The 1958 New York Convention has been called the most effective instance of international legislation in the entire history of commercial law. However, the succinct text of the Convention leaves open a host of significant and complex questions, which may be, and have been, answered in a variety of ways; as difficult cases arise and demand solutions, they generate inconsistent outcomes. For all its remarkable success, the Convention has on occasion proved itself to be unreliable and unpredictable. This book simultaneously exposes the difficulties of the Convention and explores potential solutions. It examines each substantive article of the New York Convention in accordance with the following outline: * the text and its issues; * original intent; * the prism of the rules of interpretation of the Vienna Convention; * judicial outcomes; and * appraisal. By drawing on the Convention's drafting history in great detail, the book presents a coherent account of how the most frequently recurring interrogations about the text are reflected (or not) in judicial practice. The author studied more than 1,700 decisions rendered under the Convention since its inception in 1958 in order to provide a succinct selection of landmark cases per article. With its intense investigation of the complex reality underlying contracting States' commitment in principle and judicial application in fact, the author's judicial understanding of the Convention provides a clear conceptual framework that will help avoid outcomes at odds with the purposes of this important instrument. Lawyers and judges will rely on this book not only to situate the Convention in the national legal orders where it is intended to produce its effects, but also discover practical ways to respond to distinct questions of application.
Author: Herbert Kronke
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2010
The analysis thoroughly covers the major issues that have arisen in the application of the Convention, including the following: - the use of reservations made by Contracting States; - the distinctions between recognition and enforcement and between recognition sought at the seat of the arbitration and outside the seat; - the role of the courts in reviewing arbitral awards and, in particular, the Convention's focus on safeguarding due process standards; - the more favourable rightsA" principle embodied in Article VII(1); - the relevance of forum shopping and asset spotting to the application of the Convention; and - the role of formalities and formalism. The end result is an invaluable work that will prove enormously useful to all international commercial arbitration practitioners and scholars, regardless of location
Author: Charles T. Kotuby, Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2017-02-15
Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice defines "international law" to include not only "custom" and "convention" between States but also "the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations" within their municipal legal systems. In 1953, Bin Cheng wrote his seminal book on general principles, identifying core legal principles common to various domestic legal systems across the globe. This monograph summarizes and analyzes the general principles of law and norms of international due process, with a particular focus on developments since Cheng's writing. The aim is to collect and distill these principles and norms in a single volume as a practical resource for international law jurists, advocates, and scholars. The information contained in this book holds considerable importance given the growth of inter-state intercourse resulting in the increased use of general principles over the past 60 years. General principles can serve as rules of decision, whether in interpreting a treaty or contract, determining causation, or ascertaining unjust enrichment. They also include a core set of procedural requirements that should be followed in any adjudicative system, such as the right to impartiality and the prohibition on fraud. Although the general principles are, by definition, basic and even rudimentary, they hold vital importance for the rule of law in international relations. They are meant not to define a rule of law, but rather the rule of law.
In a world characterized, on the one hand, by globalized trade and commerce, and, on the other, by deteriorating judicial services, arbitration has become the dispute resolution mechanism of choice in cross-border commercial transactions. International arbitration not only paves the way for parties to avoid State courts, it also facilitates the transnational enforceability of awards that are far more effective than the enforceability of State court judgments. The major instrument is the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention) of June 10, 1958, which entered into force one year after. Since then, the New York Convention has been ratified by 144 States, including all the important trading nations. For good reason, the New York Convention is labeled the Magna Carta of international arbitration. The courts of any contracting State are required "to give effect to an agreement to arbitrate when seized of an action in a matter covered by an arbitration agreement and also to recognize and enforce awards made in other States, subject to specific limited exceptions" (UNCITRAL). In this book, the 16 articles of the Convention are dealt with in an article-by-article analysis, following a clear structure which swiftly guides the reader to the issue that he or she is engaged with. Given the New York Convention's global relevance, it follows that potential users of the Convention are in need of guidance as to how to apply it. The primary readers of this book will be: lawyers seeking (or defending against) recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards worldwide, State court judges applying the Convention in recognition proceedings, and in-house lawyers in large and/or multinational enterprises dealing with transnational dispute resolution.
