Author: Kathryn E. Henne
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2015-04-17
Incidents of doping in sports are common in news headlines, despite regulatory efforts. How did doping become a crisis? What does a doping violation actually entail? Who gets punished for breaking the rules of fair play? In Testing for Athlete Citizenship, Kathryn E. Henne, a former competitive athlete and an expert in the law and science of anti-doping regulations, examines the development of rules aimed at controlling performance enhancement in international sports. As international and celebrated figures, athletes are powerful symbols, yet few spectators realize that a global regulatory network is in place in an attempt to ensure ideals of fair play. The athletes caught and punished for doping are not always the ones using performance-enhancing drugs to cheat. In the case of female athletes, violations of fair play can stem from their inherent biological traits. Combining historical and ethnographic approaches, Testing for Athlete Citizenship offers a compelling account of the origins and expansion of anti-doping regulation and gender-verification rules. Drawing on research conducted in Australasia, Europe, and North America, Henne provides a detailed account of how race, gender, class, and postcolonial formations of power shape these ideas and regulatory practices. Testing for Athlete Citizenship makes a convincing case to rethink the power of regulation in sports and how it separates athletes as a distinct class of citizens subject to a unique set of rules because of their physical attributes and abilities.
Author: Lindsay Pieper
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Release Date: 2016-05-30
Genre: Social Science
In 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) implemented sex testing for female athletes at that year's Games. When it became clear that testing regimes failed to delineate a sex divide, the IOC began to test for gender --a shift that allowed the organization to control the very idea of womanhood. Lindsay Parks Pieper explores sex testing in sport from the 1930s to the early 2000s. Focusing on assumptions and goals as well as means, Pieper examines how the IOC in particular insisted on a misguided binary notion of gender that privileged Western norms. Testing evolved into a tool to identify--and eliminate--athletes the IOC deemed too strong, too fast, or too successful. Pieper shows how this system punished gifted women while hindering the development of women's athletics for decades. She also reveals how the flawed notions behind testing--ideas often sexist, racist, or ridiculous--degraded the very idea of female athleticism.
Author: Cheryl Cooky
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2018-05-30
Genre: POLITICAL SCIENCE
In just a few decades, sport has undergone a radical gender transformation. However, Cheryl Cooky and Michael A. Messner suggest that the progress toward gender equity in sports is far from complete. The continuing barriers to full and equal participation for young people, the far lower pay for most elite-level women athletes, and the continuing dearth of fair and equal media coverage all underline how much still has yet to change before we see gender equality in sports. The chapters in No Slam Dunk show that is this not simply a story of an “unfinished revolution.” Rather, they contend, it is simplistic optimism to assume that we are currently nearing the conclusion of a story of linear progress that ends with a certain future of equality and justice. This book provides important theoretical and empirical insights into the contemporary world of sports to help explain the unevenness of social change and how, despite significant progress, gender equality in sports has been “No Slam Dunk.”
Among the most difficult athletic events a person can attempt, the iron-distance triathlon—a 140.6 mile competition—requires an intense prerace training program. This preparation can be as much as twenty hours per week for a full year leading up to a race. In Iron Dads, Diana Tracy Cohen focuses on the pressures this extensive preparation can place on families, exploring the ways in which men with full-time jobs, one or more children, and other responsibilities fit this level of training into their lives. An accomplished triathlete as well as a trained social scientist, Cohen offers much insight into the effects of endurance-sport training on family, parenting, and the sense of self. She conducted in-depth interviews with forty-seven iron-distance competitors and three prominent men in the race industry, and analyzed triathlon blog postings made by Iron Dads. What sacrifices, Cohen asks, are required—both at home and at work—to cross the iron-distance finish line? What happens when work, family, and sport collide? Is it possible for fathers to meet their own parenting expectations while pursuing such a time-consuming regimen? With the tensions of family economics, how do you justify spending $5,000 on a racing bike? At what point does sport become work? Cohen discovered that, by fostering family involvement in this all-consuming effort, Iron Dads are able to maintain a sense of themselves not only as strong, masculine competitors, but also as engaged fathers. Engagingly written and well researched, Iron Dads provides a penetrating, firsthand look at extreme endurance sports, including practical advice for aspiring racers and suggestions for making triathlons more family-friendly.
