The Archaeology of Sanitation in Roman Italy

Author: Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469621296
Release Date: 2015-04-06
Genre: History

The Romans developed sophisticated methods for managing hygiene, including aqueducts for moving water from one place to another, sewers for removing used water from baths and runoff from walkways and roads, and public and private latrines. Through the archeological record, graffiti, sanitation-related paintings, and literature, Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow explores this little-known world of bathrooms and sewers, offering unique insights into Roman sanitation, engineering, urban planning and development, hygiene, and public health. Focusing on the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Ostia, and Rome, Koloski-Ostrow's work challenges common perceptions of Romans' social customs, beliefs about health, tolerance for filth in their cities, and attitudes toward privacy. In charting the complex history of sanitary customs from the late republic to the early empire, Koloski-Ostrow reveals the origins of waste removal technologies and their implications for urban health, past and present.

The Metaphysical World of Isaac Newton

Author: John Chambers
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 9781620552056
Release Date: 2018-02-13
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit

Newton’s heretical yet equation-incisive writings on theology, spirituality, alchemy, and prophecy, written in secret alongside his Principia Mathematica • Shows how Newton’s brilliance extended far beyond math and science into alchemy, spirituality, prophecy, and the search for lost continents such as Atlantis • Explains how he was seeking to rediscover the one true religion that existed prior to the Flood of Noah, when science and spirituality were one • Examines Newton’s alternate timeline of prehistory and his study of prophecy through the Book of Revelations, including his prediction of Apocalypse in the year 2060 Isaac Newton (1643-1727) is still regarded by the world as the greatest scientist who ever lived. He invented calculus, discovered the binomial theorem, explained the rainbow, built the first reflecting telescope, and explained the force of gravity. In his famous masterpiece, Principia Mathematica, he described the mechanics of the physical universe with unimagined precision, proving the cosmos was put together according to laws. The perfection of these laws implied a perfect legislator. To Newton, they were proof that God existed. At the same time Newton was writing Principia Mathematica, he was writing a twin volume that he might have called, had it been completed, Principia Theologia--Principles of Theology. This other masterpiece of Newton, kept secret because of the heresies it contained, consists of thousands of essays providing equation-incisive answers to the spiritual questions that have plagued mankind through the ages. Examining Newton’s secret writings, John Chambers shows how his brilliance extended into alchemy, spirituality, the search for lost continents such as Atlantis, and a quest to uncover the “corrupted texts” that were rife in the Bibles of his time. Although he was a devout Christian, Newton’s work on the Bible was focused not on restoring the original Jewish and Christian texts but on rediscovering the one true religion that existed prior to the Flood of Noah, when science and spirituality were one. The author shows that a single thread runs through Newton’s metaphysical explorations: He is attempting to chart the descent of man’s soul from perfection to the present day. The author also examines Newton’s alternate timeline of ancient history and his study of prophecy through the Book of Revelations, including his prediction of an Apocalypse in the year 2060 followed by a radically transformed world. He shows that Newton’s great hope was that these writings would provide a moral compass for humanity as it embarked upon the great enterprise that became our technological world.

Latrinae et Foricae

Author: Barry Hobson
Publisher: Bristol Classical Press
ISBN: 0715638505
Release Date: 2009-07-09
Genre: History

The Romans are renowned for their aqueducts, baths and water systems, achievements equalled in the modern world only over the past few hundred years. Their toilets, both single ('latrinae') and multi-seater ('foricae') form part of the Roman sanitation system that continues to fascinate the modern visitor to ancient sites today. In this well illustrated overview, Barry Hobson describes toilets in the Roman empire from Iberia to Syria, and from North Africa to Hadrian's Wall. Particular emphasis is given to Pompeii, where many toilets are preserved and where some evidence for change over time can be found. The discussion encompasses not only details of location, construction and decoration of toilets, but also questions of privacy, sewage, rubbish disposal, health issues, references in Latin literature, and graffiti.

