focuses on understanding giant computing grids as cohesive systems. Unlike other titles on general problem-solving or system administration, this book offers a cohesive approach to complex, layered environments, highlighting the difference between standalone system troubleshooting and complex problem-solving in large, mission critical environments, and addressing the pitfalls of information overload, micro, and macro symptoms, also including methods for managing problems in large computing ecosystems. The authors offer perspective gained from years of developing Intel-based systems that lead the industry in the number of hosts, software tools, and licenses used in chip design. The book offers unique, real-life examples that emphasize the magnitude and operational complexity of high performance computer systems. Provides insider perspectives on challenges in high performance environments with thousands of servers, millions of cores, distributed data centers, and petabytes of shared data Covers analysis, troubleshooting, and system optimization, from initial diagnostics to deep dives into kernel crash dumps Presents macro principles that appeal to a wide range of users and various real-life, complex problems Includes examples from 24/7 mission-critical environments with specific HPC operational constraints
Author: Rick Sturm
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
Release Date: 2017-02-11
Application Performance Management (APM) in the Digital Enterprise enables IT professionals to be more successful in managing their company’s applications. It explores the fundamentals of application management, examines how the latest technological trends impact application management, and provides best practices for responding to these changes. The recent surge in the use of containers as a way to simplify management and deploy applications has created new challenges, and the convergence of containerization, cloud, mobile, virtualization, analytics, and automation is reshaping the requirements for application management. This book serves as a guide for understanding these dramatic changes and how they impact the management of applications, showing how to create a management strategy, define the underlying processes and standards, and how to select the appropriate tools to enable management processes. Offers a complete framework for implementing effective application management using clear tips and solutions for those responsible for application management Draws upon primary research to give technologists a current understanding of the latest technologies and processes needed to more effectively manage large-scale applications Includes real-world case studies and business justifications that support application management investments
Initially, computer systems performance analyses were carried out primarily because of limited resources. Due to ever increasing functional complexity of computational systems and user requirements, performance engineering continues to play a major role in software development. This book assesses the state of the art in performance engineering. Besides revised chapters drawn from two workshops on performance engineering held in 2000, additional chapters were solicited in order to provide complete coverage of all relevant aspects. The first part is devoted to the relation between software engineering and performance engineering; the second part focuses on the use of models, measures, and tools; finally, case studies with regard to concrete technologies are presented. Researchers, professional software engineers, and advanced students interested in performance analysis will find this book an indispensable source of information and reference.
Author: Daniel A. Menascé
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional
Release Date: 2004
Practical systems modeling: planning performance, availability, security, and more Computing systems must meet increasingly strict Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for performance, availability, security, and maintainability. To achieve these goals, designers, analysts, and capacity planners need a far more thorough understanding of QoS issues, and the implications of their decisions. Now, three leading experts present a complete, application-driven framework for understanding and estimating performance. You'll learn exactly how to map real-life systems to accurate performance models, and use those models to make better decisions--both up front and throughout the entire system lifecycle. Coverage includes: State-of-the-art quantitative analysis techniques, supported by extensive numerical examples and exercises QoS issues in requirements analysis, specification, design, development, testing, deployment, operation, and system evolution Specific scenarios, including e-Business and database services, servers, clusters, and data centers Techniques for identifying potential congestion at both software and hardware levels Performance Engineering concepts and tools Detailed solution techniques including exact and approximate MVA and Markov Chains Modeling of software contention, fork-and-join, service rate variability, and priority About the Web Site The accompanying Web site provides companion Excel workbooks that implement many of the book's algorithms and numerical examples.
Author: James Bond
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Release Date: 2015-05-19
Despite the buzz surrounding the cloud computing, only a small percentage of organizations have actually deployed this new style of IT—so far. If you're planning your long-term cloud strategy, this practical book provides insider knowledge and actionable real-world lessons regarding planning, design, operations, security, and application transformation. This book teaches business and technology managers how to transition their organization's traditional IT to cloud computing. Rather than yet another book trying to sell or convince readers on the benefits of clouds, this book provides guidance, lessons learned, and best practices on how to design, deploy, operate, and secure an enterprise cloud based on real-world experience. Author James Bond provides useful guidance and best-practice checklists based on his field experience with real customers and cloud providers. You'll view cloud services from the perspective of a consumer and as an owner/operator of an enterprise private or hybrid cloud, and learn valuable lessons from successful and less-than-successful organization use-case scenarios. This is the information every CIO needs in order to make the business and technical decisions to finally execute on their journey to cloud computing. Get updated trends and definitions in cloud computing, deployment models, and for building or buying cloud services Discover challenges in cloud operations and management not foreseen by early adopters Use real-world lessons to plan and build an enterprise private or hybrid cloud Learn how to assess, port, and migrate legacy applications to the cloud Identify security threats and vulnerabilities unique to the cloud Employ a cloud management system for your enterprise (private or multi-provider hybrid) cloud ecosystem Understand the challenges for becoming an IT service broker leveraging the power of the cloud
Author: Ron Dimon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-03-06
Genre: Business & Economics
A workable blueprint for developing and implementing performance management in order to improve revenue growth and profit margins Enterprise performance management (EPM) technology has been rapidly advancing, especially in the areas of predictive analysis and cloud-based solutions. Real Enterprise Performance Management introduces a framework for implementing and managing next-generation functionality for better insight, focus, and alignment of EPM. This blueprint shows that EPM can have a direct positive impact on revenue growth, operating margin, asset utilization, and cash cycle efficiency. Introduces a framework for implementing and managing next-generation functionality for better insight, focus, and alignment Reveals that EPM can have a strong impact on revenue growth, operating margin, asset utilization, cash cycle efficiency Today's businesses have a great deal of data and technology, but less-than-fact decisions are still made. Executives need a structured framework for gathering, analyzing, and debating the best ways to deploy capital, people and time. Real Enterprise Performance Management joins IT and finance in a digestible blueprint for developing and implementing performance management in order to improve revenue growth and profit margins.