Author: Hannah Arendt
Publisher: Piper Verlag
Release Date: 2013-02-14
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
Der ehemalige SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann gilt als einer der Hauptverantwortlichen für die »Endlösung« der Juden in Europa. Der Prozess gegen ihn fand 1961 in Jerusalem statt. Hannah Arendts Prozessbericht wurde von ihr 1964 als Buch publiziert und brachte eine Lawine ins Rollen: Es stieß bei seinem Erscheinen auf heftige Ablehnung in Israel, Deutschland und in den USA – und wurde zu einem Klassiker wie kaum ein anderes vergleichbares Werk zur Zeitgeschichte und ihrer Deutung.
Patroklos, ein in Ungnade gefallener Prinz im Knabenalter, wird ins Exil nach Phthia geschickt, wo er, als einer unter vielen, im Schatten des Königs Peleus und seines Sohnes Achill einsam und unbeachtet lebt, bis Achill sich eines Tages seiner annimmt. Die zaghafte Annährung entwickelt sich bald zu einer unerschütterlichen Freundschaft. Seite an Seite wachsen Achill und Patroklos zu jungen Männern heran, und bald erblüht eine zarte Liebe zwischen ihnen. Der Friede wird jedoch jäh zerstört, als Paris Helena aus Sparta entführt und sich die Männer Griechenlands zum Kampf gegen Troja versammeln. Verführt von der Prophezeiung seiner ruhmreichen Bestimmung, schließt sich Achill ihnen an. Patroklos, innerlich von Angst und Liebe zerrissen, folgt Achill in den zehn Jahre währenden Krieg, nicht ahnend, dass er das Schicksal seines geliebten Freundes in die Hände der Götter geben muss.
Author: Albert J. Van den Berg
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2004-12
For nearly three decades the international legal, business and academic communities have relied on theYearbook Commercial Arbitration for comprehensive coverage of the complex field of international commercial arbitration. With its reporting on developments in legislation and arbitral institutions, and its excerpts of arbitral awards and court decisions, Volume XXIX continues the Yearbook¿s tradition of providing topical information in special sections, covering: Awards from arbitral institutions not readily available elsewhere. Court decisions on arbitration, including: Canadian court decisions on awards made in connection with NAFTA Chapter 11 and US Supreme Court decisions on procedural issues, damages and the applicability of the Federal Arbitration Act. Arbitration rules from leading arbitral institutions, this year featuring: The new arbitration rules and code of ethics from the Arbitration Chamber of Milan, with an introduction by Rinaldo Sali. The New Swiss Rules of International Arbitration, introduced by Dr. Wolfgang Peter. The American Arbitration Association/American Bar Association¿s Code of Ethics for Arbitrators in Commercial Disputes, with an introduction by William K. Slate II. The Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Commercial Arbitration issued by the International Bar Association. The International Law Association=s resolution on public policy as a ground for refusing recognition or enforcement of international arbitral awards, introduced by Pierre Mayer and Audley Sheppard. Court Decisions on the leading international arbitration conventions, with: Excerpts of 72 court decisions applying the 1958 New York Convention from the national courts of 10 countries, including extensive coverage of recent decisions from the German courts. US decisions applying the 1975 Panama Convention. A Bibliography of recent books and journals on arbitration. Edited by the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA), the world¿s leading organization representing practitioners and academics in the field, the Yearbook is a vital resource for anyone involved in the practice and study of international arbitration.
