The Archaeologist s Manual for Conservation

Author: Bradley A. Rodgers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306484676
Release Date: 2004-07-21
Genre: History

'This manual is designed to take the mysticism out of archaeological artifact conservation and act as both reference and guide. It is intended as a tool to assist archaeologists in stabilizing a majority of the artifacts they excavate, or those already in storage. These stabilized archaeological collections will be preserved into the future, permitting reexamination and multiple interpretations of the data as our knowledge base grows through time. In addition, conservation will permit improved in-depth primary artifact interpretation, as fully conserved artifacts reveal fabrication, wear patterns, and detail impossible to detect in non-conserved artifacts. Conservation, therefore, is a critical tool within archaeology, a tool that becomes less meaningful if it is isolated, or seen as merely a technical skill that can be farmed out to the "hard sciences." The Archaeologist's Manual for Conservation is intended as a counterpoint to the popular specialization trend. My goal in offering this manual is to put artifacts back in the hands of archaeologists or material culture specialists who can best decipher them, opening avenues of artifact or material culture interpretation that are disappearing as artifacts either decay in storage or are sent away to the "conservation professionals".' - from the Introduction . This book is the culmination of over 10 years of work and the merging, expansion, and improvement of 2 previous works: Conservator's Cookbook and Conservation of Water Soaked Materials Bibliography. Each chapter covers a particular substance: wood, iron, copper, glass, ceramic, organic artifacts, textiles, and leather, composite artifacts. Chapters begin with a visual flow chart, walking the archaeologist through a step-by-step stabilization process, backed in the text by theoretical discussion and description. Practical methodology follows theory in each chapter giving the archaeologist a more detailed description of preserving material remains. Chapters are backed and serviced by the most comprehensive bibliographic reference available today. The Archaeologist's Manual for Conservation was developed through extensive documentary research, laboratory trial and error, and the feedback of both underwater and terrestrial archaeologists. It will become an indispensable reference for all archaeologists, laboratory technicians, archaeology students, curators, and conservators concerned with simple, proven, non-toxic, artifact conservation procedures.

The Archaeologist s Manual for Conservation

Author: Bradley A. Rodgers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306486135
Release Date: 2007-05-08
Genre: Social Science

This is a Foreword by an archaeologist, not a conservator, but as Brad Rodgers says, “Conservation has been steadily pulled from archaeology by the forces of specialization”(p. 3),andhewantstoremedythatsituationthroughthismanual. He seesthisworkasa“calltoactionforthenon-professionalconservator,”permitting “curators, conservators, and archaeologists to identify artifacts that need prof- sional attention and, allow these professionals to stabilize most artifacts in their own laboratories with minimal intervention, using simple non-toxic procedures” (p. 5). It is the mission of Brad’s manual to “bring conservation back into arch- ology” (p. 6). The degree of success of that goal depends on the degree to which archaeologists pay attention to, and put to use, what Brad has to say, because as he says, “The conservationist/archaeologist is responsible to make preparation for an artifact’s care even before it is excavated and after its storage into the foreseeable future”. . . a tremendous responsibility” (p. 10). The manual is a combination of highly technical as well as common sense methods of conserving wood, iron and other metals, ceramics, glass and stone, organicsandcomposits—afarbetterguidetoartifactconservationthanwasava- able to me when I ?rst faced that archaeological challenge at colonial Brunswick Town, North Carolina in 1958—a challenge still being faced by archaeologists today. The stage of conservation in 1958 is in dramatic contrast to the procedures Brad describes in this manual—conservation has indeed made great progress. For instance,acommonprocedurethenwastoheattheartifactsredhotinafurnace—a method that made me cringe.

Spaces Spatiality and Technology

Author: Phil Turner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402032738
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Computers

separated by the exigencies of the design life cycle into another compartment, that makes invisible the (prior) technical work of engineers that is not directly pertinent to the application work of practitioners. More recently (and notably after the work of Greisemer and Star) the black box has been opened and infrastructure has been discussed in terms of the social relations of an extended group of actors that includes developers. Ethical and political issues are involved (cf f accountable computing). Writing broadly within this context, Day (chapter 11) proposes that the concept of 'surface' can assist us to explore space as the product of 'power and the affective and expressive role for materials', rather than the background to this. Surfaces are the 'variously textured...sites for mixtures between bodies', and are thus the 'sites for events'. The notions of 'folding' and 'foldability' and 'unfolding' are discussed at length, as metaphors that account for the interactions of bodies in space across time. Some of the contributors to this volume focus on ways in which we may experience multiple infrastructures. Dix and his colleagues, for example, in chapter 12 explore a complex of models - of spatial context, of 'mixed reality boundaries' and of human spatial understanding across a number of field projects that make up the Equator project to explain the ways in which co-existing multiple spaces are experienced.

