Author: Fred Davidson
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300133813
Release Date: 2008-10-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

DIVThe creation of language tests is—and should be—a craft that is accessible and doable not only by a few language test experts, but also by many others who are involved in second/foreign language education, say the authors of this clear and timely book. Fred Davidson and Brian Lynch offer language educators a how-to guide for creating tests that reliably measure exactly what they are intended to measure. Classroom teachers, language administrators, and professors of language testing courses will find in this book an easy and flexible approach to language testing as well as the tools they need to develop tests appropriate to their individual needs. Davidson and Lynch explain criterion-related language test development, a process that focuses on the early stages of test development when the criterion to be tested is defined, specifications are established, and items and tasks are written. This process helps clarify the description of what is being measured by a test and enables teachers to give input on test design in any instructional setting. Informed by extensive research in criterion-referenced measurement, this book invites all language educators to participate in the craft of test development and shows them how to go about it./div

Trials of the Hendy Test Craft with Manual Control Tail Foil Configuration

Author: H. L. Kohler
ISBN: OCLC:227678642
Release Date: 1951

A series of experiments were run utilizing full manual control of foils in the following configuration: (1) Main foil fixed at 3 degrees incidence, ailerons independently controlled by means of foot pedals; (2) Tail foil incidence joystick controlled; (3) Manual rudder control (stbd. lever); (4) Manual throttle control (port lever); A total of 22-1/4 hours of actual test running was accumulated, during which time successive changes in the control system were made in an effort to obtain satisfactorily stable flight, i.e., hull continuously clear of water surface, foil supported.

Setting Performance Standards in Europe

Author: Spiros Papageorgiou
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 3631592574
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This publication was awarded the Jacqueline Ross TOEFL Dissertation Award in 2009. Since its publication in 2001, the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) has been the most frequently-cited performance standard in language testing in Europe. To help test providers and users with score interpretation in relation to the CEFR levels, the Council of Europe published the 'Manual for relating language examinations to the CEFR'. Even though the linking process set out in the Manual is primarily based on judgements by trained participants, judgement-making in this context remains largely unexplored. The research presented in this book addresses this issue by employing quantitative and qualitative methods. Despite the judges' good understanding of how language ability progresses from lower to higher CEFR levels, it was found that describing test content and examinee performance was not without problems and decision-making was affected by a number of factors that were irrelevant to the judgement task. The results provide a better understanding of judgement-making during the CEFR linking process, which has important implications for examination providers and users of CEFR-aligned test scores.


Author: United States. Congress. Senate
ISBN: UOM:35112202635407
Release Date: 1969
Genre: Business & Economics

Jane s Surface Skimmers

Author: Roy McLeavy
Publisher: Franklin Watts
ISBN: 0531032833
Release Date: 1978
Genre: Ground-effect machines

Contains current information on hovercraft and hydrofoils.