In 2011, the San Francisco 49ers hosted the Oakland Raiders in a preseason matchup that would become a seminal moment for fan violence. During the game, seventy fans were ejected from the stadium, one person was beaten unconscious in the men’s room, and two men were shot in the parking lot after the game. This is hardly an isolated incident. At any given game, fans get kicked out and arrested for acting out. In the spring of 2014 alone, soccer headlines screamed of a fan killed in Brazil, a supporter who punched a police horse in England, and three fans shot in Italy. But why do fans resort to such violence? What drives them to abandon societal norms and act out in unimaginable ways? Fanaticus: Mischief and Madness in the Modern Sports Fan explores the roots of extreme fanaticism, from organized thuggery to digital hate speech. Justine Gubar divulges outrageous and often shocking incidents, including first-hand accounts from both the transgressors and victims. Gubar reaches back into ancient times, providing a history of fan violence throughout the ages before delving into events of misbehavior, violence, and hatred in the United States and around the world. She revisits several notorious riots and tragedies throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and Latin America in order to understand mayhem on a global scale. In addition, Gubar investigates the sports leagues and the security and beverage industries so as to explain the roots of fan misbehavior and to dispel common myths that are often invoked to understand the madness. Featuring original interviews with European football hooligans, rioting college students, stadium security experts, and many others, Fanaticus provides a rare window into what drives human behavior. Together, these voices create the fullest picture of modern fan violence ever written.
Author: Eric Anderson
Release Date: 2017-05-25
Genre: Social Science
While efforts to include gay and lesbian athletes in competitive sport have received significant attention, it is only recently that we have begun examining the experiences of transgender athletes in competitive sport. This book represents the first comprehensive study of the challenges that transgender athletes face in competitive sport; and the challenges they pose for this sex-segregated institution. Beginning with a discussion of the historical role that sport has played in preserving sex as a binary, the book examines how gender has been policed by policymakers within competitive athletics. It also considers how transgender athletes are treated by a system predicated on separating males from females, consequently forcing transgender athletes to negotiate the system in coercive ways. The book not only exposes our culture’s binary thinking in terms of both sex and gender, but also offers a series of thought-provoking and sometimes contradictory recommendations for how to make sport more hospitable, inclusive and equitable. Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport is important reading for all students and scholars of the sociology of sport with an interest in the relationship between sport and gender, politics, identity and ethics.
Author: Emily A. Roper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-01-06
Designed primarily as a textbook for upper division undergraduate courses in gender and sport, gender issues, sport sociology, cultural sport studies, and women’s studies, Gender Relations in Sport provides a comprehensive examination of the intersecting themes and concepts surrounding the study of gender and sport. The 16 contributors, leading scholars from sport studies, present key issues, current research perspectives and theoretical developments within nine sub-areas of gender and sport: • Gender and sport participation • Theories of gender and sport • Gender and sport media • Sexual identity and sport • Intersections of race, ethnicity and gender in sport • Framing Title IX policy using conceptual metaphors • Studying the athletic body • Sexual harassment and abuse in sport • Historical developments and current issues from a European perspective The intersecting themes and concepts across chapters are also accentuated. Such a publication provides access to the study of gender relations in sport to students across a variety of disciplines. Emily A. Roper, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health and Kinesiology at Sam Houston State University. Her research focuses on gender, sexuality, and sport.
Author: Blair Davis
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2018-06-25
Comic Book Movies explores how this genre serves as a source for modern-day myths, sometimes even incorporating ancient mythic figures like Thor and Wonder Woman’s Amazons, while engaging with the questions that haunt a post-9/11 world: How do we define heroism and morality today? How far are we willing to go when fighting terror? How can we resist a dystopian state? Film scholar Blair Davis also considers how the genre’s visual style is equally important as its weighty themes, and he details how advances in digital effects have allowed filmmakers to incorporate elements of comic book art in innovative ways. As he reveals, comic book movies have inspired just as many innovations to Hollywood’s business model, with film franchises and transmedia storytelling helping to ensure that the genre will continue its reign over popular culture for years to come.
Although female athletes are successful in all types of sport, in many countries sport is still a male domain. This book examines and compares the sporting experiences of women from different countries around the world and offers the first systematic and cross-cultural analysis of the topic of women in sport. Sport and Women presents a wealth of new research data, including in-depth case-studies of 16 countries in North and South America, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe and Africa. In addition, the book offers comparative assessments of the extent to which women are represented in global sport and the opportunities that women have to participate in decision-making processes in sport. The book illuminates a wide range of key international issues in women's sport, such as cultural barriers to participation and the efficacy of political action. It is therefore essential reading for anybody with an interest in the sociology, culture and politics of sport.
