Spirit Christology complements Logos Christology in the same way in which Christ and the Spirit are mutually constitutive. Or at least this should be the case. The history of Christian thought shows that Logos Christology has dominated, resulting in both an eclipse of Trinitarian doctrine and a diminution of pneumatology. Recently there have been calls to reclaim a theology of the Third Article in order to present a Trinitarian theology that is faithful to Scripture, the Great Tradition, and one that is existentially viable. While studies examine various aspects of Spirit Christology there has yet to appear a work that introduces the doctrine, examines the various mutually exclusive proposals, and offers a constructive trinitarian proposal. The present work does just this, introducing the constituent features of a Spirit Christology that is Trinitarian, orthodox, and contemporary. The current work proposes a model of Spirit Christology that complements rather than replaces Logos Christology and does so in a robustly Trinitarian framework. Within contemporary theology a pneumatically oriented approach to Christology is being advanced across denominational and traditional lines. Those wanting to navigate their way through the many competing proposals for a Third Article theology will find a comprehensive map here.
Author: Michael F. Bird
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Release Date: 2017
Adoptionism--the idea that Jesus is portrayed in the Bible as a human figure who was adopted as God's son at his baptism or resurrection--has been commonly accepted in much recent scholarship as the earliest explanation of Jesus's divine status. In this book Michael Bird draws that view into question with a thorough examination of pre-Pauline materials, the Gospel of Mark, and patristic sources. Engaging critically with Bart Ehrman, James Dunn, and other scholars, Bird demonstrates that a full-fledged adoptionist Christology did not emerge until the late second century. As he delves into passages often used to support the idea of an early adoptionist Christology, including Romans 1:3-4 and portions of the speeches in Acts, Bird persuasively argues that early Christology was in fact incarnational, not adoptionist. He concludes by surveying and critiquing notable examples of adoptionism in modern theology.
The volume presents a range of theological standpoints regarding the filioque. With some contributors arguing for its retention and others for its removal, still others contest that its presence or otherwise in the Creed is not what is of central concern, but rather that how it should be understood is of ultimate importance. What contributors share is a commitment to interrogating and developing the central theological issues at stake in a consideration of the filioque, thus advancing ecumenical theology and inter-communal dialogue without diluting the discussion. Contributors span the Christian traditions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, and Pentecostal. Each of these traditions has its own set of theological assumptions, methods, and politics, many of which are on display in the essays which follow. Nonetheless it is only when we bring the wealth of learning and commitments from our own theological traditions to ecumenical dialogue that true progress can be made. It is in this spirit that the present essays have been conceived and are now presented in this form.
Author: Steven M. Studebaker
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Release Date: 2012-12-19
In From Pentecost to the Triune God Steven Studebaker puts forth a provocative Pentecostal Trinitarian theology, arguing that the Holy Spirit completes the fellowship of the triune God and therefore shapes the identities of the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit, Studebaker maintains, is not simply a passive end-product of a procession from the Father and Son but, rather, a dynamic person who plays an active role in the Trinity and a constitutional, consummational role in the history of redemption. In the course of his study, Studebaker shows the theological yield of the Pentecostal experience of the Holy Spirit and uncovers the biblical narratives of the Spirit from creation to Pentecost. A constructive and ecumenical contribution to Trinitarian theology, From Pentecost to the Triune God also engages major historical and contemporary figures such as Augustine, the Cappadocians, Weinandy, and Zizioulas, as well as representatives from the evangelical and charismatic traditions. Finally, Studebaker applies his Pentecostal Trinitarian theology to the theology of religions and creation care, proposing that Christians embrace an inclusive posture toward people of other religious traditions and have an earth orientation that sees creation care as Christian formation.
The most outstanding theological thinker of the twentieth century is proving to be the most pivotal theological figure of the twenty-first century as well. It is no wonder some have referred to Karl Barth as a "Father" of the Church. Karl Barth, widely acknowledged as the most influential theologian of the modern era, continues to provoke and inspire Christian theological reflection in a distinct and enduring way. His work has occasioned appreciation, critique, and rejection, but however one responds to Barth, one must reckon with him in pursuing the theological task. This volume draws together scholars whose essays exhibit work "after Barth" in engaging the doctrine of the Trinity and its related themes. Barth's thought, as evidenced amongst his most expert commentators, allows for a variety of interpretations, the details of which are being hammered out on the pages of academic journals and volumes such as this one. It is this variety of responses to and interpretations of Barth's theology that gives such vibrancy to the essays in this volume by seasoned Barth scholars and voices new to the conversation. Contributors include: Ivor J. Davidson, Bruce L. McCormack, John C. McDowell, Paul D. Molnar, Murray A. Rae, and a Foreword by John B. Webster.