Conservation of the Last Judgment Mosaic St Vitus Cathedral Prague

Author: Francesca Piqué
Publisher: Getty Publications
ISBN: 9780892367825
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Art

Illustrated in color throughout, this handsome volume presents selected papers from an international symposium held in June 2001 marking the completion of a ten-year project to conserve the Last Judgment mosaic, at St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. The project was a partnership between the Office of the President of the Czech Republic, the Prague Castle Administration, and the Getty Conservation Institute. The goal of the symposium was to present the methodology, research, and results of the project, which involved conserving one of the finest examples of monumental medieval mosaic art in Europe. The volume's essays are divided into three parts, which cover the historical and art-historical context, conservation planning and methodology, and project implementation and maintenance. Topics addressed include the history, iconography, and visual documentation of the mosaic; the development and application of surface cleaning and protective coating techniques for the mosaic's glass tesserae; and post-treatment monitoring and maintenance.

Beyond Illustration

Author: Bernard Frischer
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
ISBN: STANFORD:36105131736998
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Social Science

This book is timely. As the contributions in it illustrate, 2D and 3D modeling of cultural heritage is no longer used just to illustrate the location and appearance (past or present) of archaeological sites, but also as a tool to discover and recover data from archaeological remains. There are better ways of predicting where this data might be found under the surface. When applied to the legacy excavation data of a cultural heritage siteor when used to record the progress of a new excavation, 3D modeling has the potential to mitigate the irreversible and destructive nature of archaeological excavation, an unfortunate, ironic, and unavoidable central fact of archaeology as traditionally practiced. With the widespread adoption of 3D technologies to record and reconstruct archaeological sites, the archaeologist can virtually preserve the site through 3D data capture as we dig it up. And, once the 3D data gathered in the field has been modeled, it is possible to retrace decisions and test the validity of conclusions with more precision and confidence. Contents: From digital illustration to digital heuristics (Bernard Frischer); Envisioning explanation: the art in science (David C. Gooding); Virtual archaeology: communication in 3D and ecological thinking (Maurizio Forte); Reasoning in 3D: a critical appraisal of the role of 3D modelling and virtual reconstructions in archaeology (Sorin Hermon); Exploring behavioural terra incognita with archaeological agent-based models (Luke S. Premo); Cost surface DEM modeling of Viking Age seafaring in the Baltic Sea (George Indruszewski and C. Michael Barton); Visualizing DEMs: the significance of modern landscape modifications in the distribution of archaeological finds (Renate Gerlach, Irmela Herzog and Julia von Koblinski); The potential of ancient maps for quantifying slope processes Comparison of historical and modern elevation models (Jutta Lechterbeck); LIDAR-based surface height measurements: applications in archaeology (Arjan G. de Boer, Walter N. H. Laan, Wouter Waldus and Wilko K. van Zijverden); Voxel-based 3D GIS: modelling and analysis of archaeological stratigraphy (Undine Lieberwirth); A software system to work with 3D models in cultural heritage research (Can Ozmen and Selim Balcisoy); A digital model of the Inca Sanctuary of the Sun (Chris Johanson and Bernard Frischer); Applications of 3D technology as a research tool in archaeological ceramic analysis (Avshalom Karasik); Virtual archaeology and computer-aided reconstruction of the Severan Marble Plan (David R. Koller).

Exploring Digital Design

Author: Ina Wagner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1849962235
Release Date: 2010-08-12
Genre: Computers

