Author: Frans de Waal
Release Date: 2009-09-22
In this thought-provoking book, the acclaimed author of Our Inner Ape examines how empathy comes naturally to a great variety of animals, including humans. Are we our brothers' keepers? Do we have an instinct for compassion? Or are we, as is often assumed, only on earth to serve our own survival and interests? By studying social behaviors in animals, such as bonding, the herd instinct, the forming of trusting alliances, expressions of consolation, and conflict resolution, Frans de Waal demonstrates that animals–and humans–are "preprogrammed to reach out." He has found that chimpanzees care for mates that are wounded by leopards, elephants offer "reassuring rumbles" to youngsters in distress, and dolphins support sick companions near the water's surface to prevent them from drowning. From day one humans have innate sensitivities to faces, bodies, and voices; we've been designed to feel for one another. De Waal's theory runs counter to the assumption that humans are inherently selfish, which can be seen in the fields of politics, law, and finance. But he cites the public's outrage at the U.S. government's lack of empathy in the wake of Hurricane Katrina as a significant shift in perspective–one that helped Barack Obama become elected and ushered in what may well become an Age of Empathy. Through a better understanding of empathy's survival value in evolution, de Waal suggests, we can work together toward a more just society based on a more generous and accurate view of human nature. Written in layman's prose with a wealth of anecdotes, wry humor, and incisive intelligence, The Age of Empathy is essential reading for our embattled times. "An important and timely message about the biological roots of human kindness." —Desmond Morris, author of The Naked Ape
Author: Frans de Waal
Publisher: Emblem Editions
Release Date: 2010-09-21
An engrossing, lucid exploration of the origins of human morality that challenges our most basic assumptions, from the world’s leading primatologist Is it really human nature to stab one another in the back in our climb up the corporate ladder? Competitive, selfish behaviour is often explained away as instinctive, thanks to evolution and “survival of the fittest,” but in fact humans are equally hard-wired for empathy. Using research from the fields of anthropology, psychology, animal behaviour, and neuroscience, de Waal brilliantly argues that humans are group animals — highly cooperative, sensitive to injustice, and mostly peace-loving — just like other primates, elephants, and dolphins. This revelation has profound implications for everything from politics to office culture. From the Hardcover edition.
Author: Christopher Ryan
Release Date: 2016-08-27
Monogamie ist von der Natur nicht vorgesehen. Mit dieser wissenschaftlich fundierten Erkenntnis stellen die Autoren unser Verständnis menschlicher Evolution und den angeblichen Kern unserer westlichen Gesellschaften infrage: die monogame Paarbeziehung. Dieses Buch stellt so ziemlich alles infrage, was wir bislang über Partnerschaft, Ehe und Gesellschaft geglaubt haben. Die beiden Autoren untersuchen die prähistorischen Wurzeln der menschlichen Sexualität und hinterfragen, welches Sexual- und Paarungsverhalten das natürliche ist. Die Veranlagung zur Monogamie, die Darwin und nach ihm viele Evolutionsbiologen konstatierten, ist eine krasse Fehlinterpretation. Die Autoren greifen die Wurzeln unseres Verständnisses von Ehe, Partnerschaft und Gesellschaft an und argumentieren damit gegen eine ganze Zunft, die Monogamie als genetische anthropologische Konstante betrachtet. Stützt sich auf Forschungsergebnisse aus der Anthropologie, Primatologie, Physiologie und Vorgeschichte
Der Leser erhält mit diesem Werk eine breite Übersicht über die diversen Möglichkeiten, Empathie in der Praxis zu fördern. Das „Besondere“ besteht dabei einerseits in dem Umstand, dass alle Darstellungen den gleichen Aufbau aufweisen, wodurch ein direkter Vergleich ermöglicht und eine entsprechende Auswahl für eigene Zwecke erleichtert wird. Eine weitere Besonderheit besteht darin, dass die Programme aus völlig unterschiedlichen Bereichen stammen und so ein Blick „über den Tellerrand“ des eigenen Bereichs ermöglicht wird. So kann beispielsweise ein Anwender, der ursprünglich an einem Training für aggressive Jugendliche interessiert ist, aus Programmen zur Empathie-Förderung bei Grundschülern oder aber zum empathischen Umgang in sozialen Berufen Ideen übernehmen, an die er ursprünglich nicht gedacht hat, die er aber für seine aktuellen Zwecke als brauchbar einschätzt. Das Buch richtet sich an Psychologen, Berater und Therapeuten, Anwenderinnen und Anwender in der Fort- und Weiterbildung, Fach- und Führungskräfte in diversen Gesundheitsberufen sowie in der pädagogischen Arbeit, die Empathie als eine Schlüsselkompetenz erkannt haben und fördern wollen. Darüber hinaus ist es für Studierende der Psychologie, Pädagogik und der sozialen Berufe geeignet.
