"Describes the historical context of the case, University of California Regents v. Bakke, and details the claims made by both sides as well as the outcome, including excerpts from the Supreme Court justices decisions"--Provided by publisher.
Author: A. M. Babkina
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Political Science
Affirmative Action is one of the most controversial issues of our times. Proponents on both sides of the issue claim clear-cut evidence for the rightness of their arguments, yet evidence is hazy at best. This new guide to the literature presents hundreds descriptions of books, reports and articles dealing with all aspects of affirmative action including: race relations; economic aspects, reverse discrimination; preferences; affirmative action programs; public opinion; court decisions; education, and many more. Complete title, author and subject indexes are provided.
Author: John W. Johnson
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2001-01-01
This collection of essays looks at over 200 major court cases, at both state and federal levels, from the colonial period to the present. Organized thematically, the articles range from 1,000 to 5,000 words and include recent topics such as the Microsoft antitrust case, the O.J. Simpson trials, and the Clinton impeachment. This new edition includes 43 new essays as well as updates throughout, with end-of-essay bibliographies and indexes by case and subject/name.
Author: Ira Katznelson
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date: 2005
In this "penetrating new analysis" () Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."
Author: Charles J. Russo
Release Date: 2010
In light of the significance that education law occupies in the professional lives of educators, it is only natural that it plays a major role in educational leadership programs devoted to preparing leaders for both the world of higher education and K-12 schools. The centrality of education law is reflected in a study conducted on behalf of the University Council for Educational Administration revealing that education law is the second-most commonly taught subject in educational leadership programs. Further, with many universities offering a variety of courses on education law at all levels, it continues to occupy a crucial element in the curricula for educators. Despite its importance, there is a surprising dearth of readily accessible reference materials for academicians and practitioners. Thus, the Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education fills a gap that will be of use to those in the world of higher education, whether students, faculty members, administrators, or attorneys.
Author: Dana Y. Takagi
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 1992
"By examining the debate over Asian-American admissions at such universities as Stanford, Harvard, and Princeton, Takagi explains important developments in the politics of race. Her central argument is that the controversial admissions policies facilitate a subtle but important shift away from racial and toward class preferences in affirmative action procedures. This complex and sensitive subject is carefully analyzed, and will help readers understand the intricacies of university policy and the politics of admissions." --Library Journal
Author: Melvin I. Urofsky
Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas
Release Date: 1997
Affirmative action continues to be one of the most hotly contested issues in America. Volatile and divisive, the debates over its legitimacy have inspired a number of "reverse discrimination" suits in the federal courts. Like the landmark 1978 Bakke decision, most of these have focused on preferential treatment given racial minorities. In Johnson v. Santa Clara, however, the central issue was gender, not race discrimination, and the Supreme Court's decision in that case marked a resounding victory for women in the work force.Johnson v. Santa Clara involved two people who in 1980 competed for a dispatcher position with the transportation department of Santa Clara County, California. Paul Johnson had more experience and slightly higher test scores, but Diane Joyce was given the job based on affirmative action. An irate Johnson sued the county and won, only to have the decision reversed in appellate court. That reversal was subsequently upheld in the Supreme Court's 1987 decision, reaffirming that it was legitimate for employers to consider gender in hiring.Melvin Urofsky proves an exemplary guide through the complexities of this case, as he takes us from the workplace through the various levels of our federal court system. Balancing case details with an overview of constitutional law and judicial process, he creates a model legal history that is both appealing and enlightening for the non-scholar. Urofsky is especially good at highlighting the fundamental human drama of this case and shows how Johnson and Joyce were simply ordinary people, each with valid reasons for their actions, but were both ultimately caught tip in legal and social issues that reached well beyond their ownlives.Affirmative Action on Trial pointedly addresses the issue of sex discrimination and the broader controversy over the place of affirmative action in American society. While it's hard to determine the likely future of aff
* How has Bakke shaped our understanding of race, access to education, and affirmative action? * Will Bakke remain relevant for the future, legally and politically? * Can we use Bakke to re-envision affirmative action in higher education? Published to mark the 30th anniversary of the Supreme Court's Bakke decision, this book explores the complex set of legal and educational policy circumstances established by this historic court decision that continues to simultaneously frame, narrow, and confound our understanding of affirmative action in higher education specifically, and issues of equity in education broadly. By "upholding Bakke," the Supreme Court, in its Gratz and Grutter opinions, maintained its centrality in the on-going argument about access to higher education. However, this validation of racial and ethnic diversity as a legally compelling interest did not silence the multiplicity of voices debating the consequences and fundamental issues of Bakke. Multi-disciplinary in approach and multi-racial in content, this book represents that kaleidoscope of voices and opinions. The contributors include scholars of national stature in the areas of access and equity in education. The book is guided by three frames: Bakke's legal and philosophical lineage; the educational pipeline -- past, present, and future; and policy and practice. It begins with an historical analysis of the legal and policy parameters of the decision and highlights the legal and social fissures that exist related to affirmative action and college admissions. It discusses in detail the philosophical underpinnings of affirmative action as a catalyst for reaping the benefits of diversity. The book also reviews Bakke's broader influences on K-12 and postsecondary politics, and practices across institutional, state, and national levels. As racial divisions in the country are sharpening and as educational outcomes continue to be directly related to race and poverty, this volume will help inform the discussions and decisions by federal and state policy-makers, educational providers, civil rights advocates and other interested stakeholders to bring about the changes that lead to equal opportunity.