Exploring Digital Design takes a multi-disciplinary look at digital design research where digital design is embedded in a larger socio-cultural context. Working from socio-technical research areas such as Participatory Design (PD), Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), the book explores how humanities offer new insights into digital design, and discusses a variety of digital design research practices, methods, and theoretical approaches spanning established disciplinary borders. The aim of the book is to explore the diversity of contemporary digital design practices in which commonly shared aspects are interpreted and integrated into different disciplinary and interdisciplinary conversations. It is the conversations and explorations with humanities that further distinguish this book within digital design research. Illustrated with real examples from digital design research practices from a variety of research projects and from a broad range of contexts Exploring Digital Design offers a basis for understanding the disciplinary roots as well as the interdisciplinary dialogues in digital design research, providing theoretical, empirical, and methodological sources for understanding digital design research. The first half of the book Exploring Digital Design is authored as a multi-disciplinary approach to digital design research, and represents novel perspectives and analyses in this research. The contributors are Gunnar Liestøl, Andrew Morrison and Christina Mörtberg in addition to the editors. Although primarily written for researchers and graduate students, digital design practioners will also find the book useful. Overall, Exploring Digital Design provides an excellent introduction to, and resource for, research into digital design.

After Modernity

Author: Rodney Harrison
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199548071
Release Date: 2010-07-22
Genre: Science

Rodney Harrison and John Schofield explore how archaeology can inform the study of our own society and other late-modern societies through detailed case studies and a summary of the existing literature. They draw together cross-disciplinary perspectives, and develop a new agenda for the study of the materiality of contemporary societies.

Ethics and the Politics of Food

Author: Matthias Kaiser
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Pub
ISBN: 9789086860081
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Addresses the ethics and the politics of food from a broad range of academic disciplines, including sociology, philosophy, nutrition, anthropology, ethics and more. The chapters expose novel problem areas and suggest guidelines for approaching them. Topics range from fundamental issues to sustainability and more.

Life as Its Own Designer

Author: Anton Markoš
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402099703
Release Date: 2009-07-09
Genre: Science

It has been nearly 150 years since Darwin published On the Origin of Species, and his theory of natural selection still ignites a forest of heated debate between scientific fundamentalists on the one hand and religious fundamentalists on the other. But both sides actually agree more than they disagree, and what has long been needed is a third way to view evolution, one that focuses more on the aspect of life and “being alive”, one that can guide us through, and perhaps out of, the fiery thicket. This book, a seminal work in the burgeoning field of Biosemiotics, provides that third way, by viewing living beings as genuine agents designing their communication pathways with, and in, the world. Already hailed as the best account of biological hermeneutics, Life As Its Own Designer: Darwin’s Origin and Western Thought is a wholly unique book divided into two parts. The first part is philosophical and explores the roots of rationality and the hermeneutics of the natural world with the overriding goal of discovering how narrative can help us to explain life. It analyzes why novelty is so hard to comprehend in the framework of Western thinking and confronts head-on the chasm between evolutionism and traditional rationalistic worldviews. The second part is scientific. It focuses on the life of living beings, treating them as co-creators of their world in the process of evolution. It draws on insights gleaned from the global activity of the Gaian biosphere, considers likeness as demonstrated on homology studies, and probes the problem of evo-devo science from the angle of life itself. This book is both timely and vital. Past attempts at a third way to view evolution have failed because they were written either by scientists who lacked a philosophical grounding or New Age thinkers who lacked biological credibility. Markoš and his coworkers form an original group of thinkers supremely capable in both fields, and they have fashioned a book that is ideal for researchers and scholars from both the humanities and sciences who are interested in the history and philosophy of biology, biosemiotics, and the evolution of life.

Knowledge Information and Creativity Support Systems

Author: Thanaruk Theeramunkong
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642247880
Release Date: 2011-10-29
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Knowledge, Information, and Creativity Support Systems, KCIS 2010, held in Chang Mai, Thailand, in November 2010. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. The papers cover a broad range of topics related to all knowledge science-related areas including creativity support, decision science, knowledge science, data mining, machine learning, databases, statistics, knowledge acquisition, automatic scientific discovery, data/knowledge visualization, and knowledge-based systems.

Saving the Seas

Author: Anathea Brooks
Publisher: Cornell Maritime Pr/Tidewater Pub
ISBN: UOM:39015041060586
Release Date: 1997
Genre: Nature

In 1966 Congress passed the National Sea Grant College Program Act to promote marine research, education, and extension services in institutions along the nation's ocean and Great Lakes coasts. In Maryland a Sea Grant Program -- a partnership among federal and state governments, universities, and industries -- began in 1977, and in 1982 the University of Maryland was named the nation's seventeenth Sea Grant College. The Maryland Sea Grant College focuses its efforts on the Chesapeake Bay, with emphasis on the marine concerns of fisheries, seafood technology, and environmental quality. Saving the Seas is a collection of eighteen essays by leading thinkers in the area of marine and environmental management. In this book the focus falls on the world's coastal seas, where stakeholders compete for intensely sought-after resources -- not only fisheries, harbors, shipping and defense infrastructure, but also culturally important places and traditional ways of life.