Continuing the discussion initiated in volume one, volume two of Evangelical Calvinism further articulates the central motifs of this mood within Reformed theology by examining themes having to do with dogmatics and devotion. After further clarifying the methodological and dogmatic aspects common to an Evangelical Calvinism, the heart of the present volume is an explication of the vicarious ministry of Christ as it is worked out in its diverse theological dimensions. The volume offers constructive accounts of various aspects of liturgy, sacraments, and doxology, showing the vitality and lived spirituality of this Christian vision of faith and practice. Both advocates and critics of Evangelical Calvinism now have an extended and thorough body of work with which to interact. As with volume 1, this volume promises to set the agenda for contemporary and constructive Reformed studies in a way that provides an alternative to neo-Calvinism and Westminster Calvinism alike.
Author: Charles C. Twombly
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Release Date: 2015-02-05
Perichoresis (mutual indwelling) is a concept used extensively in the so-called Trinitarian revival; and yet no book-length study in English exists probing how the term actually developed in the "classical period" of Christian doctrine and how it was carefully deployed in relation to Christian dogma. Consequently, perichoresis is often used in imprecise and even careless ways. This path-breaking study aims at placing our understanding of the term on firmer footing, clarifying its actual usage in relation to doctrines of God, Christ, and salvation in the thought of John of Damascus, the eighth-century theologian, monk, and hymn writer who gave it its historically influential application. Since John summed up a whole theological tradition, this work provides not only an introduction to his theological vision but also to the key themes of Greek patristic thought generally and thereby lays an essential foundation for those who would dig deeper into the present-day usefulness of perichoresis.
Torrance's vision of Theosis (deification/divinisation) is explored through his doctrine of creation and anthropology, his characterisation of the incarnation, his accounts of reconciliation and union with Christ, and his theology of church and sacraments. Myk Habets' study distinguishes Torrance's Reformed vision of theosis from other possible accounts of salvation as divinisation as they are found, for instance, within patristic thought and Eastern Orthodoxy. This book presents the first critique of the theology of T.F.Torrance to focus on theosis, and examines a model of theosis within the realm of reformed theology built upon Western theology.
Author: Charles Lee Irons
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Release Date: 2015-12-04
This is a multi-view book in which representatives of differing viewpoints make a positive statement of their case, followed by responses from the others, and concluding with a rebuttal by the original author. The topic at hand in this book is the identity of Jesus (also known as Christology). What is the meaning of Jesus's identity as "the Son of God"? Charles Lee Irons argues that the title "Son of God" denotes his ontological deity from a Trinitarian perspective. Danny Andre Dixon and Dustin R. Smith challenge this view from two different non-Trinitarian viewpoints. Smith argues that Jesus is the authentically human Son of God, the Davidic Messiah, who did not possess a literal preexistence prior to his virgin birth. Dixon argues that Jesus is God's preexistent Son in the sense that God gave him life or existence at some undefined point prior to creation. The authors engage the topic from the perspective that reverences the authority and inspiration of Scripture as the final arbiter of this debate. The literature of early Judaism is also engaged in order to try to understand the extent to which the New Testament's Christology may have been influenced by or operated within the context of Jewish conceptions of divine secondary beings as agents of God.
T. F. Torrance was one of the most significant English-language theologians of the 20th century known extensively for his curatorship of the English translation of Barth's Church Dogmatics but also for his own prodigious theological scholarship. The complexity and astonishing breadth of Torrance's output, however, have made assessment and appropriation markedly difficult. This volume seeks to rectify that lack of assessment through careful exposition of the vital centers and interconnections within Torrance's theology alongside constructive appraisal and critique of his contributions to contemporary theology.