Author: Philippe Desan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2016-09-01
"The creator of the 'essay,' Michel de Montaigne serves as a bridge between what we call the early modern and modernity. The Essays resemble a patchwork of personal reflections that tend toward a single goal: to live better in the present and to prepare for death. Montaigne constantly redefines the nature of his task in order to fashion himself anew and, in the end, offers an impressionistic model of descriptions based on momentary experiences. Over the centuries, the reception of Montaigne has been anything but simple. The institutionalization of an author depends on what one might call his or her 'ideological and historical trajectory.' An effect of 'globalization' has even reached Montaigne in recent years, bringing him sudden, worldwide visibility. His thought has become internationalized, and he is read, studied, and commented in most European countries as well as in North America, Latin America, and Asia"
This volume extends the theoretical scope of the important concept of empathy by analysing not only the cultural contexts that foster the generating of empathy, but in focusing also on the limits of pro-social feelings and the mechanisms that lead to its blocking.
Author: Bernd Rosslenbroich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-04-15
This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.
Author: Ellen L. Idler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-08-13
Frequently in partnership, but sometimes at odds, religious institutions and public health institutions work to improve the well-being of their communities. There is increasing awareness among public health professionals and the general public that the social conditions of poverty, lack of education, income inequality, poor working conditions, and experiences of discrimination play a dominant role in determining health status. But this broad view of the social determinants of health has largely ignored the role of religious practices and institutions in shaping the life conditions of billions around the globe. In Religion as a Social Determinant of Public Health, leading scholars in the social sciences, public health, and religion address this omission by examining the embodied sacred practices of the world's religions, the history of alignment and tension between religious and public health institutions, the research on the health impact of religious practice throughout the life course, and the role of religious institutions in health and development efforts around the globe. In addition, the volume explores religion's role in the ongoing epidemics of HIV/AIDS and Alzheimer's disease, as well as preparations for an influenza pandemic. Together, these groundbreaking essays help complete the picture of the social determinants of health by including religion, which has until now been an invisible determinant.
Author: Ivo Aertsen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date: 2017-11-16
Theories and practices of justice do not meet the socio-political challenges of our times. For those theorists attempting to develop an alternative to the criminal justice system, restorative justice has provided an alternative horizon. The restorative justice approach involves meeting people, understanding and recognising their vulnerability through participatory and deliberative forums and practices. The aim of this collection is to bridge the distance between restorative justice and the critical theory tradition. It, on the one hand, takes into account the limits of restorative justice as they have been articulated, or can be articulated through critical social theory, and on the other hand emphasises the ground-breaking potential that restorative justice can bring to this tradition as a way to address crimes, conflicts and injustices, and to pursue justice.