Skeletal Tissue Mechanics

Author: R. Bruce Martin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493930029
Release Date: 2015-10-29
Genre: Medical

This textbook describes the biomechanics of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. It is rigorous in its approach to the mechanical properties of the skeleton yet it does not neglect the biological properties of skeletal tissue or require mathematics beyond calculus. Time is taken to introduce basic mechanical and biological concepts, and the approaches used for some of the engineering analyses are purposefully limited. The book is an effective bridge between engineering, veterinary, biological and medical disciplines and will be welcomed by students and researchers in biomechanics, orthopedics, physical anthropology, zoology and veterinary science. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the mechanical properties of bone, fatigue and fracture resistance of bone and mechanical adaptability of the skeleton Illustrates synovial joint mechanics and mechanical properties of ligaments and tendons in an easy-to-understand way Provides exercises at the end of each chapter

Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

Author: Nancey Murphy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642032059
Release Date: 2009-09-30
Genre: Science

How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of our understanding of free will. This book arises out of a workshop held in California in April of 2007, which was chaired by Dr. Christof Koch. It was unusual in terms of the breadth of people involved: they included physicists, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, philosophers, and theologians. This enabled the meeting, and hence the resulting book, to attain a rather broader perspective on the issue than is often attained at academic symposia. The book includes contributions by Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, George F. R. Ellis , Christopher D. Frith, Mark Hallett, David Hodgson, Owen D. Jones, Alicia Juarrero, J. A. Scott Kelso, Christof Koch, Hans Küng, Hakwan C. Lau, Dean Mobbs, Nancey Murphy, William Newsome, Timothy O’Connor, Sean A.. Spence, and Evan Thompson.

Visioning and Engineering the Knowledge Society A Web Science Perspective

Author: Miltiadis D. Lytras
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642047541
Release Date: 2009-09-16
Genre: Computers

It is a great pleasure to share with you the Springer LNCS proceedings of the Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2009, organized by the Open - search Society, Ngo, http://www.open-knowledge-society.org, and held in Samaria Hotel, in the beautiful city of Chania in Crete, Greece, September 16–18, 2009. The 2nd World Summit on the Knowledge Society (WSKS 2009) was an inter- tional scientific event devoted to promoting dialogue on the main aspects of the knowledge society towards a better world for all. The multidimensional economic and social crisis of the last couple of years has brought to the fore the need to discuss in depth new policies and strategies for a human centric developmental processes in the global context. This annual summit brings together key stakeholders involved in the worldwide development of the knowledge society, from academia, industry, and government, including policy makers and active citizens, to look at the impact and prospects of - formation technology, and the knowledge-based era it is creating, on key facets of l- ing, working, learning, innovating, and collaborating in today’s hyper-complex world. The summit provides a distinct, unique forum for cross-disciplinary fertilization of research, favoring the dissemination of research on new scientific ideas relevant to - ternational research agendas such as the EU (FP7), OECD, or UNESCO. We focus on the key aspects of a new sustainable deal for a bold response to the multidimensional crisis of our times.

Genes Memes Culture and Mental Illness

Author: Hoyle Leigh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441956719
Release Date: 2010-06-14
Genre: Medical

What produces mental illness: genes, environment, both,neither? The answer can be found in memes—replicable units of information linking genes and environment in the memory and in culture—whose effects on individual brain development can be benign or toxic. This book reconceptualizes mental disorders as products of stressful gene-meme interactions and introduces a biopsychosocial template for meme-based diagnosis and treatment. A range of therapeutic modalities, both broad-spectrum (meditation) and specific(cognitive-behavioral), for countering negative memes and their replication are considered, as are possibilities for memetic prevention strategies. In this book, the author outlines the roles of genes and memes in the evolution of the human brain; elucidates the creation, storage, and evolution of memes within individual brains; examines culture as a carrier and supplier of memes to the individual; provides examples of gene-meme interactions that can result in anxiety, depression, and other disorders; proposes a multiaxial gene-meme model for diagnosing mental illness; identifies areas of meme-based prevention for at-risk children; and defines specific syndromes in terms of memetic symptoms, genetic/ memetic development, and meme-based treatment.