Author: Elinor Ostrom
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Political Science
English summary: The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market has been uniformly successful in solving common-pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore the conditions under which common-pool resource problems have been satisfactorily solved. Elinor Ostrom first describes three models most frequently used as the foundation for recommending state or market solutions. She then outlines theoretical and empirical alternatives to these models in order to illustrate the diversity of possible solutions. German description: In ihrem [...] Buch packt Elinor Ostrom eines der zahesten und umstrittensten Probleme der empirischen politischen Okonomie an: Lasst sich, und wenn ja wie, die Erschliessung von Allmenderessourcen so organisieren, dass sie weder ubernutzt werden noch allzu hohe Verwaltungskosten entstehen? Nach einer haufig unter Okonomen vertretenen Ansicht sind Ressourcen, die von vielen Individuen gemeinsam bewirtschaftet werden [...] erst ausbeutbar, wenn das Problem der Ubernutzung entweder durch Privatisierung oder durch eine externe Sanktionsinstanz gelost ist. Ostrom dagegen weist uberzeugend nach, dass andere Losungen existieren und sich stabile selbstverwaltete Institutionen schaffen lassen, sobald gewisse Probleme der Institutionenbereitstellung, glaubwurdigen Selbstverpflichtung und Regeluberwachung gelost sind. Ihre detaillierte Studie eines einzigartig breiten Spektrums von Fallbeispielen befasst sich unter anderem mit Hochgebirgsweiden in Japan und der Schweiz, Wasserprojekten auf den Philippinen und in Kalifornien [...] Gestutzt auf eine vergleichende Analyse der Ursachen erfolgreicher und gescheiterter Selbstverwaltung, beschreibt Ostrom etliche grundlegende Merkmale erfolgreicher Projekte der Bewirtschaftung von Allmenderessourcen und schliesst mit einer Aufforderung an andere Sozialwissenschaftler, ihr auf dem eingeschlagenen theoretischen Weg zu folgen. Douglass C. North im Geleitwort
Author: Van Den Berg
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2009-01
The Yearbook Commercial Arbitration continues its longstanding commitment to serving as a primary resource for the international arbitration community with reporting on arbitral awards and court decisions applying the leading arbitration conventions, as well as arbitration legislation and rules. Volume XXXIII includes excerpts of arbitral awards made under the auspices of, inter alia, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC); a biennial update of the Digest of Investment Treaty Decisions and Awards first published in 2006; notes on new and amended arbitration rules, including references to their online publication; notes on recent developments in arbitration law and practice in the Dubai International Financial Centre, Rwanda, Slovenia, Syria and Ukraine, as well as on the opinion of the Advocate General of the European Court of Justice in the West Tankers case; excerpts of 109 court decisions applying the 1958 New York Convention from 23 countries - including an update of Russian and Greek jurisprudence and, for the first time, decisions from Argentina, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Chile and Peru - all indexed by subject matter and linked to the General Editor's published commentaries on the New York Convention; an extensive Bibliography of recent books and journals on arbitration. The Yearbook is edited by the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA), the world's leading organization representing practitioners and academics in the field, with the assistance of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague. It is an essential tool for lawyers, business people and scholars involved in the practice and study of international arbitration.
Author: Gary Born
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2001-04-26
The revised and expanded Second Edition of Gary Born's landmark treatise International Commercial Arbitration provides the most detailed and up-to-date commentary, case analyses, and practice pointers available to practitioners and academics today. with full annotations and footnotes for invaluable research assistance, and clearly-written analyses that identify and discuss critical issues, it is an invaluable guide to the actual practice of international commercial arbitration anywhere in the world, by one of the field's most experienced practitioners. International Commercial Arbitration, Second Edition, examines the procedural aspects of international arbitration in contemporary practice; provides excerpts of representative international arbitral awards and national court decisions; and makes abundant reference to leading institutional rules as they are brought to bear on specific fact situations. It discusses in detail all leading international practices and legal sources relating to international commercial arbitration, including the New York and Inter-American Conventions, the UNCITRAL Model Law and other national arbitration legislation, and all leading institutional arbitration rules. It also expands and updates the First Edition's authoritative treatment of international arbitration by U.S. and other national courts. Divided into three parts--international arbitration agreements, international arbitral procedures, and international arbitration awards--the treatise explores each topic in detail, dealing with both legal and practical issues under leading international and national legal regimes. Through excerpts of key court decisions and detailed analysis, it thoroughly covers the role of U.S. courts in enforcing international arbitration agreements under the Federal Arbitration Act, providing an invaluable guide to the enforceability of international arbitration awards in U.S. courts and the role of U.S. courts in granting provisional remedies, selecting arbitrators and arbitral situses, ordering discovery, and otherwise providing judicial support for the international arbitral process. Note: North America: Sales Exclusive by Transnational Publishers, Inc.
Author: Peter Stone
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2015-05-29
The harmonisation of private international law in Europe has advanced rapidly since the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam. Most aspects of private international law are now governed or at least affected by EU legislation, and there is a subst