Author: Michael A. McCann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018
The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law takes the reader through the most important controversies and critical developments in law and U.S. sports. Over the course of 30 chapters, leading scholars explore this expanding and captivating area of law. The Handbook is the first book to gather dozens of perspectives on sports law controversies in the United States, and will be of interest to those who study and practice sports law, as well as journalists, broadcasters, and legally minded sports fans. The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law incorporates analysis of key historical events in sports law-such as the rise of free agency in professional sports and the concept of "amateurism" for college athletes-and their broader context. Contemporary legal controversies in U.S. sports and their accompanying questions are also of central importance: In a sensible legal system, how would long-term neurological injuries from contact sports be addressed? How would the use of racially insensitive team names be resolved? How would a seemingly trivial dispute over air pressure in footballs be studied from the competing perspectives of players, teams, and leagues? The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law weighs not just the facts, but how courts and lawmakers ought to consider the most important questions at stake. The essays in this volume also canvass the types of legal controversies in sports likely to surface in the future. This is particularly true of law and technology matters, including those related to broadcasting and streaming. Legal doctrine has been and will continue to be forced to adapt to these developments, and the Handbook both forecasts coming debates and outlines where the law may be headed.
The relationship between association football, race and ethnicity has received increasing levels of attention from academics and commentators throughout the world over recent years. As their national professional leagues reflect the multicultural nature of most global developed societies so the focus of sports scholars and others have been drawn to this field of enquiry and this has produced some impressive works. These have included rich examinations of such issues at the level of the nation-state and the aim of this collection is to considerably enhance this dedicated strand of academic research. Drawing upon case studies from Europe, Africa and the USA, this book offers readers an exceptional level of coverage as it scrutinises issues of race and ethnicity in a number of novel settings worldwide. It also brings together many of the leading researchers in this field and thereby offers the reader a single, dedicated reference point for much of the contemporary research work taking place throughout the world at this time.This bookw as published a sa special issue of Soccer and Society.
Author: Stephen C. Poulson
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Sports & Recreation
Triathlons, such as the famously arduous Ironman Triathlon, and “extreme” mountain biking—hair-raising events held over exceedingly dangerous terrain—are prime examples of the new “lifestyle sports” that have grown in recent years from oddball pursuits, practiced by a handful of characters, into multi-million-dollar industries. In Why Would Anyone Do That? sociologist Stephen C. Poulson offers a fascinating exploration of these new and physically demanding sports, shedding light on why some people find them so compelling. Drawing on interviews with lifestyle sport competitors, on his own experience as a participant, on advertising for lifestyle sport equipment, and on editorial content of adventure sport magazines, Poulson addresses a wide range of issues. He notes that these sports are often described as “authentic” challenges which help keep athletes sane given the demands they confront in their day-to-day lives. But is it really beneficial to “work” so hard at “play?” Is the discipline required to do these sports really an expression of freedom, or do these sports actually impose extraordinary degrees of conformity upon these athletes? Why Would Anyone Do That? grapples with these questions, and more generally with whether lifestyle sport should always be considered “good” for people. Poulson also looks at what happens when a sport becomes a commodity—even a sport that may have begun as a reaction against corporate and professional sport—arguing that commodification inevitably plays a role in determining who plays, and also how and why the sport is played. It can even help provide the meaning that athletes assign to their participation in the sport. Finally, the book explores the intersections of race, class, and gender with respect to participation in lifestyle and endurance sports, noting in particular that there is a near complete absence of people of color in most of these contests. In addition, Poulson examines how concepts of masculinity in triathlons have changed as women’s roles in this sport increase.
Author: James J. Florio
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2018-05-07
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
James J. Florio is best known as governor of New Jersey from 1990 to 1994. But his career in local, state, and national government is far more varied, and his achievements as a progressive reformer are more substantial than most realize. This political memoir tells the remarkable story of how Florio, a high school dropout who left to join the Navy as a teenager, went on to become an attorney, a state assemblyman, a congressman, and a governor. A passionate defender of the environment, Florio played a crucial role in the enactment of 1980s-era Superfund laws, which helped to clean up toxic waste sites in New Jersey and around the country. As governor, he fought for the groundbreaking Clean Water Enforcement Act. But his reforms quite literally came at a cost, as he raised New Jersey sales taxes and income taxes to balance the state budget. Florio reflects upon the challenges of meeting the state’s budgetary needs while keeping his tax-averse constituents happy. Standing on Principle reveals a politician who has never been afraid to take a progressive stand—including a firm stance against semiautomatic weapons that led gun lobbyists to bankroll his opponent. His story is sure to inspire readers from New Jersey and across the nation. Published in cooperation with the Center on the American Governor, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University