The incredible "glowing" history of the "Devil's element "phosphorus Discovered by alchemists, prescribed by apothecaries, exploited by ninth-century industrialists, and abused by twentieth-century combatants, the chemical element phosphorus has fascinated us for more than three centuries. It may even be the cause of will-o'-the wisps and spontaneous human combustion! Now John Emsley has written an enthralling account of this eerily luminescent element. Shining with wonderful nuggets-from murders-by-phosphorus to a match factory strike; from the firebombing of Hamburg to the deadly compounds derived from phosphorus today-The 13th Element weaves together a rich tableau of brilliant and oddball characters, social upheavals, and bizarre events.
Author: Eugene H. Cordes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2009-06-04
Written with the non-scientist in mind, this book employs the molecule and its interactions to explain the characteristics of living organisms in terms of the underlying chemistry of life. Following introductory chapters on the fundamentals of life, attention then turns to small molecules such as hormones and neurotransmitters and subsequently to macromolecules including proteins and nucleic acids. The interactions between small and macromolecules remains a central point throughout the book. These include enzymatic catalysis, hormone action, neurotransmission, regulation of metabolism, biosynthesis of macromolecules, the mechanism of action of drugs, taste, olfaction, learning and memory, and chemical communication. A second central point of emphasis is the sensitive relationship between chemical structure and biological activity. Examples abound and include why subtle changes in fatty acid architecture have positive or negative outcomes for human health in omega-three fatty acids and trans fats and how modest changes in the chemical decoration of the steroid skeleton provide the difference between male and female sex hormones. Beyond these examples taken from the chemistry of small molecules, the book includes a thoughtful consideration of genomics, including the relationship between genome structure and species. The theme of human health appears throughout the book. Cardiovascular medicine, cancer, metabolic diseases, and diseases of the nervous system receive significant attention including consideration of how a variety of drugs work in combating these issues. In sum, the goal of this book is to inform the non-scientist community in a way that will lead to increased understanding of the relationship between chemistry and life.
Apache Spark is amazing when everything clicks. But if you haven’t seen the performance improvements you expected, or still don’t feel confident enough to use Spark in production, this practical book is for you. Authors Holden Karau and Rachel Warren demonstrate performance optimizations to help your Spark queries run faster and handle larger data sizes, while using fewer resources. Ideal for software engineers, data engineers, developers, and system administrators working with large-scale data applications, this book describes techniques that can reduce data infrastructure costs and developer hours. Not only will you gain a more comprehensive understanding of Spark, you’ll also learn how to make it sing. With this book, you’ll explore: How Spark SQL’s new interfaces improve performance over SQL’s RDD data structure The choice between data joins in Core Spark and Spark SQL Techniques for getting the most out of standard RDD transformations How to work around performance issues in Spark’s key/value pair paradigm Writing high-performance Spark code without Scala or the JVM How to test for functionality and performance when applying suggested improvements Using Spark MLlib and Spark ML machine learning libraries Spark’s Streaming components and external community packages
Author: M H Alsuwaiyel
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2016-02-16
Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) the solution to the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or by following techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions, and the context appropriate for each of them. Algorithms: Design Techniques and Analysis advocates the study of algorithm design by presenting the most useful techniques and illustrating them with numerous examples — emphasizing on design techniques in problem solving rather than algorithms topics like searching and sorting. Algorithmic analysis in connection with example algorithms are explored in detail. Each technique or strategy is covered in its own chapter through numerous examples of problems and their algorithms. Readers will be equipped with problem solving tools needed in advanced courses or research in science and engineering. Contents:Basic Concepts and Introduction to Algorithms:Basic Concepts in Algorithmic AnalysisData StructuresHeaps and the Disjoint Sets Data StructuresTechniques Based on Recursion:InductionDivide and ConquerDynamic ProgrammingFirst-Cut Techniques:The Greedy ApproachGraph TraversalComplexity of Problems:NP-Complete ProblemsIntroduction to Computational ComplexityLower BoundsCoping with Hardness:BacktrackingRandomized AlgorithmsApproximation AlgorithmsIteractive Improvement for Domain-Specific Problems:Network FlowMatchingTechniques in Computational Geometry:Geometric SweepingVoronoi DiagramsAppendices:Mathematical PreliminariesIntroduction to Discrete Probability Readership: Senior undergraduates, graduate students and professionals in software development. Readers in advanced courses or research in science and engineering. Key Features:It covers many topics that are not in any other book on algorithmsIt covers a wide range of design techniques each in its own chapterKeywords:Algorithms;Algorithm Design;Algorithm Analysis
Author: Jun Wang
Release Date: 2006-10-03
The three volume set LNCS 4232, LNCS 4233, and LNCS 4234 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP 2006, held in Hong Kong, China in October 2006. The 386 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 1175 submissions.
Author: Boyd L. O'Dell
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1997-03-07
"Offers comprehensive, definitive information on all of the essential mineral elements--focusing on biochemical and physiological processes. Describes in detail the function of the nutritionally necessary elements revealed through the latest techniques in molecular biology as well as traditional research methods."
Author: Marco Fontani
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-10-01
The Periodic Table of Elements hasn't always looked like it does now, a well-organized chart arranged by atomic number. In the mid-nineteenth century, chemists were of the belief that the elements should be sorted by atomic weight. However, the weights of many elements were calculated incorrectly, and over time it became clear that not only did the elements need rearranging, but that the periodic table contained many gaps and omissions: there were elements yet to be discovered, and the allure of finding one had scientists rushing to fill in the blanks. Supposed "discoveries" flooded laboratories, and the debate over what did and did not belong on the periodic table reached a fever pitch. With the discovery of radioactivity, the discourse only intensified. Throughout its formation, the Periodic Table of Elements has seen false entries, good-faith errors, retractions, and dead ends. In fact, there have been more falsely proclaimed elemental discoveries throughout history than there are elements on the table as we know it today. The Lost Elements: The Periodic Table's Shadow Side collects the most notable of these instances, stretching from the nineteenth century to the present. The book tells the story of how scientists have come to understand elements, by discussing the failed theories and false discoveries that shaped the path of scientific progress. We learn of early chemists' stubborn refusal to disregard alchemy as a legitimate practice, and of one German's supposed discovery of an elemental metal that breathed. As elements began to be created artificially in the twentieth century, we watch the discovery climate shift to favor the physicists, rather than the chemists. Along the way, Fontani, Costa, and Orna introduce us to the key figures in the development of today's periodic table, including Lavoisier and Mendeleev. Featuring a preface from Nobel Laureate Roald Hoffmann, The Lost Elements is an expansive history of the wrong side of chemical discovery-and reveals how these errors and gaffes have helped shape the table as much as any other form of scientific progress.