Spirit Christology complements Logos Christology in the same way in which Christ and the Spirit are mutually constitutive. Or at least this should be the case. The history of Christian thought shows that Logos Christology has dominated, resulting in both an eclipse of Trinitarian doctrine and a diminution of pneumatology. Recently there have been calls to reclaim a theology of the Third Article in order to present a Trinitarian theology that is faithful to Scripture, the Great Tradition, and one that is existentially viable. While studies examine various aspects of Spirit Christology there has yet to appear a work that introduces the doctrine, examines the various mutually exclusive proposals, and offers a constructive trinitarian proposal. The present work does just this, introducing the constituent features of a Spirit Christology that is Trinitarian, orthodox, and contemporary. The current work proposes a model of Spirit Christology that complements rather than replaces Logos Christology and does so in a robustly Trinitarian framework. Within contemporary theology a pneumatically oriented approach to Christology is being advanced across denominational and traditional lines. Those wanting to navigate their way through the many competing proposals for a Third Article theology will find a comprehensive map here.
Author: Michael F. Bird
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Release Date: 2017
Adoptionism--the idea that Jesus is portrayed in the Bible as a human figure who was adopted as God's son at his baptism or resurrection--has been commonly accepted in much recent scholarship as the earliest explanation of Jesus's divine status. In this book Michael Bird draws that view into question with a thorough examination of pre-Pauline materials, the Gospel of Mark, and patristic sources. Engaging critically with Bart Ehrman, James Dunn, and other scholars, Bird demonstrates that a full-fledged adoptionist Christology did not emerge until the late second century. As he delves into passages often used to support the idea of an early adoptionist Christology, including Romans 1:3-4 and portions of the speeches in Acts, Bird persuasively argues that early Christology was in fact incarnational, not adoptionist. He concludes by surveying and critiquing notable examples of adoptionism in modern theology.
The volume presents a range of theological standpoints regarding the filioque. With some contributors arguing for its retention and others for its removal, still others contest that its presence or otherwise in the Creed is not what is of central concern, but rather that how it should be understood is of ultimate importance. What contributors share is a commitment to interrogating and developing the central theological issues at stake in a consideration of the filioque, thus advancing ecumenical theology and inter-communal dialogue without diluting the discussion. Contributors span the Christian traditions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, and Pentecostal. Each of these traditions has its own set of theological assumptions, methods, and politics, many of which are on display in the essays which follow. Nonetheless it is only when we bring the wealth of learning and commitments from our own theological traditions to ecumenical dialogue that true progress can be made. It is in this spirit that the present essays have been conceived and are now presented in this form.
Author: Steven M. Studebaker
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Release Date: 2012-12-19
In From Pentecost to the Triune God Steven Studebaker puts forth a provocative Pentecostal Trinitarian theology, arguing that the Holy Spirit completes the fellowship of the triune God and therefore shapes the identities of the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit, Studebaker maintains, is not simply a passive end-product of a procession from the Father and Son but, rather, a dynamic person who plays an active role in the Trinity and a constitutional, consummational role in the history of redemption. In the course of his study, Studebaker shows the theological yield of the Pentecostal experience of the Holy Spirit and uncovers the biblical narratives of the Spirit from creation to Pentecost. A constructive and ecumenical contribution to Trinitarian theology, From Pentecost to the Triune God also engages major historical and contemporary figures such as Augustine, the Cappadocians, Weinandy, and Zizioulas, as well as representatives from the evangelical and charismatic traditions. Finally, Studebaker applies his Pentecostal Trinitarian theology to the theology of religions and creation care, proposing that Christians embrace an inclusive posture toward people of other religious traditions and have an earth orientation that sees creation care as Christian formation.
The most outstanding theological thinker of the twentieth century is proving to be the most pivotal theological figure of the twenty-first century as well. It is no wonder some have referred to Karl Barth as a "Father" of the Church. Karl Barth, widely acknowledged as the most influential theologian of the modern era, continues to provoke and inspire Christian theological reflection in a distinct and enduring way. His work has occasioned appreciation, critique, and rejection, but however one responds to Barth, one must reckon with him in pursuing the theological task. This volume draws together scholars whose essays exhibit work "after Barth" in engaging the doctrine of the Trinity and its related themes. Barth's thought, as evidenced amongst his most expert commentators, allows for a variety of interpretations, the details of which are being hammered out on the pages of academic journals and volumes such as this one. It is this variety of responses to and interpretations of Barth's theology that gives such vibrancy to the essays in this volume by seasoned Barth scholars and voices new to the conversation. Contributors include: Ivor J. Davidson, Bruce L. McCormack, John C. McDowell, Paul D. Molnar, Murray A. Rae, and a Foreword by John B. Webster.
Author: Ernst Troeltsch
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Release Date: 1998
The critical edition of the complete works of the theologian and philosopher of religion Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923) is inaugurated by this edition of a classic text. In the work "Die Absolutheit des Christentums und die Religionsgeschichte" the theological and philosophical debate about the absolute validity of Christianity is joined with the question of value judgments in modernity, a question that has greatly agitated the cultural sciences since the beginning of the twentieth century. The work on absoluteness, the first and second editions of which are published here for the first time together with handwritten additions by Ernst Troeltsch, gives significant testimony to a constructive historicism that is aimed at establishing universally valid norms in the cultural comparison of religions, while acknowledging the individual forms of historical life. At the end of the twentieth century, the posing of the problem as developed by Troeltsch is of new global relevance in the debates of theology, the study of religion, history, and sociology.
"Reich Gottes und Christentum" ist im wesentlichen in den Jahren 1947 bis 1951 entstanden. Als Ulrich Neuenschwander 1967 den ersten Teil aus dem Nachlaß Albert Schweitzers veröffentlichte, musste er davon ausgehen, daß mehr nicht enthalten sei; 1977 kam dann aber das Manuskript des zweiten Teils zutage. Das Werk, das Schweitzer selbst einmal als sein 'Theologisches Testament' bezeichnet hat, wird hier erstmals vollständig veröffentlicht. Schweitzer entfaltet in diesem Werk die Geschichte der biblischen eschatologischen Vorstellungen. Der erste Teil bietet nach einem knappen Überblick über die Reich-Gottes-Vorstellung der Propheten und Apokalyptiker eine umfassende Auseinandersetzung mit der Eschatologie bei Jesus und Paulus. Der zweite Teil zieht die Linien aus bis zur Gegenwart und geht der Frage nach, wie Jesu Verkündigung eines jenseitigen und zukünftigen Gottesreiches in der Kirchengeschichte verändert wurde und was sie bis heute bedeuten könnte. Im Anhang werden wichtige Entwurfstexte, unter anderem zum fehlenden Kapitel über die Kirche, abgedruckt. Albert Schweitzer bietet hier, im achten Lebensjahrzehnt, eine Summe seines theologischen Denkens. "Christentum und Reich Gottes: das Finale zur Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung und zur Mystik des Paulus", lautet der Text einer Notiz, die er während der Arbeit an dem Werk verfaßte.