Smell and the Ancient Senses

Author: Mark Bradley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317565826
Release Date: 2014-12-17
Genre: History

From flowers and perfumes to urban sanitation and personal hygiene, smell—a sense that is simultaneously sublime and animalistic—has played a pivotal role in western culture and thought. Greek and Roman writers and thinkers lost no opportunity to connect the smells that bombarded their senses to the social, political and cultural status of the individuals and environments that they encountered: godly incense and burning sacrifices, seductive scents, aromatic cuisines, stinking bodies, pungent farmyards and festering back-streets. The cultural study of smell has largely focused on pollution, transgression and propriety, but the olfactory sense came into play in a wide range of domains and activities: ancient medicine and philosophy, religion, botany and natural history, erotic literature, urban planning, dining, satire and comedy—where odours, aromas, scents and stenches were rich and versatile components of the ancient sensorium. The first comprehensive introduction to the role of smell in the history, literature and society of classical antiquity, Smell and the Ancient Senses explores and probes the ways that the olfactory sense can contribute to our perceptions of ancient life, behaviour, identity and morality.

Roman Theatres

Author: Frank Sear
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198144694
Release Date: 2006-07-20
Genre: Architecture

This book is an up-to-date and comprehensive account of Roman theatre architecture. It contains information, plans, and photographs of every theatre in the Roman Empire for which there is archaeological evidence, together with a full analysis of how Roman theatres were designed, built, and paid for, and how theatres differ in different parts of the Roman Empire. It is lavishly illustrated with plans, text figures, photographs, and maps.

Reading Republican Oratory

Author: Christa Gray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191092312
Release Date: 2018-02-13
Genre: Literary Criticism

Public speech was a key aspect of politics in Republican Rome, both in theory and in practice, and recent decades have seen a surge in scholarly discussion of its significance and performance. Yet the partial nature of the surviving evidence means that our understanding of its workings is dominated by one man, whose texts are the only examples to have survived in complete form since antiquity: Cicero. This collection of essays aims to broaden our conception of the oratory of the Roman Republic by exploring how it was practiced by individuals other than Cicero, whether major statesmen, jobbing lawyers, or, exceptionally, the wives of politicians. It focuses particularly on the surviving fragments of such oratory, with individual essays tackling the challenges posed both by the partial and often unreliable nature of the evidence about these other Roman orators-often known to us chiefly through the tendentious observations of Cicero himself-and the complex intersections of the written fragments and the oral phenomenon. Collectively, the essays are concerned with the methods by which we are able to reconstruct non-Ciceronian oratory and the exploration of new ways of interpreting this evidence to tell us about the content, context, and delivery of those speeches. They are arranged into two thematic Parts, the first addressing questions of reception, selection, and transmission, and the second those of reconstruction, contextualization, and interpretation: together they represent a comprehensive overview of the non-Ciceronian speeches that will be of use to all ancient historians, philologists, and literary classicists with an interest in the oratory of the Roman Republic.

The Traffic Systems of Pompeii

Author: Eric E. Poehler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190668709
Release Date: 2017-09-12
Genre: History

The Traffic Systems of Pompeii is the first sustained examination of the development of road infrastructure in Pompeii--from the archaic age to the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE--and its implications for urbanism in the Roman empire. Eric E. Poehler, an authority on Pompeii's uniquely preserved urban structure, distills over five hundred instances of street-level "wear and tear" to reveal for the first time the rules of the ancient road. From his analysis of curbstones, cobbled surfaces, and ruts emerge the intricacies of the Pompeian traffic system and the changes to its operation over time. Though archaeological expertise forms the backbone of this book, its findings have equally important historical and architectural implications. Later chapters probe the impact of design and infrastructure on social roles and hierarchies among property owners in Pompeii, illuminating the economic forces that push and pull upon the shape of urban space. The final chapters set the road system into its broader context as one major infrastructural and administrative artifact of the Roman empire's deeply urban culture. Where does Pompeii's system fit within the history of Roman traffic control? Is it unique for its innovation, or only for the preservation that permitted its discovery? Poehler marshals evidence from across the Roman world to examine these questions. His measured and thoroughly researched answers make this study a critical step forward in our understanding of infrastructure in the ancient world.