This volume deals with the varied forms of shame reflected in biblical, theological, psychological and anthropological sources. Although traditional theology and church practice concentrate on providing forgiveness for shameful behavior, recent scholarship has discovered the crucial relevance of social shame evoked by mental status, adversity, slavery, abuse, illness, grief and defeat. Anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists have discovered that unresolved social shame is related to racial and social prejudice, to bullying, crime, genocide, narcissism, post-traumatic stress and other forms of toxic behavior. Eleven leaders in this research participated in a conference on The Shame Factor, sponsored by St. Mark's United Methodist Church in Lincoln, NE in October 2010. Their essays explore the impact and the transformation of shame in a variety of arenas, comprising in this volume a unique and innovative resource for contemporary religion, therapy, ethics, and social analysis.
The priesthood of all believers is a pillar undergirding Protestant ecclesiology. Yet the doctrine has often been used to serve diverse agendas. This book examines the doctrine's canonical, catholic, and contextual dimensions. It first identifies the priesthood of all believers as a canonical doctrine based upon the royal priesthood of Christ and closely related to the believer's eschatological temple-service and offering of spiritual sacrifices (chapters 1-3). It secondly describes its catholic development by examining three paradigmatic shifts, shifts especially associated with Christendom (chapters 4-6) and a suppression of the doctrine's missional component. Finally, the book argues that a Christian doctrine of the priesthood of all believers should be developed with a Christocentric-Trinitarian understanding of the missio Dei. This suggests there are especially appropriate ways for the royal priesthood to relate to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. A canonically and catholically informed priesthood of all believers leads contextually to particular ecclesial practices. These seven practices are 1) Baptism as public ordination to the royal priesthood; 2) Prayer; 3) Lectio Divina; 4) Ministry; 5) Church Discipline; 6) Proclamation; and 7) the Lord's Supper as the renewal of the royal priesthood.
Author: Daniel J. Cameron
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Release Date: 2016-10-12
If you were told that Christ assumed a fallen human nature, how would you respond? This statement makes many uncomfortable because they believe that to agree with this statement would sacrifice the sinlessness of Jesus. Others have said that this view is heretical and completely undermines what scripture teaches. But does it? In Flesh and Blood, Daniel J. Cameron examines this idea and its critics, such as Oliver Crisp and Kevin Chiarot, to see if it is possible to say that Christ did in fact assume a fallen human nature. Daniel examines one of the most well known proponents of this view, T.F. Torrance, to see if his arguments can overcome those who have critiqued him. Daniel begins by explaining the fallen nature view from the perspective of Torrance. He then moves to explain some of the biggest critiques of this view and then, in chapter 4, seeks to find an answer to the critics. This book ends by examining the role of the Holy Spirit in the life of Christ as it pertains to this question.
Author: Skip Jenkins
Publisher: Peter Lang Incorporated, International Academic Publishers
Release Date: 2018
This book extrapolates a uniquely Pentecostal and incarnational Spirit Christology, inspired by piqued interest in the Holy Spirit and for the purpose of ecumenical dialogue. The method employed is Pentecostal in its emphasis on the Spirit, incarnational in its consideration of the life of Jesus, and Spirit Christological in its uniting of the two. The aim is to supersede the five-fold gospel model by systematizing Pentecostal praxis into a cohesive and identity-giving Spirit Christology. The book distinguishes the components of Pentecostal identity through an investigation of past and current Pentecostal voices, juxtaposes them against secular and other denominational categories, and ultimately arrives at a distinctly Pentecostal conceptualization of Spirit Christology that translates ecumenically and generationally. In fact, this project is the first constructive Spirit Christological endeavor developed by a Pentecostal and dedicated to the specific, Pentecostal issue of fusing holiness for living and power for witness. It is solidly ecumenical, utilizing the theology of Edward Irving, James D. G. Dunn, Karl Barth, Colin Gunton, and David Coffey, and it is the only text that brings these voices together in one volume. A Spirit Christology will be beneficial to a diverse audience of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as academic professionals. The development and explanation of a Pentecostal and incarnational Spirit Christology will be a unique and valuable addition to a variety of classes, including courses on the doctrine of Christ, the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, contemporary theology, and recent Pentecostal theology. Furthermore, the content draws from Pentecostal, Reformed, and Catholic traditions, a conglomerate that will appeal to an ecumenical audience.