Author: Otis Webb Brawley, MD
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Release Date: 2012-01-31
Genre: Health & Fitness
How We Do Harm exposes the underbelly of healthcare today—the overtreatment of the rich, the under treatment of the poor, the financial conflicts of interest that determine the care that physicians' provide, insurance companies that don't demand the best (or even the least expensive) care, and pharmaceutical companies concerned with selling drugs, regardless of whether they improve health or do harm. Dr. Otis Brawley is the chief medical and scientific officer of The American Cancer Society, an oncologist with a dazzling clinical, research, and policy career. How We Do Harm pulls back the curtain on how medicine is really practiced in America. Brawley tells of doctors who select treatment based on payment they will receive, rather than on demonstrated scientific results; hospitals and pharmaceutical companies that seek out patients to treat even if they are not actually ill (but as long as their insurance will pay); a public primed to swallow the latest pill, no matter the cost; and rising healthcare costs for unnecessary—and often unproven—treatments that we all pay for. Brawley calls for rational healthcare, healthcare drawn from results-based, scientifically justifiable treatments, and not just the peddling of hot new drugs. Brawley's personal history – from a childhood in the gang-ridden streets of black Detroit, to the green hallways of Grady Memorial Hospital, the largest public hospital in the U.S., to the boardrooms of The American Cancer Society—results in a passionate view of medicine and the politics of illness in America - and a deep understanding of healthcare today. How We Do Harm is his well-reasoned manifesto for change.
Author: Richard Sander
Publisher: Basic Books
Release Date: 2012-10-09
Affirmative action in higher education started in the late 1960s as a noble effort to jump-start racial integration in American society and create the conditions for genuine equal opportunity. Forty years later, it has evolved into a swampland of posturing, concealment, pork-barrel set-asides, and--worst of all--a preferences system so blind to its own shortcomings that it ends up hurting the very minorities educators set out to help. Over the past several years, economist, law professor and civil rights activist Richard Sander has led a national consortium of more than two dozen nonpartisan scholars to study the operation and effects of preferences in higher education. In Mismatch, he and journalist Stuart Taylor present a rich and data-driven picture of the way affirmative action works (and doesn't work) in this setting. Though their liberal leanings would indicate support for race-based policies, Sander and Taylor argue that the research shows that affirmative action does not in fact help minorities. Racial preferences in higher education put a great many students in educational settings where they have no hope of competing--a phenomenon that they call "mismatch." American law schools provide a particularly vivid illustration of how "mismatch" harms the educations and careers of many minority students. Compelling evidence shows that racial preferences double the rate at which black students fail bar exams and may well in the end reduce, rather than increase, the aggregate number of black lawyers. Moreover, because preferences are targeted at upper-middle class minorities, they help shut low-income students of all races out of much of higher education. If you're black and poor--or white and poor, for that matter--your chances of stepping into the halls of some of the nation's most elite institutions are no greater than they were in the 1960s. Unfortunately, the academic establishment is only committed to symbolic change, and it will undermine any research that contests its reflexive political correctness and challenges its sacred cows. Sander and Taylor argue that university leaders and much of America's elite have become so deeply committed to an ideology of racial preferences, and so distrustful of broader American public opinion on these issues, that they have widely embraced regimes that ignore the law, hide data, and put out systematic misinformation on their own racial policies. Sander and Taylor conclude by looking at data on how to level the racial playing field in higher education. Existing studies, they argue, suggest that early childhood interventions are much more likely to produce success down the line.
Author: Richard Pacelle
Release Date: 2015-01-09
The U.S. Supreme Court is not a unitary actor and it does not function in a vacuum. It is part of an integrated political system in which its decisions and doctrine must be viewed in a broader context. In some areas, the Court is the lead policy maker. In other areas, the Court fills in the gaps of policy created in the legislative and executive branches. In either instance, the Supreme Court’s work is influenced by and in turn influences all three branches of the federal government as well as the interests and opinions of the American people. Pacelle analyzes the Court’s interaction in the separation of powers system, detailing its relationship to the presidency, Congress, the bureaucracy, public opinion, interest groups, and the vast system of lower courts. The niche the Court occupies and the role it plays in American government reflect aspects of both the legal and political models. The Court has legal duties and obligations as well as some freedom to exercise its collective political will. Too often those studying the Court have examined it in isolation, but this book urges scholars and students alike to think more broadly and situate the highest court as the "balance wheel" in the American system.
Author: James A. Beckman
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Affirmative action programs
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 10925, requiring federal contractors to take "affirmative action" to employ workers on a nondiscriminatory basis. Since then, perhaps no issue in the modern American dialogue engenders such vociferous debate and controversy. This two-volume set contains more than 500 alphabetically arranged entries that offer current, accurate, and detailed information significantly related to affirmative action. Entries also explore implementation of the concept in other countries, including Japan, Australia, India, South Africa, and Great Britain. Two appendices provide the full texts of Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger, the landmark affirmative action decisions handed down by the Supreme Court in June 2003. A timeline of major events traces the development of affirmative action in the United States from 1865 to the present, a bibliography lists important general works, and a "Guide to Related Topics" allows readers to trace such broad themes as affirmative action and civil rights, or such important information categories as major statutes and court cases, across a range of entries. Illustrated and cross-referenced, the entries conclude with specialized further reading lists and can be accessed through a detailed subject index. Book jacket.
Author: David J. Leonard
Release Date: 2015-03-17
Latinos are the fastest growing population in America today. This two-volume encyclopedia traces the history of Latinos in the United States from colonial times to the present, focusing on their impact on the nation in its historical development and current culture. "Latino History and Culture" covers the myriad ethnic groups that make up the Latino population. It explores issues such as labor, legal and illegal immigration, traditional and immigrant culture, health, education, political activism, art, literature, and family, as well as historical events and developments. A-Z entries cover eras, individuals, organizations and institutions, critical events in U.S. history and the impact of the Latino population, communities and ethnic groups, and key cities and regions. Each entry includes cross references and bibliographic citations, and a comprehensive index and illustrations augment the text.