Thirst

Author: Steven Mithen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674072190
Release Date: 2012-11-26
Genre: Social Science

Freshwater shortages will affect 75% of the world’s population by 2050. Mithen puts this crisis into context by exploring 10,000 years of water management. Thirst tells of civilizations defeated by the water challenge, and of technological ingenuity that sustained communities in hostile environments. Work with nature, not against it, he advises.

Disability in Antiquity

Author: Christian Laes
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781317231547
Release Date: 2016-10-04
Genre: History

This volume is a major contribution to the field of disability history in the ancient world. Contributions from leading international scholars examine deformity and disability from a variety of historical, sociological and theoretical perspectives, as represented in various media. The volume is not confined to a narrow view of ‘antiquity’ but includes a large number of pieces on ancient western Asia that provide a broad and comparative view of the topic and enable scholars to see this important topic in the round. Disability in Antiquity is the first multidisciplinary volume to truly map out and explore the topic of disability in the ancient world and create new avenues of thought and research.

The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World

Author: John Peter Oleson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199734856
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Nearly every aspect of daily life in the Mediterranean world and Europe during the florescence of the Greek and Roman cultures is relevant to engineering and technology. This text highlights the accomplishments of the ancient societies, the research problems, and stimulates further progress in the history of ancient technology.

The Shape of the Roman Order

Author: Daniel J. Gargola
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469631837
Release Date: 2017-02-16
Genre: History

In recent years, a long-established view of the Roman Empire during its great age of expansion has been called into question by scholars who contend that this model has made Rome appear too much like a modern state. This is especially true in terms of understanding how the Roman government ordered the city--and the world around it--geographically. In this innovative, systematic approach, Daniel J. Gargola demonstrates how important the concept of space was to the governance of Rome. He explains how Roman rulers, without the means for making detailed maps, conceptualized the territories under Rome's power as a set of concentric zones surrounding the city. In exploring these geographic zones and analyzing how their magistrates performed their duties, Gargola examines the idiosyncratic way the elite made sense of the world around them and how it fundamentally informed the way they ruled over their dominion. From what geometrical patterns Roman elites preferred to how they constructed their hierarchies in space, Gargola considers a wide body of disparate materials to demonstrate how spatial orientation dictated action, shedding new light on the complex peculiarities of Roman political organization.

Roman Aqueducts Water Supply

Author: A. Trevor Hodge
Publisher: Bristol Classical Press
ISBN: 0715631713
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A comprehensive, well-illustrated textbook that is the first ever in-depth treatment of the working of Roman aqueducts.

The Ancient City

Author: Arjan Zuiderhoek
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316683972
Release Date: 2016-10-31
Genre: History

Greece and Rome were quintessentially urban societies. Ancient culture, politics and society arose and developed in the context of the polis and the civitas. In modern scholarship, the ancient city has been the subject of intense debates due to the strong association in Western thought between urbanism, capitalism and modernity. In this book, Arjan Zuiderhoek provides a survey of the main issues at stake in these debates, as well as a sketch of the chief characteristics of Greek and Roman cities. He argues that the ancient Greco-Roman city was indeed a highly specific form of urbanism, but that this does not imply that the ancient city was somehow 'superior' or 'inferior' to forms of urbanism in other societies, just (interestingly) different. The book is aimed primarily at students of ancient history and general readers, but also at scholars working on urbanism in other periods and places.

Daily Life in the Roman City

Author: Gregory S. Aldrete
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 031333174X
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Genre: History

Discusses daily life in ancient Rome, examining such topics as housing, clothing, food, childbearing, the economy, leisure times, and religion.

Naked Truths

Author: Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134603855
Release Date: 2003-09-01
Genre: History

The articles in Naked Truths demonstrate the application of feminist theory to a diverse repertory of classical art: they offer topical and controversial readings on the material culture of the ancient Mediterranean. This volume presents a timely, provocative and beautifully illustrated re-evaluation of how the issues of gender, identity and sexuality reveal 'naked truths' about fundamental human values and social realities, through the compelling symbolism of the body.