Author: Anthony B. Atkinson
Release Date: 2014-12-30
Genre: Social Science
What new theories, evidence, explanations, and policies have shaped our studies of income distribution in the 21st century? Editors Tony Atkinson and Francois Bourguignon assemble the expertise of leading authorities in this survey of substantive issues. In two volumes they address subjects that were not covered in Volume 1 (2000), such as education, health and experimental economics; and subjects that were covered but where there have been substantial new developments, such as the historical study of income inequality and globalization. Some chapters discuss future growth areas, such as inheritance, the links between inequality and macro-economics and finance, and the distributional implications of climate change. They also update empirical advances and major changes in the policy environment. The volumes define and organize key areas of income distribution studies Contributors focus on identifying newly developing questions and opportunities for future research The authoritative articles emphasize the ways that income mobility and inequality studies have recently gained greater political significance
Author: Bob Tschannen-Moran
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2010-06-18
Genre: Business & Economics
There?s a lot of conversation about how to make schools better. Unfortunately, the nature of those conversations often makes things worse. Evocative Coaching: Transforming Schools One Conversation at a Time maps out a way to change that. By taking a teacher-centered, no-fault, strengths-based approach to performance improvement, the Evocative Coaching model generates the motivation and movement that enables teachers and schools to achieve desired outcomes and enhance quality of life. Viewed as a dynamic dance, the model is choreographed in four steps ? Story, Empathy, Inquiry, Design ? which are each laid out in its own chapter with powerful illustrative materials and end-of-chapter discussion questions to prompt further reflection. Bringing together the best research and wisdom in educational leadership and professional coaching, authors Bob and Megan Tschannen-Moran have developed a simple yet profound way of facilitating new conversations in schools through Story Listening, Expressing Empathy, Appreciative Inquiry, and Design Thinking. It?s an iterative process that moves beyond old ways of thinking, doing, and being. It?s an inspirational process that reinvigorates the passion for making schools better, one conversation at a time. This happens when coaches: give teachers our full, undivided attention; accept and meet teachers where they are right now, without making them wrong; ask and trust teachers to take charge of their own learning and growth; make sure teachers are talking more than we are; enable teachers to appreciate the positive value of their own experiences; harness the strengths teachers have to meet challenges and overcome obstacles; reframe difficulties and challenges as opportunities to learn and grow; invite teachers to discover possibilities and find answers for themselves; dialogue with teachers regarding their higher purpose for teaching; uncover teachers? natural impulse to engage with colleagues and students; assist teachers to draw up a personal blueprint for professional mastery; support teachers in brainstorming and trying new ways of doing things; maintain an upbeat, energetic, and positive attitude at all times; collaborate with teachers to design and conduct appropriate learning experiments; enable teachers to build supportive environments and teams; use humor to lighten the load; and inspire and challenge teachers to go beyond what they would do alone. Each chapter provides a research-based theory to support the strategies presented, and includes specific suggestions and anecdotes. The Evocative Coaching model makes coaching enjoyable by getting people to focus on what they do best, and it invites larger, more integral conversations so that people talk about their work in the context of other things they care about. Resting on strong, evidence-based practices, the Evocative Coaching model offers educators the help they need to meet the challenges of increased accountability and expectations. This model can also be used effectively by coaches and leaders in other organizational contexts. Table of Contents: Chapter 1: What Is Evocative Coaching? Chapter 2: Coaching Presence Loop I: The No-Fault Turn Chapter 3: Story Listening Chapter 4: Expressing Empathy Loop II: The Strengths-Building Turn Chapter 5: Appreciative Inquiry Chapter 6: Design Thinking Chapter 7: Aligning Environments Chapter 8: Coaching Conversations Chapter 9: The Reflective Coach To learn more about Evocative Coaching and to sign up for the Evocative Coach Training Program, visit www.SchoolTransformation.com.
Author: David South, Writer
Release Date: 2015-02-12
Genre: Business & Economics
Development Challenges, South-South Solutions is the monthly e-newsletter for the United Nations Development Programme’s South-South Cooperation Unit (www.southerninnovator.org). It has been published every month since 2006.